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Full text of "Boston : the official bicentennial guidebook"

The Official 

Bicentennial 

Guidebook 

Introduction by Cleveland Amory 

The only complete guide to all V> 
of Bicentennial Boston featuring: * 

• Bicentennial exhibits and events 

• Hotel, restaurant I \ 
and entertainment directory 

• Walking tours of old 1 




''Where's Boston?" is three quarters of a million 
people, each carrying one piece of a puzzle, each 
thinking his piece is the whole picture. 



"Where's Boston?" is a multi- 
image, quadraphonic portrait 
of Boston. "Where's Boston?" is 
an insight into the diversity of 
America's most understated 
metropolis. "Where's Boston?" 
is thirty-two projectors hurling 
2500 images on eight huge 
screens. 

"Where's Boston?" is a 300 
seat theatre, an exhibit of Boston 



artifacts, a mural-sized portrait 
gallery of Bostonians. Along 
with complete Bicentennial Toui 
nformation. 

Bicentennial Pavilion 
Prudential Center, Boston 
Tel. (617) 267-1776 



"Where's Boston?" See it and find out. 



Boston 200 




MASSACHUSETTS 
BAY 

TRANSPORTATION 
AUTHORITY 

500 ARBORWAY 
JAMAICA PLAIN . MASS. 

722-5000 




BOSTOT^ 
PUBLIC 
LIBRARY 



Boston 

The Official 
Bicentennial 
Guidebook 



A Sunrise Book 

E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. 

New York 

1975 



In November, 1972, Mayor Kevin H. White established the 
Mayor's Office of the Boston Bicentennial to coordinate city- 
wide activities commemorating the Bicentennial of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. The Mayor s Office of the Boston Bicentennial 
then created The Boston 200 Corporation, a nonprofit corpo- 
ration, to operate those Bicentennial programs known as 
"Boston 200." 

The downtown map of Boston with points of interest is the 
property of the National Survey of Chester, Vermont. 

Development of the Neighborhood Discovery Trails was sup- 
ported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts 
in Washington, D.C., a Federal agency. 

This guidebook is available in Braille and on tape cassettes, 
thanks to the National Braille Press, a nonprofit service organi- 
zation for the blind. Inquire at a Boston 200 Visitor Informa- 
tion Center. 




Fr3 

Copyright © 1975 by The Boston 200 Corporation 
All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includ- 
ing photocopying, recording, or any information storage and 
retrieval system now known or to be invented, without permis- 
sion in writing from Dutton-Simrise, Inc., except by a reviewer 
who wishes to quote brief passages in connection with a re- 
view written for inclusion in a magazine, newspaper, or broad- 
cast. 

ISBN: 0-87690-146-1 

Dutton-Sunrise, Inc., a subsidiary of E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. 



Printed at the Colonial Press, Clinton, Massachusetts. 



STAFF 



Editors: Susan Okie and Donna Yee 
Boston 200 Coordinator: J. Mark Schuster 
Managing Editor: Steven P. Motenko 
Consultants: Paul Silver and Kit Haspel 
Director of Advertising Sales: Jo Anne La Sala 
Advertising Sales Representatives: D. Thomas Abbott, James J. 
Lopes 

Researchers: James J. Lopes, Lisa Perry, Annette Sanderson, 
Dorothy Smith and Stanley A. Twarog 

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

Neighborhood Discovery Trail Maps: Michael & Susan South- 
worth/ City Design & Architecture 

Black Heritage Trail and Activities Map: Geneva Printing and 
Publishing, Inc. 

Cover Photograph: Fay Foto Service, Inc. 

Exhibit Representations: Deenie Yudell 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The editors wish to thank Katharine D. Kane, Director of 
Boston 200, and all the members of her staff for their un- 
limited cooperation in producing this book. They also thank 
Jane Reed, Jill Norton and the board of the Cambridge Bicen- 
tennial Corporation for their assistance with the Cambridge 
Discovery Trail. Special thanks to Michael and Susan South- 
worth, Marcia Myers and Judy McDonough of the Boston 
Redevelopment Authority, and to those members of historical 
societies, neighborhood groups and city agencies who helped 
with the trail research. 

The staff Is also grateful to Katharine D. Kane, to Thomas 
A. Sampson, Chairman of the Board of Directors of The Bos- 
ton 200 Corporation, and to Timothy E. Feige for their help 
with the advertising campaign. We also thank Jack Macrae, 
Michael L. Ryan and David Zable of E. P. Dutton. 

Grateful acknowledgments to Francis W. Hatch for permis- 
sion to reprint portions of "Bestir ye! Peter Faneuil" and "Some 
coward /Closed the Old Howard." 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



A Guide to the Guidebook 8 

Boston Background 11 

Boston in the "Proper" Spirit, by Cleveland Amory 11 

Changing Boston, by Alan Lupo and Caryl Rivers 27 

Getting Settled in Boston 44 

Getting In and Out of Boston 44 

Finding Out Where You Are 45 

Finding Out What's Happening 52 

Useful Phone Numbers 53 

Problems and How to Solve Them 55 

Accommodations 59 

Religious Services 72 

Suggestions For a Short Stay 78 

Transportation 81 

Riding the MBTA 82 

Driving 84 

Parking 84 

Getting Towed and Breaking Down 86 

Taxis, Rent-a-Car, and Boston 200 Shuttles 87 

Tours and Daytrips 88 

Citygame — The City Is the Exhibit 99 

Boston 200 Exhibit: The Revolution: 

Where It All Began 101 
Boston 200 Exhibit: The Grand Exposition 

of Progress and Invention 103 
Boston 200 Exhibit: Where's Boston: 

Visions of the City 105 

Themes in Boston History 106 

Neighborhood Discovery Trails 117 

Freedom Trail: Downtown 118 

Freedom Trail: North End 132 

Charlestown 143 

Waterfront 152 

6 



Beacon Hill 159 

South End-Bay Village 170 

Cambridge 178 

Back Bay 188 

Black Heritage Trail 200 

Other Boston Neighborhoods 206 

Entertaining Yourself 215 

Festival American Calendar 215 

Museums and Attractions 224 

Shopping in Boston 245 

Outdoor Boston 257 

Restaurants 266 

Theater, Music, and Dance 286 

Nightlife and Sinning 297 

Index 307 



7 



A GUIDE TO THE GUIDEBOOK 



The guidebook is divided into five sections. The first, Boston 
Background, is a presentation of the city by three prominent 
Boston writers. Read it at your leisure before or during your 
stay to get an overall view of Boston history and the flavor of 
the town. 

The second section, Getting Settled in Boston, is designed 
to orient you to the city and its visitor services. It opens with 
instructions for getting to and from the airport, lists train 
stations and bus terminals, and acquaints you with the loca- 
tions and uses of Boston 200 Visitor Information Centers. These 
centers, and the Boston 200 information numbers (338-1975 or 
338-1976) are at your service during your stay, and can both 
answer questions and inform you of events and tourist facili- 
ties. Be sure to inquire at one of the centers when you arrive 
about special Bicentennial shuttle buses and parking facilities. 
The rest of the section provides emergency telephone numbers, 
a comprehensive hotel list, ways to enjoy a short visit, and a 
mine of practical information for solving any problem from 
exchanging currency to getting your child treated for measles. 
If you have trouble finding what you need, look up your prob- 
lem in the index. 

The Transportation section is short because your best and 
most reliable means of getting around this city is your own 
two feet. Boston is a city for walking. You will be aided in your 
progress by the MBTA, Boston's public transportation system. 
An explanation here supplements the map in the front of the 
book, and subway stations are included in our listings, preceded 
by the symbol "T." If you must drive in Boston— which we 
strongly suggest you avoid— the rest of the section offers what 
advice it can. 

The Citygame section is the focus of the guidebook. It 
contains exciting new ways for visitors to discover Boston— not 
only in terms of the city's past, but in terms of its present. 
Three major Boston 200 exhibits await your participation, each 
concentrating on a century of Boston history. For visitors with 
limited time, these exhibits are the best way to get a sense of 
Boston s unique character. For further exploration, the section 
presents eight new walking trails through Boston neighbor- 
hoods, including the world-famous Freedom Trail. A ninth 
trail, the Black Heritage Trail, traces the history and contribu- 



8 



tions of Boston's black population. The section ends with short 
histories of other Boston neighborhoods, and advice for visitors 
interested in special areas of Boston's past— medicine, literature, 
architecture, women's history, and others. 

The final section of the guidebook suggests ways to have 
fun in Boston. The Festival American Calendar lists events and 
festivals occurring in the city during each month of the 
Bicentennial. Museums and Attractions is a detailed guide to 
the city's sightseeing possibilities. Entries on shopping, restau- 
rants and nightlife are grouped by location within the city, 
while those on outdoor activities and cultural entertainment 
are arranged by category. The restaurant and shopping sections 
are done geographically in order to complement the neighbor- 
hood trails, but if you are searching for a specific item or type 
of cuisine, you can consult the index. Keep in mind that the 
entertainment section is only meant to give you an idea of 
what Boston offers— the city's attractions are inexhaustible, and 
we urge you to find your own favorite places to eat, shop and 
enjoy yourself. 



9 



Nevs Engiaid Lile wuh Boston 200 and the Parkman Center for Urban Aflairs. co-sponsors 
"Thf b cenennial Fo'ums Boston Examines the American Experiment" a series of public events 
exploring AiTiertca's 200-year experiment. 




In 1843 Benjamin Stevens was a cabin 
boy on the Constitution. In 1865 he was 
New England Life s second presidt^nt. 

To this very day, our clients enjoy first 
cabin service. 



New England Mutual t ile insurance Compaov. Ucslt»j 

subsidiary NEL Equity Services rorp<jrc!tion mutu^. funds' 
Affiliate. Loomis.Saytes&Coidpany irn. . inveslmefrt couni^'lcrfa. 



BOSTON IN THE "PROPER" SPIRIT 

By Cleveland Amory 

Say New York or Chicago or Los Angeles or San Francisco 
or even Philadelphia— and you think of place. But say Boston 
and you think, first, of people. Dozens of names start rolling 
like a drumbeat. 

And this is as it should be. For Boston is the place where, 
after all, America began. Without Sam Adams there would 
have been no Revolution— without John Adams, no Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

And one war was not enough for Boston. From the pulpits 
of Boston— from William Ellery Channing and Theodore Parker 
and Lyman Beecher and William Lloyd Garrison and all the 
rest— was launched the crusade against slavery, and Mr. 
Lincoln himself gave the final accolade to the daughter of 
one of those clergymen. Meeting Harriet Beecher Stowe, 
author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Lincoln called her, "the little 
woman who started the great war." 

Boston is, first of all. Presidents— John Adams, John Quincy 
Adams, John Fitzgerald Kennedy— but Boston is also men far 
greater than all but a handful of our Presidents— Ben Franklin, 
the godlike Dan Webster, and that magnificent Yankee and 
great dissenter, Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Boston gave America its greatest philosopher, Ralph Waldo 
Emerson; its greatest free thinker, Henry David Thoreau; and 
its first great novelist, Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

But Boston too is a portrait— by painters like Gilbert Stuart, 
John Singleton Copley, and John Singer Sargent. And if Boston 
is poetry by historians— historians like Francis Parkman, Wil- 
liam Hickling Prescott, and John Lothrop Motley— it is also, 
surely, history by poets— poets like Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow, John Greenleaf Whittier and James Russell Lowell, and 
stiU another, Oliver Wendell Holmes, the father of the Justice. 

Boston's great women, too, seem to have their own special 



11 



three-name ring— Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian 
Science Church; Julia Ward Howe, author of "The Battle 
Hymn of the Republic;" Louisa May Alcott, and of course. 
Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. 

The home of the bean and the cod, where the Lowells— 
not the Lodges, please— speak only to Cabots and the Cabots 
speak only to God; Boston even has its very own accent, one 
that is a strange combination of English, Irish, and Yankee. 
And to go with its accent it has its very own pronunciation. 
Quinzy for Quincy, Louwbiurg Square and not Faneuil but 
Fun'l. Even the gravestone cutter of Old Granary, burying 
Peter Faneuil, wanted to make sure no outlander got it wrong. 
He lettered the grave "P. Funel." 

One thing Boston was, and perhaps ever will be, is Puritan. 
The Mayflower took Pilgrims to Plymouth, but the Arabella 
and the Ambrose, the Jewell^ and the Talbot took Puritans 
to Boston. Led by John Winthrop, whom they had elected 
governor, they landed in Salem, but they did not like it and 
soon moved to Charlestown. Here they were visited by a 
minister named Reverend William Blackstone. He lived on 
what is now Beacon Hill, in what was then called Shawmut. 
He had come over with a shipload of adventurers, all of 
whom, he told his visitors, were both wicked and, worst of all, 
lazy. In any case, they had gone back to England and had 
left him all alone. 

Reverend Blackstone took his new friends over to look at 
Shawmut and told them that if they liked it, they could stay. 
Since the foul water sources in Charlestown were felling 
Puritans at an alarming rate, Winthrop was more than happy 
to accept Blackstone's hospitality— and his fresh water. Black- 
stone soon had reason to regret his ofiFer, for in short order 
Governor Winthrop and his people had changed Shawmut's 
name to Boston, after the httle town in England from which 
many of them had come, and had promptly claimed all the 
land as their own. 

Being charitable men, of course, they didn't completely 
forget the Reverend. They voted him fifty acres of land. 

Blackstone wasn't entirely enamored with the idea of being 
given, as a generous donation, fifty acres of what was formerly 
all his. But Bostonians are realists— and merchants at heart He 



12 



sold back to Winthrop "their fifty acres'* for $150— a princely 
sum in those days— and moved to Rhode Island. 

Since each of Winthrop's men had chipped in to buy Black- 
stone's land, it was recognized as common property, set aside 
for public use. The "Common" remains today one of the oldest 
public parks in the world. 

One of Governor Winthrop's first acts in regard to the 
Common was to order a carpenter to build a set of "stocks"— 
the typical Puritan punishment. And the first customer was 
typical, too— the carpenter who built the stocks. He had, 
Governor Winthrop declared, charged too much for them. 

One historian has thoughtfully provided a list of "stock" 
o£Fenses in the first twenty years of the Colony: 

Eavesdropping 
Meddling 
Neglecting work 
Scolding 

Naughty speeches 

Pulling hair 

Pushing his wife 

Riding behind two fellows 

Selling dear 

Sleeping in meeting 

Repeating a scandalous lie 

Selling strong water by small measure 

Spying into the chamber of his master and mistress 

and reporting what he saw 
Dissenting from the rest of the jury 

Good ruled all, of course. And sometimes they could get 
you coming and going. One sea captain, for example, home 
from a voyage, kissed his wife on the Sabbath— and com- 
pounded the felony by doing it in public, on his own doorstep. 
Obviously, he had to be taught a lesson, so he was pubUcly 
whipped. A year later he was back before the court again. 
This time his ofiFense was "neglecting his wife and living apart 
from her." Once again he was whipped. 

Boston was not Salem— only four women were executed for 
witchcraft and of these one wanted to be hanged and, having 



13 



been rescued, came back and surrendered to the gallows. 
Another was executed not only for witchcraft but also for 
murder, and in the case of a third, witchcraft was used for an 
excuse to get rid of a formerly wealthy widow who had be- 
come "a common scold." 

It was a Boston judge, Samuel Sewall, who presided over 
most of the Salem witchcraft trials, but he later confessed the 
error of his ways. The public confession was made on the site 
of the Old South Meeting House— later made famous when 
5,000 patriots rallied there in 1773, then marched off to dump 
the King's tea into the waters of Boston harbor. 

Even though Boston didn't execute witches, neither was it, 
in those early days, a picnic. Witness The Diary of Cotton 
Mather of 1698: 

I took my little daughter Katy into my Study and there 
I told my child That I am to Dy Shortly and Shee must, 
when I am Dead, Remember Every Thing, that I now 
said unto her. I sett before her the sinful condition of 
her Nature, and I charged here to pray in secret places 
every day. That God for the sake of Jesus Christ would 
give her a new Heart. I gave her to understand that when 
I am taken from her, she must looke to meet with more 
Humbling AflBictions than she does now she has a tender 
Father to provide for her. 

At this time, bear in mind. Miss Katy Mather was exactly 
four years old. Somehow, though, out of all the blue laws and 
blue noses, burnings and bannings came, by the time of the 
Revolution, a city that could produce in one family alone not 
only Sam Adams, "the man who made the Revolution,'* but 
also his cousin John, the man most responsible for the Declara- 
tion of Independence and the separation from England. And, 
over and over again, the Boston woman was as responsible 
as the Boston man. The mother of Boston's Bumhams watched 
four sons go off to war. "Never let me hear," she shouted after 
them, "that one of you was shot in the back." Needless to say, 
none of them was. Coming from such a home, the army must 
have seemed, for the Bumham Boys, the life of Riley. 

There were Bostonians on the village green of Lexington, 
where Captain John Parker, commanding less than sixty men, 
saw row after row of the advancing redcoats and said calmly, 
"Stand yoiu: ground, men. Don't fire imless fired upon. But if 

14 



they want to have a war, let us begin right here." There were 
Bostonians, too, by the "rude bridge that arched the flood" at 
Concord, when Major Buttrick, who had still not heard what 
had occurred at Lexington, first the shot heard 'round the 
world. And finally, of course, there were almost all Bostonians 
at Bunker Hill, in reality Breed's Hill, where a "ragtag and 
bobtail" army of Americans, with no uniforms, no flags, not 
even enough ammunition pimished the well-groomed, well- 
armed British redcoats. George Washington's first question 
when he heard of the battle was whether or not the militia 
had stood firm. Told they had, he exclaimed, "Then the liber- 
ties of the country are safel" 

Bostonians loved a good fight. And, on many an eighteenth- 
century tombstone, there are words that teD of battles carried 
on even beyond the grave. Witness Mrs. Ameney Hunt's 
epitaph at the Copp's Hill Burying Groimd: 

A sister of Sarah Lucas lieth here. 
Whom I did love most dear; 
And now her soul hath took its flight. 
And bid her spiteful self good night. 

Whatever else old Boston was, it was America's Family 
City. A small handful of families placed their stamp on it so 
securely that the personality of the city remains less the 
city's than theirs. In no other city does this exist to the extent 
it does in Boston. Once upon a time it used to be said that 
socially speaking Philadelphia asked who a person is; New 
York, how much is he worth; and Boston, what does he know. 
In fact, Boston was asking Philadelphia's question— with a 
venegence; not only who somebody is, but also who he was— 
and not just has parents either, or even his grandparents, but 
'way back. Ask a Bostonian such a question as, "How long 
have you been in Boston?" and he is likely to reply, "I've been 
here since 1730," or "1700"— and he really thinks he has. 
As late as the middle of the nineteenth century. Dr. Holmes, 
father of the chief justice, issued a remarkable manifesto on 
the subject. Asked by an anxious Boston mother when her 
child's education should begin, Dr. Holmes replied, "About 
a hundred years, Madam, before he was bom." 

Children were given a strong sense of their family's "place" 
in the Boston social hierarchy. In coUege, Dr. Holmes pointed 



15 



out, students "took rank on the (college) catalogue from their 
parents condition." By 1749, the ranking was strictly official: 
it determined not only the order of chapel seating and march- 
ing in college processions but also precedence for classroom 
reciting and serving oneself at table. While aD ranking was 
done in what was to become the great Boston Society tradition 
—according, it was recorded, "to the Dignity of the Familie 
where to the students severally belonged*'— there can be no 
doubt that it caused a certain amount of hard feeling. In a 
noted essay on the subject, the late New England historian 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter, a Yale man, put the matter of these 
early day Harvard rankings as tactfully as possible but made 
clear that it was usually some time before each newly ranked 
class was "settled down to an acquiescence in their allotment," 
and that often the parents of the young men were "enraged 
beyond bounds." Dexter blamed most of the trouble on the 
"intermediate" members of the class, claiming that the highest 
and the lowest rankings were more "comfortably ascertained" 
than theirs. He cited the case of one Bostonian who, piqued 
to note his son was ranked fourteenth in a class of thirty-seven, 
went oflF and tried unsuccessfully to found a new college in 
western Massachusetts. 

The most notable case of dissatisfaction with the rankings 
was no matter of the "intermediates" or Harvard bourgeoisie, 
however, but concerned the distinguished Phillips family, 
noted for their connection with Andover and Exeter academies. 
It took place in the summer of 1769 with the publication of 
the rank list for the following falL Searching the list, Samuel 
Phillips, wealthy merchant, discovered that his son Samuel, 
Jr., later founder of Andover Academy, was well down the 
line, and in time-honored Proper Bostonian manner, he com- 
plained directly to Harvard's president. He felt particularly 
strongly about his son's being placed below a boy named 
Daniel Miuray, but it is worth noting that he did not make 
his complaint on the grounds that he was a wealthy merchant 
and that Murray's father was not. The merchant era had not 
yet come into its nineteenth-century own in Boston Society; 
this was the magistrate era, and PhiUips rested his case solely 
on the point that while both he and Murray, Sr., were justices 
of the peace, he had been a justice longer than Mr. Murray, 
and therefore Phillips, Jr. deserved precedence over Murray, Jr. 



16 



Harvard's president was a man named Edward Holyoke, dis- 
tinguished in the college's social history largely through the 
fact that it was in his reign— 1759— that an edict was passed 
forbidding the wearing of nightgowns by students. At the 
time of Phillips's complaint he was in the last of his thirty- 
two years on Harvard's throne and had apparently little 
stomach for a quarrel over a social point. In any case, he 
promptly reranked his entire student body, elevating young 
Phillips not only the number of notches demanded by his 
parent but also a few extra ones for good measure. Phillips 
never troubled to thank Holyoke for this, but upon noting the 
new ratings, under date of 29 August 1769, he wrote his son 
a letter which remains— more for what it does not say than for 
what it says— a sharp commentary on Proper Bostonian father- 
to-son protocol: 

You are now in the most difficult situation & the eyes 
of all, above and below you, will be upon you, & I wish 
it might be that you could be at home till the talk about 
the change was a little over. Every word, every action, 
and even your countenance, will be watched, particularly 
by those who envy you, and perhaps by those who do 
not. If any difficulties should arise with any of yornr class- 
mates that now fall below you, treat them with all possible 
tenderness. If Murray is uneasy and manifests it to you, 
say nothing to irritate him. On the whole, say as little as 
possible. 

Even in the nineteenth century. Harvard's president Kirk- 
land was, as he put it, "finding it convenient" to keep a 
method of placing his students "other than alphabetical." As 
for Edmund Quincy,who was at one time mayor of Boston 
and at another president of Harvard, he seemed to regard all 
Harvard students as a special breed. "If a man's in there," 
he used to say, tapping his Harvard Triennial Catalogue, 
"that's who he is. If he isn't, who is he?" The feeling carried 
over to the twentieth century when, during the Taft Ad- 
ministration in Washington, a visitor to Harvard sought to see 
Lawrence Lowell, then president of the university. Lowell, 
however, had been called to the nation's capital on a matter 
of business. The visitor was stopped by a secretary in the outer 
office. "The President is in Washington," the secretary said, 
"seeing Mr. Taft" 



17 



One thing is certain. The dynastic proportions of Boston's 
first families are staggering. The SaltonstaU family, for ex- 
ample, are cmrently sending to Harvard the eleventh succes- 
sive generation of Saltonstalls, all descendants in the male 
line, to attend the college, as foUows: Nathaniel, 1659; Richard, 
1695; Richard, 1722; Nathaniel, 1766; Leverett, 1802; Leverett, 
1844; Richard, 1881; Leverett, 1914; Leverett, 1931; Leverett, 
1952; and Leverett, 1975. 

The First Families have indeed always been noted not only 
for the recurrence of the same first name, but also for the 
recurrence of the same profession. In the Lowell family there 
were three generations of Judge Johns, beginning with one 
appointed by George Washington. Among the Cabots there 
have been seven successive generations of Samuels, the last 
three of whom have been manufacturing chemists. 

First Families in Boston have tended toward marrying each 
other in a way that would do justice to the planned marriages 
of European royalty. Historian John Gorham Palfrey, com- 
menting on the homogeneousness of New England life, once 
declared that a purer strain of English blood existed in New 
England than in any English county. Boston's best have de- 
termined to keep it that way. With the exception that no 
SaltonstaU has ever yet married a Lowell, intermarriage among 
First Families has occiured in large proportion in almost 
every generation. In one Cabot family, out of seven children 
who married, fotir married Higginsons. In a Jackson family of 
five, three married Cabots. 

Yet even this intimate marriage circle has often proved too 
large. There is scarcely a First Family in Boston without a 
record in its background of a marriage of cousins. When 
George Cabot, the first great Cabot merchant, married a 
Higginson, it was a double-first-cousin alliance. Nathaniel 
Bowditch, rated one of the most illustrious ancestors on any 
First Family tree, married a first cousin of his second wife. 
Charles Bulfinch, Bostons greatest architect, Helen Choate 
Bell, Boston s best-known society wit, Lawrence Lowell and 
Endicott Peabody, Boston's two outstanding educators, aU 
chose cousin spouses. 

Recently, when two young First Family cousins become en- 
gaged, a Boston matron put her oflBcial stamp of approval on 
the young girl's intention. "Isn't it nice," she said, "Faith 
isn't marrying out of the Family." 



18 



At an early age, the late Henry Cabot Lodge was once 
moved to ask his grandfather about his ancestors. "My boy," 
he was told sharply, "we do not talk about Family in this 
country. It is enough for you to know that yoiu* grandfather 
was an honest man/' The remark had such a profound effect 
on Lodge that he never forgot it. He was soon to find, how- 
ever, that his grandfather was almost alone in Boston in such 
ancestral impiety. When Lodge became a senator, his Mas- 
sachusetts colleague. Senator Samuel Hoar, told him— "with 
great satisfaction," Lodge recalled— that he had discovered that 
through a mutual ancestor, the pastor of Salem's first church, 
they were both descended from a sister of Chaucer. 

No Boston First Family party is complete without some 
discussion of genealogy. One of these parties, traditionally a 
Thanksgiving or Christmas affair, is apt to be so large that 
many of the guests, though relatives, will be strangers to each 
other; if afterwards one speaks of not connecting with some- 
one, he means, in the Boston manner of speaking, that though 
he saw the person and even may have spoken with him, he 
did not place him on the family tree. 

The Bowditch Family met the problem squarely as recently 
as 1936 by supplying every guest present with a ten-generation 
genealogy, a pamphlet designed in a loose-leaf form with 
extra space provided for keeping the work up to date. Oc- 
casionally a crisis occiurs at one of these parties, as when 
Calvin CooHdge was elected president and a Boston Coolidge 
dinner was thrown into an uproar of discussion to determine 
what exact relation was this man from far-off Vermont. To 
get this distinguished family talking about anything was in 
itself no mean achievement— the society journal Town Topics 
once described Boston Coolidge as "scions of silence"— but 
fortunately among those present was Julian Coolidge, professor 
of mathematics at Harvard, who is a very precise man. After 
a moment's thought, he came up with his answer, "Calvin is 
my seventh cousin once removed," he said. He was later 
proved correct. 

In one way the personality— or family— of Boston is easy 
to laugh at. In another way, however, it is not. Earl Derr 
Biggers, who later became famous as the author of the Charlie 
Chan mystery stories, recalled that his first newspaper job 
was writing a column in Boston. "Writing a humorous column 
in Boston," he said, "was a good deal like making faces in 



19 



church. It oflFended a lot of nice people and wasn't much fun." 
The late 'New Yorker cartoonist Gluyas Williams put it another 
way. Although bom in California, he made his home in Boston 
for some thirty-five years. "Your Bostonian will laugh, all 
right," he declared, "only not when you expect him to.** 
"I came," wrote the novelist William Dean Howells, of his 
first visit, "as the passionate pilgrim from the West ap- 
proached his holy land in Boston." Howells, of course, was 
welcome. Less so, in California, was the Proper Bostonian 
woman who, asked how she had come, replied, "Via Dedham." 
The same woman was also asked if she really liked Boston. 
"Like it?" she said. "WTiy, I never thought of it that way. 
Liking Boston is like saluting the flag." 

The evidence is strong that even the "Improper Bostonian," 
as the late Fred Allen once called himself, "rather looks up 
to the Proper Bostonian and is not inclined to laugh at him." 
Referring to the least endearing of Boston's First Family traits 
—such as the bluntness of Cabots, the frostiness of Lowells, 
the tactlessness of Adamses, the perversities of Forbses, the 
irascibility of Higginsons and Amorys, the frugality of Lawr- 
ences, etc.— the late James Byrne, a lawyer, once said that to 
him there was nothing humorous about it. The son of an Irish 
contractor, Byrne worked his way through Harvard tutoring 
sons of First Families and became the only man of his back- 
ground and religion up to that time ever honored with mem- 
bership on the Harvard Corporation. "Tt is strong stock," he 
said, "that can produce the same traits of character in genera- 
tion after generation. No, I don't laugh at it." 

Strong stock indeed. When British soldiers were accused of 
murder in the Boston Massacre, John Adams and Josiah Quincy 
volunteered to defend the men in court— hardly a popular 
position in revolutionary Boston. The story is told that after 
the verdict was announced, Adams, gathering up his papers, 
walked to the prisoners' room. They crowded around him. 
"God bless you, Mr. Adams," they cried. "We owe our lives 
to you and Mr. Quincy. You are an honest man and a clever 
one." "And by God," someone said roughly, "a brave one." 

Another Adams, John Quincy, returned from the White 
House virtually penniless, his real estate in both Boston and 
Quincy mortgaged to pay his debts. Almost immediately, how- 
ever, he returned to Washington, and for eight successive 
Congresses— a period of seventeen years— he sat hiunbly in 



20 



the House of Representatives, which he had once addressed 
as President. The patrician Henry Clay sneered at him. He 
was beginning again. Clay said, like a boy. For all those years 
he did his duty as he saw it, "refusing," says one historian, 
"with tart asperity, to sacrifice his judgement to ministers, 
kings, or people." 

The present Charles Francis Adams, sixth in the "royal" 
Adams line, recalls what his father once told him. "My father," 
he says quietly, "never talked much about family. But the 
day I went to work, he told me, T believe you have a reputa- 
tion for honesty— God help you if you lose it.' That is all he 
said." Such a story had added poignancy when, in 1958, the 
story burst upon the country of the relationship between Sher- 
man Adams, Eisenhower's right-hand man, and certain free 
hotel rooms and vicuna coats, and an Oriental rug accepted 
from the Boston industrialist Bernard Goldfine. This writer's 
own father was particularly disturbed by the story and scurried 
to his genealogy. He sent me a letter containing good news: 

The news about Adams is bad. Son, and Sherman is 
an Adams, it is true. But your Mother and I looked it up 
last night, and it is quite clear that Sherman is, after all, 
a New Hampshire Adams. There are very many of these, 
as I am sure you know, and they are only very distantly 
related to the Boston Adamses. Some of them have never 
even established any connection at all, and certainly in 
Boston nobody who knows anything about it at all would 
ever for a moment consider Sherman one of the Adamses. 

The women of Boston were also a special breed. In the 
golden clipper ship days, married early, girls often went to 
sea side by side with their husband ship captains. At the age 
of nineteen one wife, sailing from Boston to San Francisco, 
had her husband suddenly stricken blind with brain fever, and 
with no other officer on board who understood navigation, was 
forced to take charge of the ship. Calmly studying in spare 
moments out of books brought to her from the ship's cabin, 
not only navigation but also medicine— so that she could care 
for her husband— she brought the ship around Cape Horn 
and put into Frisco on time to discharge the cargo. For fifty 
nights, it is recorded, she never left the deck. 

Her physical hardihood established, the Boston woman of 
the nineteenth century went on to greater things. It seems 



21 



impossible to realize now, but there was a time in Boston when 
females were not admitted to lectures. When the Boston Ly- 
cemn series of lectures was inaugurated early in the nineteenth 
century, however, its promoter had an idea. "I will attach a 
locomotive to this Lyceum," he declared, '"which shall make 
it go.*' His locomotive was the Boston woman, and it is doubt- 
ful if anyone has even given a more accurate description of 
the female of the Proper Bostonian species. 

Women, not men, were the moving spirit of one nineteenth- 
century meeting which had as it object no less a goal than 
Universal Reform. If the Proper Boston merchant held sternly 
aloof from Brook Farm, the country's most distinguished ex- 
periment in communal living— what else could he do with an 
organization which had Nathaniel Hawthorne for head of its 
finance committee, a man who had never met a payroll in 
his life?— his sisters, and in some cases, even his wife, did not. 
First Family women were from the start a real force in the 
experiment, and if foredoomed to general failure, the Farm 
succeeded in giving women one ultra-modem landmark in 
emancipation— the establishment of the first nursery school 
known in America. 

As a general thing, wife-reformers of the nineteenth century 
did not disturb the tranquillity of the Proper Boston marriage 
as they have been know to do in later days. This seems to 
have been at least partly due to the remarkable equanimity 
of the merchant-husbands involved, who were evidently able 
to take such things, along with their occasional financial re- 
verses, in stride. One of these merchant-husbands, asked how 
he felt about the manifold activities of his wife, a well-known 
reformer of her day, replied briefly that he attended the closer 
to his own business the more his wife attended to other peo- 
ple's. But the question seems also to have been solved by the 
fact that many a First Family woman, feeling the urge for re- 
form at an early age, chose for her mate, not a merchant at all 
but a very diflFerent type of man. A young Cabot girl with a 
reforming bent, for example, married Theodore Parker, a 
veritable firebrand of reform. Parker, who once devoted an 
entire sermon to the topic "The Temptations of Milkmen," 
and who ate no breakfast, bxit instead started each day by 
reading five books of the Bible, would have been a match for 
any wife-reformer. So, too, would have been his friend, George 
Ripley, founder of Brook Farm. Ripley once stated with some 



22 



pride that his marriage was "founded not upon any romantic 
or sudden passion" but instead "upon great respect for her 
[his wife's] intellectual power, moral worth, deep and true 
Christian piety and peculiar refinement and dignity of charac- 
ter." Wendell Phillips, the abolitionist, though a son of Boston s 
first mayor and a First Family man, was still another young 
bridegroom far removed from the merchant-husband when he 
admitted that his wife invariably preceded him in the adop- 
tion of the various causes he advocated. Leaving his London 
boardinghouse one day to attend a convention where he was 
to deliver an address, he went out the door with the parting 
words of his young wife ringing in his ears: "Wendell, dont 
shiUy shally." Wendell did not. Though the convention was 
a World Anti-Slavery meeting and had nothing to do with 
women at all, Phillips ended by delivering the first speech ever 
made by a man in advocacy of the rights of women. 

Margaret Fuller caught the spirit of Boston women when, 
as far back as 1843, she sounded the clarion cry of what would 
come to be known as women's rights. "It is a vulgar error," 
she said, "that love, a love, is to woman her whole existance. 
She was also bom for Truth and Love, in their universal 
energy." This came at a time, mind you, when another leading 
essayist of the day was posing the question: "Should women 
learn the alphabet?" 

Miss Fuller is remembered today not so much for her writ- 
ings or criticism as for the power of her personality— a re- 
markable distinction for a plain woman who spoke in a nasal 
voice, had remarkably poor health and the disconcerting habit 
of closing her eyes when she talked. The daughter of a his- 
torian and member of Congress, she was taught Latin as 
soon as she knew English and Greek at the age of four. 

She became the first woman war correspondent, covering 
the Mazzini Revolution in Italy. While there, she married a 
young marchese. She was shipwrecked with him off New 
York harbor when she returned to the United States. Thoreau 
himself walked the beaches for days in a vain search for her 
body. 

The Proper Boston woman has a busy day on Friday. She 
has a Chilton Club lecture and a Chilton Club lunch. But 
she is never late, and seldom early, for Symphony. For three 
quarters of a century, attired in her sensible coat, her sensible 
hat, and her sensible shoes, she has entered the hall promptly 



23 



at 2:25 and has then swept serenely to her seat in a maiiner 
that defies description. If she forgets her ticket, it is no tragedy. 
A large proportion of patrons regularly do this. But they have 
been so resolutely marching toward the same seat for so many 
years that no usher, even in a packed hall, would dare attempt 
to stop them. 

Boston's powerful sense of tradition is some times mistaken 
for hidebound conservatism. It is not. The groundbreaking 
opinions of the great dissenter Mr. Justice Holmes symbolize 
Boston s concern for progress and the rights of the individual. 
One by one, as Catherine Drinker Bowen noted, his dissents 
become h.vf— Hammer v. Dagenhart, "Child labor can be 
regulated by Congress," Lochner v. New York, "The liberty of 
the citizen to do as he pleases does not mean he can force 
other men to work twelve hours a day'*; Coppage v. Kansas, 
Truax v. Corrigan, and Vegelahn v. Buntner, "I think the strike 
a lawful instrument in the universal struggle for Hfe.**; Abrams 
v. The United States and The United States v. Rosika Schwim- 
mer, "Free thought— not free thought for those who agree with 
us but freedom for the thought that we hate." 

Somehow the spirit of Holmes seemed present in 1954, 
during the Army-McCarthy hearings, when another great 
Boston lawyer, Joseph Welch, was faced with a personal 
breach of trust— when the late Senator McCarthy, in front of 
a nationwide television audience, first slandered a yoimg man 
in his office and then turned to Welch for forgiveness. "I am 
a forgiving man. Senator," Welch said in his clipped Bostonian 
accent, "but you wiU have to find your forgiveness somewhere 
else than from me." 

In 1843, Charles Dickens, in his American Notes, paid 
Boston a compHment in a book that contained few of them. 

The golden calf they worship at Boston is a pygmy 
compared to the giant effigies set up in other parts of that 
vast counting-house which lies beyond the Atlantic, and 
the almighty dollar sinks into something comparatively 
insignificant amidst a whole pantheon of better gods. 

In 1871, E. L. Godldn put it in simpler terms. "Boston," he 
said, "is the one place in America where wealth and the 
knowledge of how to use it are apt to coincide." Retail penury 



24 



but wholesale charity was ever the watchword, and yet there 

was always the question of making money. The Lowell family 
might have three generations of poets— James Russell Lowell, 
Amy Lowell, and Robert Lowell— but Lawrence Lowell was 
too wise not to be nervous. "I'm getting worried about the 
Lowell Family," he confided to a friend. "There is nobody in 
it making money anymore." And yet Bostonians did not put all 
their stock in making money. "The successful man," my father 
once told me, "is successful three times out of five. The failure 
is successful two times out of five." 

Present-day Boston families like the Appletons and the 
Coolidges treasure statements of merchant integrity as issued 
by their family-founding forebears. An Appleton compared the 
mercantile honor of the day with the honor of a woman. It 
was "as delicate and fragile," he said, and it would not "bear 
the slightest stain." A filial Coolidge, speaking of his merchnt 
father, writes: 

Mr. Coolidge never went astray . . . did not content 
himself with obeying the rules of the technical code of 
mere mercantile honesty but preferred rather to carry 
downtown with him the honorable spirit of a gentleman. 
. . . The result was that not so much as even a mark of 
interrogation was ever set against any act of his. 

The "spirit of a gentleman" remains of great importance to 
the Proper Bostonian. He wishes no truck with the modem 
idea of "deals" carried on with the aid of a few drinks and 
a hotel suite. "A Boston gentleman," said the late Rodman 
Weld, "never takes a drink before 3 o'clock or east of Park 
Street," by which he meant before the time of the stock- 
market closing or anywhere in the business district. West of 
Park Street, in the club and residential district, it was all right, 
of course, for gentlemen to get together "after hours." A 
nephew of Weld's once came to him claiming that in the law 
office where he was working, he was being made the butt of 
jokes by an officious partner of the firm and disliked it so 
much he was determined to leave the office. Weld looked at 
his nephew without sympathy. He asked him only if he was 
learning something where he was. When the nephew admitted 
as much, Weld declared, "If you are getting what you want, 
why do you care whether you get it from a gentleman or a 



25 



cad? You are not going to his oflBce for his society but to be a 
better lawyer. You can associate with gentlemen after six 
o'clock/' 



The inherited religion of Boston's First Families was Episco- 
palian—a land of Episcopalianism once defined by Emerson 
as "the best diagonal line that could be drawn between the 
life of Jesus Christ and that of the Boston merchant, Abbott 
Lawrence." Boston was also Unitarian—the land once defined 
by the mother of Harvard's famed "Five-Foot Shelf," President 
Eliot. "Eliza," she asked a friend, who had just become a 
Unitarian, "do you kneel down in church and call yourself 
a miserable sinner? Neither I nor any member of my family 
will ever do that." 

As might be expected, this attitude toward religion has 
made for some notable departures. Aunt Sara Palfrey, for ex- 
ample, at the age of eighty-eight, during her final illness, took 
up the study of Hebrew. When a friend remonstrated with 
her for the effort this involved, she said that she had always 
intended to take up the language and had put it off far too 
long as it was. "I wish to be able," she said with some finality, 
"to greet my Creator in his native tongue." 

The younger Colonel Perkins, son of Boston's greatest mer- 
chant, Thomas Handasyd Perkins, provided an equally ex- 
emplary male departure. Once called Boston's best-dressed 
man— a small compliment— he had been rather a gay blade 
in his time. On his deathbed, he was approached by a friend 
who gave him, understandably hesitantly, the advice that he 
would do well to repent his sins if he wanted to go to Heaven. 
Perkins thought little of the idea. In two sentences he de- 
livered what will undoubtedly remain as the all-time Proper 
Bostonian statement on the question of the hereafter. 

'T am about as good," he declared, "as Gus Thorndike, 
Jim Otis or Charlie Hammond, and almost as good as Frank 
Codman. I shall go where they go, and that is where I wish 
to go." 



26 



/ 



CHANGING BOSTON 

By Alan Lupo and Caryl Rivers 

The gold hands on Bostons Custom House tower stand at 
6 P.M., and the face of the clock peers impassively down on 
the cars that clog the streets below, fiUed with commuters 
rushing to leave the city. The tower climbs out of the torso of 
a fine old Doric structure, which once had a dome and stood 
by the edge of the water. But now so much of the harbor has 
been filled in that you can't even see the water from the 
ground floor, and the tower, an afterthought, spoils the lines 
of the building. The Custom House, like the city, changed and 
grew in haphazard fashion. 

By the time the hands have moved to 6:30, the rush hour 
below is nearly over. Half the city's daytime people have gone, 
packed together three cars abreast on the expressway that 
slices through the city, or jammed together face to sweaty 
face, hands grabbing for leverage on one of the four subway 
hnes that snakes its way through the city. 

In the dusk, the neighborhoods are at their peak of life. The 
comers are busy. Outside, in front of houses, in folding chairs 
and on stoops, the people of the dusk sit, sometimes to talk, 
sometimes just to sit. A door opens, and everybody in a ten- 
yard radius knows what that household served for dinner. 
Unlike the embarrassed lady on the television commercial, no 
one here cares that the kitchen smells like a kitchen and that 
the parlor— that's parlor, not living room— also smells like the 
kitchen. These are good smells, the smells of life and suste- 
nance, of foods transplanted from Europe and Russia, from 
Jamaica and Hong Kong, from Mississippi and AguadiUa, all 
simmering in American-made pots. 

At dusk, part of the city dies. 

In the financial and insurance district, there is little activity 
now. There are no outward manifestations of the power that 
is generated every day in those oflBces, power carried by the 
vehicles of stocks, bonds, annuities, cash, investments. It is 
here, in this daytime neighborhood of conservatively dressed 



27 



people— commuters often, men usually, white usually, Yankee 
often— that decisions are made that may guarantee life or 
death for other neighborhoods, other communities. 

But at dusk, there is nothing here. An occasional late worker 
with briefcase tucked neatly under an arm. A scrubwoman, 
more Hkely Irish than black. 

There are ghosts downtown at dusk, memories of earlier 
times guarded over by the new high rises, themselves shadow- 
ing the old oiffice buildings that line the little streets that 
crisscross back and forth and weave about and change names 
from comer to comer. This is the heart of an earlier Boston, 
built up from the shoreline and paved over a hundred times. 
Its very pattem defies traffic and toruists, challenging the 
Bostonian to pick his way in and out of the asphalt underbmsh, 
the brick and granite woods. 

The Tremont Temple, dark this evening, locking in the 
echoes of a more turbulent political era, echoes of the Reverend 
P. S. Henson. The year 1907, the subject under discussion, 
John F. "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, then mayor and someday to 
be grandfather of a President, a candidate for President and 
a U.S. Senator: "I tell you, when a honey-tongued Democrat 
holds the highest place and regards the city over which he 
mles as if it were meant to be looted by him and the gang of 
which he is the leader— what is to be expected?'* 

Across town, in the environs of the Pmdential Center, across 
town in the nightspots around Kenmore Square, in the water- 
ing holes for swinging singles, athletes, students, nurses, secre- 
taries, junior executives, there is talk, heady talk, of more cur- 
rent matters. For that too is Boston, a Boston of no definable 
ethnic persuasion, whose major commodity is youth. 

The action, as some call it, is no longer here. Part of it has 
moved to the newer Boston, the New Boston of Kenmore 
Square and the Pm. Another part of it, a more tawdry slice 
that once floiuished in ScoUay Square— long ago demolished 
for the creation of Government Center, daytime abode for fed- 
eral, state and local bureaucrats— now lives in the Combat Zone, 
a half-dozen city blocks south of the Tremont Temple and the 
Park Street chinrch. . . . 

The morning comes in gray and cool with a promise of 
heat later in the day. The tide is full in the harbor, with a 
current from the southwest, a mild one. Early in the mist, 
there were foghorns and then the squawk of gulls. Then, a 



28 



quiet period, before the big jets began lining up for the de- 
partures from Logan Airport, before the traffic jams and the 
backups of buses bringing their carrion into the subway 
terminals. 

So, as with the dusk of yesterday, the city has a moment 
of peace before the cycle resumes. The menhaden and striped 
bass swim under the Belle Isle Bridge unmolested; the oysters, 
clams and mussels await the clamdiggers. 

A city truck washes the streets. Laundry still hangs on lines 
strung between the porches of the three-deckers. As polluted 
as the air might be, the wash will still feel and smell fresher 
than what comes out of a dryer. Real food and real air. Out- 
side, you can see things you don't see in the dusk of yesterday 
—one house after another being renovated with aluminima 
siding, people staying in the city. 

In the warmth of daylight, an old lady walks out of the dark 
doorway of the three-story row house in East Boston, out onto 
the unshaded sidewalk. The old lady wears the black stockings 
and shoes and kerchief of the old people. She is of the old 
style, those who sit near the open windows and act as com- 
munity radar. They see and know all, the old-timers. They are 
the seers of the second story. When you play in the street, 
every once in a while, you check back and up over your 
shoulder to see if she's still there. Your mother. Somebody 
else's mother. Somebody's grandmother. Somebody's aunt. 
Somebody. The somebody doesn't nod in recognition. She 
doesn't have to. You know she's there; she knows you're there. 
All's right with the neighborhood. That's what it means gen- 
erally. What it means specifically is that you are not going to 
take your bat and smash in the neighbor's car headlight, be- 
cause such action triggers the radar system. 

On this warm day, the woman, maybe tired of a winter of 
looking out the window, is now out on the sidewalk. She walks 
with difficulty. Life is not getting easier for the greenhorns of 
eighty years or more. They draw strength from the sun and 
from the neighborhood. In the suburbs, where some of their 
offspring have traded Stations of the Cross for pink flamingos, 
the corners sprout grass. Back here, in the city, they sprout 
people. The comers are for people. Here, in East Boston, for 
Italians. In Roxbury, for blacks. In Charlestown, for the Irish. 
In the South End, for Puerto Ricans. 

The comers are training grounds for a variety of occupa- 



29 



tions. They have bred boxers, ballerinas, barristers, bookies, 
bandits and bartenders. Collected together, they are the heart 
of the neighborhood. And the neighborhoods are the heart of 
Boston. Somehow, confronted with wrenching change, they 
endure. 

Old-timers die, and old-timers shrug and move to the sub- 
urbs, where the dishwashers and garbage disposals automate 
them out of business, where they sit and watch the crabgrass 
from the first-floor window and dream less of the old country 
than of the old neighborhoods. 

In the heart of the city, in Dorchester, a black family moves 
next door to a white family. Sometimes, they form a common 
alliance. Sometimes, they rub against each other and make 
sparks. Washington turns its head, tells America that "the 
hour of urban crisis has passed," speaks of benign neglect and 
cuts oflF funds that allow white and black families to fix and 
paint tiieir houses. 

Yet, somehow they hold on, the neighborhoods. They hold 
on, knowing that if they do not, Boston, for all its new 
imagery, for all its skyscrapers and rock clubs and alternative 
newspapers and university affiliations and medical reputation, 
will witiber and die. 

The neighborhoods have contributed their own distinctive 
architectural form to the city. It is a form that has none of 
the aristocratic grace of the Bulfinch houses, nor the curlicued 
elegance of the old civic buildings, nor the vaulting grace and 
arrogance of the skyscrapers. The three-decker is a structure 
that might be called, in the argot of the present day, "people's 
architecture." You can see three-deckers all over this city. 
They are, like their builders, solid and eminently practical: 
three floors, each housing one spacious apartment, and on the 
front of each house, a railed porch. The Irish may not have 
invented the form, but in the neighborhoods where they have 
come and gone, three-deckers sprouted like toadstools. The 
classic Irish success story can be explained in a phrase: from 
three-deckers to three toilets. 

"Boston Irish" has a meaning all its own, or more appropri- 
ately, a dozen contradictory meanings. The Irish in America 
are not all clustered in the city by the sea, but one never 
speaks of "Milwaukee Irish" or "Newark Irish." Boston s Irish- 
ness is pervasive but hard to grasp, like the fog that rolls in 
from the ocean on warm September nights. Ask anyone on a 



30 



Boston street, ''Where do you find the Irish?*' and they will at 
first look thoughtful and then perplexed, as if they should 
know the answer but inexplicably do not When the Chamber 
of Commerce was asked that question, there was a perplexed 
silence from a secretary on the other end of the line. Finally 
she said, "There's a man here who's Irish, I'll ask him." Silence. 
Finally she returned and announced, "He says they've aU 
moved to the suburbs." 

Not quite. The mayor's name is Kevin Hagan White. The 
five-member school conmMttee is often completely Irish, as are 
two thirds of the city council, half the city's delegation to the 
State House and both its congressmen. The Irish constitute the 
city's largest ethnic group, with the Italians about 7000 be- 
hind. Some 186,000 persons in Greater Boston told the U.S. 
Census Bureau that they, their parents or grandparents came 
from Ireland. That's more Irishmen than the combined popula- 
tion of Cork and Limerick. 

In 1846, in Ireland, a spreading rot took hold of the potato 
crop. The crop failed, as had so many things before it on that 
green and windy island embraced by the sea. 

The Irish poured into the port of Boston, arriving at the 
Cunard terminal in East Boston. At first, they were a welcome 
source of cheap labor, working fifteen hours a day at un- 
skilled construction jobs, leveling the hills of Boston and fiUing 
in parts of the harbor, hauling bricks, tending the horses. But 
as the green tide began to push the natives out of some of the 
city neighborhoods, the hostilities emerged. "No Irish Need 
Apply" signs were hung on the doorways of the shops. When 
the new immigrants climg together, rejected and scorned by 
their Yankee neighbors, they were described as clannish. 

The native Americans, themselves children of alien soil not 
so many years before, did not exactly open their arms in 
brotherly embrace to the "huddled masses yearning to breathe 
free." As early as 1831, a nativist mob attacked and burned 
the Ursuline Convent in Charlestown, where the battle of 
Bunker Hill had been fought fiifty-four years earlier. 

By the turn of the century, there was a new land of Irish 
politician up and about in Boston. Unlike the city's first two 
Irish mayors, Hugh O'Brien and Patrick Andrew Collins, these 
men were bom in Boston and were more familiar with the 
struggles of their precincts than The Struggle in Ireland. These 
were brash men, whom the Yankees accepted only as a prag- 



31 



matic means of currying favor and retaining whatever power 
they could. 

The Yankees could count more than receipts and coupons. 
They could count election retiuns and voting lists as well. By 
the mid-1890s, 32 percent of the registered voters in Boston 
were foreign-bom, and about half of them were Irish. Where 
once a Yankee mayor got in trouble by appointing Irish to the 
police force, now a mayor would commit political suicide by 
not doing so. And while some wards in Boston were electing 
people named Lowell and Emerson to the legislature, others 
were sending forth Kelly, Tague, McCarthy, Leary, Mahoney, 
Roinrke, Falvey, Clancy, Toomey, McManus and OToole. 

By the twentieth century, a flamboyant Irishman named 
Curley became the symbol of Irish political power. 

James Michael Curley was bom in 1874 in a cold-water 
tenement in Roxbury, where his parents paid six dollars a 
month rent and the bathroom was an outhouse in the yard. 
His father got a job as a hod carrier at ten cents an hour, 
eleven hours a day, through the good efforts of one "Pea 
Jacket" Maguire, boss of Ward 17. The father died when James 
Michael was ten, and the mother went to work as a scrub- 
woman to support her family. 

Young Curley went on to leam political tricks from the best 
in the business, including Martin Lomasney, the leader of the 
West End and perhaps the most successful ward boss in 
Boston s history. When a rival politician set up roadblocks to 
keep Lomasney's men from arriving at a nominating conven- 
tion in East Boston, Lomasney rented a hearse and sent his 
delegates through as a funeral procession. Because of his in- 
fluence with the Naturalization Bureau, Lomasney arranged 
for illiterate youngsters to become American citizens. He sent 
them into the voting booths carrying combs with certain teeth 
extracted in a peculiar pattern. The illiterate voter simply 
placed the comb over the ballot, and the teeth covered all the 
names except the Lomasney candidates. 

Because many illiterate voters were apt to put a cross by 
the first name they saw, first position on the ballot was im- 
portant to a poHtician. Curley *s first race, for common council, 
was in 1898, when he was twenty-four^ years old. He lost it, 
and was determined to win the following year. 

Position on the ballot was determined by the order in which 
candidates filed nomination papers. Curley, his brother and a 



32 



"score of brawny friends" barricaded the door to the election 
oflBce the night before filing date. "It was some siege," he later 
recalled. "Several times that night, flying wedges of rowdies 
tried to crash our lines, but we plugged them as they came in. 
John suffered a broken jaw, and my cohorts and I took a 
pounding, but when the clerks and registrars arrived the fol- 
lowing morning, we still held the fort and my name topped the 
ballot." 

Curley formed his own political organization, and among 
his services to his constituents was job hunting. By his own 
estimate, he secured positions for more than 700 men and 
women in one two-year period, often filling out the job applica- 
tions himself. He was arrested for taking a civil service exam 
for a position as a postman for one needy constituent. He 
served a sixty-day sentence in the Charles Street Jail, and 
while he was behind bars, he was elected to the board of 
Aldermen. "I felt then, as now," Curley wrote, "that I had 
done a charitable thing for a man who needed a job so he 
could support a wife and four children." For years afterward, 
Curley *s political opponents liked to dredge up the jail sen- 
tence. The fraud charge cut little ice with Boston's immigrant 
voters who saw him as something of a Gaelic Robin Hood. 

Curley served as mayor of Boston four times and was beaten 
in an attempt to do so six other times. He served on the old 
common council, the old board of aldermen, the city council, 
in Congress and once as governor of Massachusetts. In his 
lifetime, the transfer of political power from the Yankees to 
the Irish was begun and completed. He became the archetype 
of the Irish politician and achieved a particularly American 
form of immortality. He was played on screen by Spencer 
Tracy in "The Last Hurrah" as a shrewd, sentimental, roguish 
but loveable man of the people. To his critics, Curley was the 
machine pol who bent the political process to his own ends, 
who used favoritism, demogoguery and dirty tricks as the 
machinery of government; who was a self-inflated egomaniac 
who left no successors because he wanted no rivals. William 
Shannon says, "For thirty years he kept the population half- 
drunk with fantasies, invective and showmanship." Shannon 
sees Curley as a man unable to break free of the fierce Yankee- 
Irish antagonism that molded him, "a self-crippled giant on a 
provincial stage." 

His admirers would point out that Curley 's style of govem- 



33 



ment was responsive to his constitueiits, the **new" Americans, 
in a way that the good-government reformers ("the goo-goos") 
could never be. As governor, he oversaw the passage of an 
impressive body of social legislation. William Green, president 
of the American Federation of Labor, wrote: "More progres- 
sive laws were enacted mider Cnrley in two years than under 
all previous administrations in any ten-year period in the 
history of the state." 

By the time the Italians, Jews, Poles and Slavs got serious 
about settling in Boston, the Irish were firmly in control, and 
the reactions from these new groups ran the gamut from street 
fighting to registering as Republicans to joining the local Irish 
machine. 

The Italians were assaulted not only by those Brahmins 
who wrote of "fumes of garlic" or who waxed patronizingly 
about such "quaint Mediterranean" folk, but also from an 
Irish-dominated church and political structure. For years it 
was unthinkable than an Italian-American pastor would be in 
charge of an Irish parish. The church in Boston was not just 
Catholic. It was Irish Catholic. As for politics, the Irish were 
smart enough not to hang out any "No Italians (Jews, Slavs, 
etc.) Need Apply" signs, but the application process was 
fairly well controlled. 

For the Jews, there was not even the common bond of the 
Church. The largest bloc of immigrants arriving between 1900 
and 1914 were Russian and Polish Jews, and they found little 
in common with the small and fairly well-assimilated German 
Jews. "Yankee Jews," the newcomers would call them. 

So intense was the impact of immigration that a Yankee 
school committeeman moaned, "We have in one of our schools 
280 boys from Russia and Italy. The teachers in some of 
these schools who are trying to rescue and save these boys 
from ruin are engaged in a mission almost as holy as the 
ministers of religion." These boys, whom the Yankees were 
hell-bent on "saving," were sleeping in the streets, assaulting 
the teachers, refusing to be assimilated. 

The boys he referred to were Jews and Italians living in the 
North End. In March, 1899, architects reporting on tenements 
in the North and West Ends of the city found "dirty and bat- 
tered walls and ceilings, dark cellars with water standing in 
them, alleys littered with garbage and filth, broken and leak- 
ing drain-pipes. . . dark and filthy water-closets, closets long 



34 



frozen or otherwise out of order. . . and houses so dilapidated 
and so much settled that they are dangerous/* 

For the first thirty years of this century, Yankees, blacks, 
hyphenated Americans all jostled about, elbowing, pushing, 
picking up and moving, one group forcing out another, until 
they all foimd their own turf, their own neighborhoods, until 
enough years of living in the same city had brought about at 
least an imeasy coexistence, if not friendships. 

To the east, across the harbor. East Boston, the ward that 
John F. Kennedy s paternal grandfather had delivered faith- 
fully to the Irish mayor-makers in the early 1900s, had turned 
Jewish and Italian, and during the 1930s became almost com- 
pletely Italian. 

A similar pattern was taking shape in the old North End, 
home of the other Kennedy grandfather, "Honey Fitz" Fitz- 
gerald. There the Brahmins held onto their red brick historic 
churches and the Catholic churches retained Irish names, but 
the language of the street was the language of Abruzzi. 
Avellino and Calabria. 

To the north, Charlestown, keeping to itself, retained its 
Irish character. 

The West End kwked like an old "Dead End Kids" movie 
scene. Jews, Irish, Italians, Lithuanians, Albanians, Poles lived 
in tenements, himg wash out the back and front windows, 
grew plants in every inch of available dirt, washed down the 
stairs on their hands and knees and made sure the streets were 
safe for West Enders. There would always be a West End, 
would there not? 

In the South End, Syrians, Lebanese, Jews, Greeks, the 
ever-present Irish, Italians were all packed into one square 
mile living in the brick row houses that once had promised 
to be the chic residence for nineteenth-century Yankee mer- 
chants. They lived in what seemed to be harmony with the 
city's black population, still relatively small in number, includ- 
ing the descendants of the earliest of America's freedom fight- 
ers. Their numbers would burgeon. 

Some of those blacks were moving next door to Roxbury, 
once a strong Irish ward, but now a Jewish ghetto rapidly 
spreading south: down Blue Hill Avenue through Dorchester 
and into Mattapan, a shtetl transplanted from Eastern Europe 
and Russia by way of the North and South and West Ends, 
East Boston and nearby Chelsea. No one would predict then. 



35 



in those years when duplex houses were transformed into 
instant synagogues, that three decades later there would be 
no crowds of young Jews playing, fighting, loving at Franklin 
Field, that no Jews would be found gathered at the G & G 
Delicatessen to shmooz and read the Daily Forward, that only 
the echoes of that civilization would linger— and these only in 
the hearts of those who had known what it was to be an 
urban Jew. 

But in the 1920s and 1930s, the Jewish wave rolled re- 
lentlessly like the tides in the outer harbor, pushing away both 
Irish and Yankees and establishing a territory. Elsewhere in 
Dorchester, the upwardly mobile Irish were settling in. "Lace 
Curtain," they were called and called themselves. But "Lace 
Curtain" didn t mean there weren't plenty of pols who played 
the game as rough as they and their fathers had learned it in 
the North End and Roxbury and South Boston. 

South Boston. 

Another neighborhood, but more, really. It was becoming 
a symbol of Boston, a place where Irish politics was practiced 
without a break, without quarter. Lithuanians, Italians and 
Poles would move into South Boston, but it would always be 
known as Irish. More than that, Southie would become the 
symbol of "neighborhood," with all the poetry and parochialism 
inherent in the word. 

Southie had power. Southie was home for boxers, ballplayers, 
hoods, priests. It sent John McCormack to Congress, where he 
became Speaker of the House. It sent Richard Gushing to the 
church, where he became cardinal of the archdiocese, a man 
who did more with his raspy humor to calm down the re- 
ligious wars than any brotherhood conference or governmental 
commission. Southie bred Louise Day Hicks, who became a 
national symbol of resistance to the busing of students. 

For the brothers Kennedy, none of whom lived there, 
Southie became a reference point to document the national 
press image of Boston politics, and every political observer 
became fond of repeating, "There's an old saying in South 
Boston. Don't get mad. Get even." 

Southie became more than a neighborhood. It was, and re- 
mains, a state of mind. In Catholic colleges around the country, 
Massachusetts kids who rarely left the confines of the Irish 
Riviera on the South Shore, who may have visited South Bos- 



36 



ton only on an occasional St. Patrick's Day, warble "Southie 
Is My Home Town." 

There is the mystique of Southie, good ole Southie, the 
friendly neighborhood, I was bom down on A Street, brought 
up on B Street, priests who look and act like Pat O'Brien and 
"Dead End Kids" who talk tough and pimch tough but deep 
down are swell guys, and cooking broth for the sick neighbor's 
boy. And there is stereotyped Southie, bigoted, racist, paro- 
chial, narrow-minded, politically potent, grease-my-palm 
Southie. 

There is truth and fiction to both sets of myths, for Southie, 
like the rest of Boston s neighborhoods, is not all Irish. Nor is 
it all one big happy urban neighborhood family collectively 
cooking soup all day for its sick relatives, nor is it all full of 
hate and prejudice. Like the other neighborhoods, white and 
black, Southie feels persecuted, pushed, threatened. 

The neighborhoods could live with faulty zoning decisions 
that left red brick industrial buildings flush up against three- 
decker wooden houses. They could survive fuel storage tanks 
and noisy truck routes. But what came close to killing Boston's 
neighborhoods was a combination of urban neglect, subsidized 
suburbia and changing lifestyles. Such grand and sweeping 
trends were beyond the reach of the ward leaders. It was one 
thing to get the boys on the comer on the civil service list, 
but how did you keep them out of the submrbs? 

In the mid-1960s, a white businessman who had stayed in 
his Jamaica Plain neighborhood looked around at a particularly 
desolate scene, swept his hand across the vista of neglect and 
said, "A whole generation of leadership moved away." 

In the 1950s, the Eisenhower grin stretched across America 
from horizon to horizon, a smiling aperture that was a 
comucopia of good things. Progress was the new religion, gray 
flannel was the style, and the smell of prosperity was riding 
on the air. 

The city needed revitalization. There was a chronic shortage 
of decent housing, decay in many neighborhoods, and the 
city's overall financial picture was so dim that it was hard to 
attract new business or float municipal bonds with confidence. 
But the new technological religion harbored no understanding 
that communities are not replaceable, interchangeable units, 
like Leggo blocks; that a community is made of cords of blood 
and sinew as well as slabs of concrete and stone. 



37 



The saga of Boston's West End illustrates the triiunph of 

the technocrats' vision, small and cramped and cold as ice 
cubes, its biological rhythms not the sounds and smells of the 
streets but the staccato of jackhammers and the rustle of 
money. The massacre of the West End left wounds in this 
city that have not healed. A community was excised, like an 
appendix, and the organism that is the city did not forget 
Say "urban renewal" in many of the neighborhoods of Boston, 
and eyes tinm hard, heads shake. They remember. 

The West End was an immigrant district, a polyglot com- 
munity with the sort of vitality possessed only by city neigh- 
borhoods where a great many people have come and gone. 
It was a microcosm of immigrant America, the melting pot in 
miniature. One West Ender told a reporter in 1942: ''We 
West Enders have a lot of spirit. All the other districts in the 
city have facilities to honor their boys. We haven't got facili- 
ties. We've got spirit, though. We've got the largest cosmo- 
politan section anywhere in the U.S.— Jewish, Irish, Polish, 
Russians. Ah, we've got everything down here. ..." 

To the technocrats of the 1950s, to the bankers and realtors, 
to the editorial writers and the architects, the West End was 
a slum: decrepit housing, roadways hardly wide enough to let 
the fire engines through, overcrowding. 

The community tried to fight, in the shadow of the bull- 
dozer. The West End Development Plan, whose supporters 
included a former leader of the New Boston Committee, would 
replace their homes with luxury, high-rise apartment buildings 
and shopping areas. At one tumultuous meeting of the Boston 
Housing Authority, 500 West Enders jammed the auditoriiun 
in the State House. One of their spokesmen, Joseph Lee, a 
member of the school committee and a lifelong resident of the 
West End, drew cheers from the crowd: "You are trying to 
uproot a community and drive it into exile! . . . We deplore 
your efforts to kick people out of their homes and to replace 
them with another group of people. The United States has 
not got room for a mass deportation of American citizens. No 
group of people under American law can be so degraded. The 
many are not to be exploited for the profit of the fewl It is not 
proper to take from the poor and give to the richi" 

The cries of pain and outrage went unheeded. The West 
End Development Plan ground its way through the channels 
of government. In the spring of 1958, there was a mass rally 



38 



on Stamford Street sponsored by the Save the West End 
Committee. The federal housing inspectors were due within 
the week to start the process of relocation. There were defiant 
cries from the crowd: "Don't let them inl" "They'll get in 
over our dead bo dies I'* 

The screams trailed off into the air and fell away to silence. 
The press called the residents "a few malcontents who tried 
to block the development with reckless charges." By August, 
the wreckers were at work. An old woman locked herself in 
a room and refused to budge; a group of elderly Jews could 
find no place to live within walking distance of a synagogue. 
The families of the West End, resigned, or dazed, or bitter, 
packed up like the villagers of Anatevka in Fiddler on the Roof 
and went off to exile. The West End died. 

It was because of the West End that the planners met 
opposition in the neighborhoods, even when their efforts were 
geared to desperately needed new housing for low- and 
moderate-income families. But downtown, the New Boston was 
materializing as the 1950s ended and a new decade began. 
Boston began sprouting a skyline: the new Prudential tower 
soared fifty-five stories into the air, part of a spiny fin of sky- 
scrapers that climbed the back of the Hub like the armor on 
a dinosaur. 

John F. Collins, who became Mayor in 1960, was in many 
ways a new breed of Irish politician. He was formally edu- 
cated, inrbane, sophisticated— and very much at home with the 
bankers and money men whom Curley, years before, had 
railed against. It was Collins who brought to Boston a man 
who wouid be known to his admirers as the architect of the 
New Boston, and to his enemies as "Ed the Bomber.'* 

Edward J. Logue was one of the most controversial figures 
in the city in the 1960s. As head man in Boston's renewal 
agency, Logue displayed what one New York Times reporter 
called "an instinct for aggregating power." He displayed also 
a genius for guiding his myriad projects through the treacher- 
ous waters of the federal bureaucracy. 

In seven years, he oversaw a $2 billion expenditure on 
renewal projects that covered 11 percent of the- city's land area, 
including the completion of the Prudential Center and a huge 
Govenament Center complex. He attracted national attention 
with his program and his forceful personal style. 

The publicity generated by Boston's urban renewal com- 



39 



pcted for attention in the national media with the theft of tons 

of valuable Boston Common loam dug up for an underground 
garage and the televised documentary of local police patroniz- 
ing a bookie joint. As the Collins regime ended in 1967, most 
of the boosterism and national publicity that had marked the 
New Boston would go with it. The legacy of Hynes, Collins, 
Logue and The Vault—that collection of businessmen with new 
and old money who quietly helped guide the city's future— 
that legacy was mixed. 

To be sure, there was a new, healthy mood of confidence 
among money men. Boston's urban renewal program, the 
largest of any city its size, had eaten up money for fifteen 
years and spit back a multitude of projects. Ironically, the new 
breed of Irish mayor, the reform-type mayor, could probably 
hand out more contracts and create more work than his job 
and project-conscious predecessors. Architects and developers 
replaced road and paving contractors as the influential men 
of government, the donors of campaign money. Boston sud- 
denly had a skyline, a new image, and a service-oriented 
industry to fill the void left by the loss of manufacturing, 
fishing and apparel industries. 

But the heart of Boston was not in the new Government 
Center or the Prudential tower. The heart of Boston remained 
with the people in the neighborhoods, and it was showing 
signs of wear and tear. From 1950 to 1960, Boston lost more 
than 100,000 residents: before the 1960s were over, the city 
would lose another 56,000. 

Washington had provided millions for the rebuilding of 
America's downtowns and a fair amount for the bulldozing of 
neighborhoods and construction of some new housing, but very 
little for rehabilitating and stabilizing old neighborhoods. 

While the experts exulted in the new federal-city money 
pipeline, in the new bureaucracy with its new words, the 
people in the neighborhoods mourned the memory of Jim 
Curiey and those Hke him. All around them were signs of 
disease and death, a hardening of the arteries that lead to the 
heart. They worried about street crime, police protection, 
blight, absentee landlords, vandalism, abandoned buildings, 
deteriorating recreation faciUties, racial tension, real estate 
blockbusting, dirty streets, clogged catch basins, illegal park- 
ing, traffic congestion, illegal dumping of trash, and an in- 



40 



sensitive bureaucratic school system that seemed to encourage 
both white and black children to set their sights low. 

If enthusiasm describes what pervaded the business and 
construction and money communities, then despair, alienation 
and neglect described the mood of the real Boston, the neigh- 
borhoods. This was the irony, the set of contradictions, the 
potential for tragedy that faced those running for office in 
1967. Some of them seized upon it and campaigned on the 
theme that government must now respond to the alienated. 

One candidate who caught this theme captured a national 
audience for her outspoken stands. Her name was Louise Day 
Hicks, and while she was called the antibusing candidate, as 
the school committeewoman who resisted the state's Racial 
Imbalance Law, she was more than that. She was South Bos- 
ton, bom and bred, part of and responding to a white Catholic 
constituency whose reputation for political power far exceeded 
reality. She spoke to the alienation. Everybody, friends and 
enemies, called Mrs. Hicks "Louise." 

There was another candidate being greeted by his first 
name. He waded into crowds of elderly, of Idds, of guys hang- 
ing on comers with a disarming technique he would later use 
to help save the city during the days of urban rebellion and 
confrontations. A critic said of him, "There is probably nobody 
better in the country with a coat over the shoulder. He's a 
master at street style, better than Lindsay." 

Kevin Hagan White, grandson of a good-government city 
council president and son of a powerful former council presi- 
dent and school committee chairman, was busy using every 
technique in the book, from scholarly position papers to neigh- 
borhood house parties to wheeling and dealing with the Demo- 
cratic regulars. 

White beat Hicks in November 1967 by 12,429 votes. He 
vowed that his administration would pay attention to the neigh- 
borhoods, that its focus would not be in the executive suites 
downtown. He has tried to please both constituencies, actually, 
with programs that inclvide little city halls in every major 
neighborhood. He took office in what was to be an explosive 
year for America. Robert Kennedy would be shot to death 
in a hotel kitchen in California, barely three months after 
Martin Luther King was felled on a motel balcony in Memphis. 

For countless American blacks, the murder of King seemed 



41 



also the murder of a dream; the one he had proclaimed on a 
hot summer day in Washington, D.C., under the marble eyes 
of Lincoln. "I have a dreaml" he said, but now the dreamer 
was slain and white society had barred the doors to the 
Promised Land. The ghettos' blazed across America, ignited 
from soured hopes, rage as combustible as kerosene, and the 
squalor of city streets. The black neighborhoods of Boston 
danced on the edge of chaos, and there were indeed eruptions, 
but in the end, they did not explode in full-blown riot. 

Today, as the city of Boston looks ahead, with the twentieth 
century three quarters gone, there are no^^editorial writers pro- 
claiming sunlit vistas. It is a time when the conventional wis- 
dom says that cities do not work, perhaps cannot work— that 
they wiU become increasingly poorer, largely black, strangled 
by a noose of aflBuent white suburbs. Some have even sug- 
gested that the cities be abandoned and left to rot, while we 
all start over again someplace in the green countryside. 

The idea of Boston is that it is a city that can work, does 
work. So many American dreams have rooted here, flourished 
here. The dream of Republic began here and also that vision 
of the equality of man that spurred on the Abolition movement. 
The immigrants wove their personal destinies into the fabric 
of the city. ("Once I thought to write a history of the im- 
migrant in America," says Oscar Handlin. "Then I discovered 
that the immigrants were American history.") Martin Luther 
King studied at Boston University. It was here that William 
Trotter and George Forbes started the Guardian, a black pub- 
lication that sounded the clarion for equal rights eight years 
before the NAACP was founded. Through the late 1960s 
and early 1970s, Boston Common rang with shouts of op- 
position to the Vietnam War. 

The vision of Boston is the "golden mean" of Aristotle, some 
geographical plot of sanity between extremes on either side. 
In scale, it is a livable city; small enough so that walking is 
not a lost art, large enough to provide the diversity that makes 
urban life interesting. Its ethnic stew lends variety and charm, 
in an era when so much of America seems to be bland, plastic, 
homogenized. The city is torn by all the tensions that strain 
at urban America— battles over de facto segregation, housing 
shortages, street crime, changing neighborhoods— and yet there 
is the sense that somehow, with enough luck and common 
sense and money, Boston can muddle through. There is not. 



42 



in most of the city's neighborhoods, the sense of bombed-out 
territory, of battlefields abandoned, which one senses in some 
other cities. 

Boston's promise is precarious, however. Nothing is sure in 
urban America. A city is a fragile and complex organism; like 
the human body, it contains so many hormones, secretions, 
substances that must be in balance or it will not survive. The 
city needs middle-and upper-middle-income residents for a 
healthy economy, and yet it must not drive out the people 
whose roots help sustain the neighborhoods. A suburbanite 
who moves to the South End to remodel a handsome town 
house may force out the four families who Hve there and who 
will not be able to pay the rent in the renovated flats. A 
zoning exception allowing a high rise or fast food franchise 
means new tax revenues, but it destroys the character of a 
block and may cause those who live nearby to flee. 

There is a crying need to upgrade the schools, provide 
sen/ices for the elderly, house people with low and middle 
incomes; but the flow of federal money to the cities is ques- 
tionable in the foreseeable future. Inflation could wipe out 
the best-laid plans for keeping the city vital. If mortgage 
money is not available in the city, the prospective city home- 
owner will drift to the suburbs. If the banks "redline" a 
neighborhood, refuse to give mortgages for that area even if 
money is available, the neighborhood will decline. The city 
could float across some invisible point of no return, where, in 
the words of Yeats: "Things fall apart; the center cannot hold." 

But now, at 1776 plus 200, the center is yet holding. The 
dream that is Boston, built like a coral reef on the histories 
of so many disparate lives, endures. That may be important 
for all of us. It was best said by one of the city's most eloquent 
voices, Ms. Elma Lewis of Roxbury, once described as black 
America's Bamum, Hurok and Guthrie: "We're big enough 
to be a city but small enough to handle our problems. If we 
can't do it here, it's over for America." 



43 



GETTING SETTLED IN BOSTON 



GETTING IN AND OUT OF BOSTON 



LOGAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 

By public transportation you can get to Logan by taking tbe 
Blue line to Airport station and from there catching the MBTA 
shuttle bus (fare 20^) that stops at all the major airline 
terminals. 

If you're driving, take the Callahan Tunnel which begins 
in Dock Square and is also accessible from the Fitzgerald Ex- 
pressway. The toll is 25^ and the route to the airport is well 
marked on the East Boston side. 

You can also catch an airport shuttle bus (run by Airways 
Transportation Co.) at most of the major hotels in downtown 
Boston and at the Park Street MBTA station. The bus runs 
every 15 minutes from 7am to lam daily, and costs $2.25. 
Call 267-4907, ext. 21 for more information. 

RAILWAYS AND TERMINALS 

Amtrak (800-523-5720) leaves from South Station and Back 
Bay Station, T-Copley or Prudential. National service. 

Boston & Maine (227-5070) leaves from North Station, T- 
North Station. Service for areas within 35 miles north of 
Boston. 

BUS LINES AND TERMINALS 

Greyhound, 10 St. James Ave. (423-5810); near T-Arlington. 

National service. 

Continental Trailways, 10 Park Sq. (482-6620); near T-Arling- 
ton or Boylston. National service. 

Almeida Bus Lines, 10 Park Sq. (482-6620); near T-Arling- 
ton or Boylston. Service to southern Massachusetts and Cape 
Cod, with connections to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. 



44 



A LOOK 



AROUND BOSTON 

At Filene's, fine cK>thing 
and accessories are a 
tradition for the entire 
family. You'll find every 
appealing and exciting 
new idea in Filene's 
upstairs and fantastic 
Automatic Bargain 
Basement, known 
the world over. 
Take a tour, walk 
the Freedom Trail — 
the better you 
look, the more you'll 
see in Boston. 




Peter Pan, 10 Park Sq. (482-6620); near T- Arlington and 
Boylston. Service to western Massachusetts and Springfield. 



FINDING OUT WHERE YOU ARE 

The major Boston 200 Visitor Information Centers will be 
able to help visitors to Boston with any problem or emergency. 
Inquire at Boston 200 Centers about such things as Bicen- 
tennial exhibits and events, day care centers, boat rides, 
tickets to performances, medical care, and the Boston 200 
shuttle bus. Don't let a trifling problem upset your vacation; 
Boston 200 Visitor Information Centers can make your stay in 
Boston perfect. Secondary Information Centers will not have 
specific problem-solving facilities. They will provide the visitor 
to Boston with event information, brochures about historical 
sites, and tour information. See hotel listings for secondary in- 
formation centers in Boston hotels. 



MAJOR BOSTON 200 VISITOR 
INFORMATION CENTERS 

City Hall Visitor Hospitality Center 

City Hall-Plaza Level 
T— Government Center 



John Hancock Tower 

Copley Sq. 
T— Copley 



Visitor Information Center 
Boston Common— Tremont St. 
T-Park St. 



Massport 

Logan Airport Terminals 
T— Airport 

46 



Coming Soon: 




John Hancock's 60-story Observatory is going to be 
more than a skyscraper with a view and a gift shop. It's 
historic Boston: A 20-ft. circular topographteal model 
that re-creates Revolutionary Boston and the events of 
the 1770*s-the Battles of Bunker Hill, Dorchester 
Heights and the Boston Massacre. It's exciting Boston: 
A cinematic helicopter Cityflight featuring a thrilling 
swoop around Tobin Bridge, through Callahan Tunnel 
and a flight over historic sites. It's modern Boston: A 
Photorama of backlighted transparencies shows you 
modem Boston's points of interest. High-powered 
binoculars give you a close-up of the sites ptetured. 
Free Information: The Boston 200 Visitor Information 
Center in our Tower Lobby tells you where to go, and 
how to get there. And for Tower information call Morgan 
K Plummer, Manager, Tower Observatory at 421-2632. 




Mutual 
Life Insurance 
Company 



Boston 200^ 
at your service. 



BOSTON 200^'" 
PASS^S^PORT 




Let us entertain you. Amenca will be 
200 years old only once and the enter- 
tainment services created by Boston 
200 are of once-in-a-lifetime value to 
those who join us in celebration. 

Take the Boston 200 PassPort. for 
example. Take it and you'll get nnuch 
more than you bargained for. The book 
offers over $300 worth of local discounts 
on everything from shops and sports to theaters and trans- 
portation -for only $3.00. 

Now hear ye and you'll learn the lessons of history with greater 
ease and enjoyment through the 
By- Word Audio Interpretive Sys- 
tem. By-Word Listening Posts are 
located all along the various City- 
game Trails and will help bring 
history to life with dramatizations, 
narration and sound effects related 
to the events that took place at 
each location. 
Look for this symbol. 

If you're interested in The Boston 
Tea Party and all the historical 



9 




causes that led colonials to com- 
mit such an "outrage," an oppor- 
tunity to relive the entire event lies 
at anchor near the Congress 
Street Bndge on Boston's water- 
front. The Boston Tea Party Ship 
and Museum, including the Brig 
Beaver II — a full-size working 
replica of one of the original Tea 
Party ships, are open daily from 9-5 in winter and 9-8 in summer. 
Admission is $1.50 for adults and 75 cents for children 5 to 14 
years old. For more information, call 338- 1 773. 
Look for this symbol. 

Another Boston 200 service that we believe is revolutionary in its 
own right is the Grey Line Shuttle Bus Tour. One full-day ticket 

allows you to travel to 
any of the Bicentennial 
points of interest 
throughout the city, 
stopping anytime you 
choose. Unlike other 
bus tours, this method 
Is an inexpensive way to see Boston without having to conform 
to the limits of a tour. You can visit what you want for as long as 
you want and simply move on with the next 
shuttle. Look for this symbol. 

Entertainment 
services that will< 
go down in histor}^ 

From Boston 200. Boston 200' 





SECONDARY INFORMATION CENTERS 
(NON-PROFIT INSTITUTIONS) 



State House 

Lobby— Information Desk 
T-Park St. 

J. F. K. Federal Building 
Lobby 

T— Government Center 

Christian Science Center 
Lobby— New Administration 

Building 
T— Prudential 

Massachusetts General 

Hospital 
Lobby— White Building 
Fruit St. 
T-Charles 

Traveler s Aid 
Greyhound Station, 
Park Sq. 
T— Arlington 

Greater Boston Chamber of 

Commerce 
.125 High St. 
Visitors' and Convention 

Bureau 
T-South Station 



Massachusetts Department of 

Commerce and 

Development 
100 Cambridge St. 
State Office Building, 
Room 1309 
T— Bowdoin 

Harvard University 
Information Center 
Holyoke Center 
Harvard Sq. 
T— Harvard 

Park Street Subway 

Information 
Park St. MBTA Station 

Logan Airport, 
International Terminal 
T— Airport 

Boston Public Library 
Copley Sq. 
T-Copley 



ADDITIONAL TRAVELER'S AID 



The International Institute of Boston, 287 Commonwealth 
Ave., Boston (536-1081) is a non-sectarian agency working to 
help the foreign-bom visitor and newly arrived immigrants of 
all nationalities solve special problems of adjustment to Ameri- 
can life. Gives personal guidance and conducts individual 
classes in English. 

The Travelers' Aid Society of Boston, 312 Stuart St., Boston 
(542-7286) provides information, personal counselling and re- 
ferral for travelers. The Society assists inexperienced and 



50 



handicapped persons in making and completing travel plans. 
It offers the facihties of a nation-wide chain of inter-city 
services to assist runaways, children traveling alone, aged or 
handicapped travelers, the mentally ill, migrants, newcomers, 
and travelers encountering unexpected diflficulties. 

The following banks handle currency exchange. They have 
several currencies on hand— British, Canadian, Danish, Dutch, 
French, Italian, Norwegian, Swedish, Swiss, West German— 
and all others can be obtained from New York City on demand 
or advance notice: 



First National Bank of Boston 

100 Federal St. 

Boston 

434-2200 

9am to 4:30pm, Mon-Fri 
Forex, Inc. 

Logan International Airport 
North Terminal Complex 
Boston 
569-2900 

12:30pm to 8:30pm, 
Open seven days 

Logan International Airport 
National Shawmut Bank 
742-4900 

9am to 3:30pm, Mon-Wed 
9am to 5pm, Thurs-Fri 
International Foreign Exchange 
noon to 10pm, Mon-Sat 
2pm to 10pm, Sun 

National Shawmut Bank 

40 Water St. 

Boston 

742-4900 

8:30am to 4pm, Mon-Wed 
8:30am to 5:30pm, Thurs-Fri 



New England Merchant's 

National Bank 
28 State St. 
Boston 
742-4000 

8am to 6pm, Mon-Fri 

State Street Bank 
225 Franklin St 
Boston 
786-3000 

9am to 3:30pm, Mon-Fri 

Barclay's Bank International 

llOTremont St. 

Boston 

423-1775 

9am to 3pm, Mon-Fri 

Harvard Trust Co. 
1414 Mass. Ave. 
Cambridge 
876-1700 

8:30am to 5pm, Mon-Fri 
And all branches 



For babysitters or day care centers, ask at the Boston 200 
Visitor Information Centers. 



51 



Major downtown public toilets are located att 

City Hall Visitor Center 

J.F.K. Building (Government Center) 

State House, facing Boston Common 

Hancock Building 

Prudential Center 

bus stations ( open seven days ) 

department stores 

For too much luggage or leaving behind safely items which 
you do not wish to carry everywhere, storage lockers are lo- 
cated at Logan Airport, Greyhound Terminal, Trailways Termi- 
nal, and the subway stations at Government Center, Park St., 
Washington St., Essex St., Copley Sq., State St., Haymarket 
and Harvard Square. 

FINDING OUT WHAT'S HAPPENING 

For fast, complete information about the day's events call 
"When it all Begins", Boston 200's daily events phone num- 
bers (338-1975 and 338-1976) for special Bicentennial events, 
exhibits, lecture series, concerts, and sports events. Also call 
Artsline (261-1660) for fast information about the day's events. 

Boston's two leading daily newspapers are the Boston Globe 
and the Boston Herald American. The Friday edition of the 
Globe and Sunday edition of the Herald have listings of the 
coming week's events. Daily editions have daily calendars. 
The Christian Science Monitor, a nationally distributed daily, 
besides superior news analysis, contains a helpful entertainment 
section for Boston. For the most complete listing of Bicen- 
tennial events, as well as other entertainment listings, articles 
on Boston history and cartoons, check the Boston 200 news- 
paper. Also helpful for events listings and news about the 
youth scene are The Real Paper and The Phoenix-Boston After 
Dark, both available for a quarter from newsstands or street 
vendors. 

The ticket outlets listed below handle tickets for all theater, 
musical and sporting events, so you do not have to go to the 
box office itself before the event. Most outlets include circus 
and ice shows as well. There is a service charge on top of the 
ticket price if you purchase your tickets through an agency. 



52 



just the facts, 
ma'am... 



Facts for today's woman 
on health, employment, 
education, legal rights, 
family matters and reform. 
Visit the new "Woman's 
Kiosk" information center 
in Boston's City Hall lobby 
and find out about progress 
made and to be made. 



The Stop & Shop Companies 



OOO Stop & Shop Supermarkets 
OOQ Bradlees Department Stores 
C\_a3 Medi Mart Drug Stores 



C. B. Perkins Tobacco Shops 




Sponsored by 




Hub Ticket Agency 
110 Stuart St. 
Boston 
426-8340 

Out of Town Theatre Ticket 

Agency 
Harvard Sq. 
Cambridge 
492-1900 



Tyson Ticket Agency 
226 Tremont St. 
Boston 
426-2662 



Concourse Ticket Agency 
South Station near track no. 1 
Boston 
542-3905 



USEFUL PHONE NUMBERS 

EMERGENCY NUMBERS 

Fire 536-1500 

Police Emergency 911 

Police Non-emergency 338-1212 
Ambulance 

Boston City Hospital 424-4073 

Police Ambulance 338-1212 

Rape Crisis Center 492-RAPE 

Poison Center-Affiliated with four hospitals 232-2120 

Dental Emergency 726-2000 
24-hour Pharmacy— Phillips Drugs 

155 Charles St. (Does not deliver) 523-4372 
Psychiatric— 24 hours 

Mass. General Hospital 726-2994 

Mass. Mental Health 734-1300 
Boston City Hall (24 Hours) 

(Mayor's Office-city problems) 722-4100 



MINOR EMERGENCIES 



Lost and Found Phone Numbers 

Boston City Hall, Information Desk: 722-4100 ext. 253 
MBTA: 722-5716 

Boston Police Department: KE 6-6700 

Complaint Phone Numbers 

Mayor's Office of Public Service ( 24 hour) : 722-4100 

Boston Consumer Council: 722-4100 ext. 236 

Better Biis'ness Bureau, 150 Tremont St.: 482-9151, 482-9190 

( complaints ) 
MBTA: 722-5700 



54 



DAILY DATA 

Time Number: 637-1234 or NER-VOUS 
Weather Number: 936-1234 

Voice of Audubon (unusual birds seen lately): 259-8805 
Satellite information: 491-1497 
MBTA information: 722-5657 or 722-5700 
Daily Events Phone Numbers: Call 338-1975 or 338-1976 
(Boston 200) or 261-1660 (Artsline). 

PROBLEMS AND HOW TO SOLVE THEM 

EMERGENCY RCX)MS AND OUTPATIENT CLINICS 

The following emergency rooms and outpatient clinics will 
serve people from anywhere. Unless otherwise specified, a doc- 
tor, RN, and X-ray are available in the hospitals 24 hours a 
day. Languages spoken at the clinics are specified. In some 
cases fees may be slightly higher by the time of publication. 
The emergency services which the clinics provide will be de- 
signated as follows: G— General, P— Pediatric, E— Eye Care, 
D-Dental, O-Obstetrics, AM-Adult Medicine, MH-Mental 
Health, GY— Gynecological. 

Boston Evening Clinic, 314 Commonwealth Ave., Boston (267- 
7171). Walk-ins welcome; Mon, Wed, and Thurs, 5:30pm to 
7pm. Fee $10, lab and X-ray extra. GY O E AM MH. 

Bridge Over Troubled Waters, One Walnut St., Boston, across 
from Park Street station, near State House (227-7114). Walk- 
ins welcome. Mon-Fri, 10am to 6pm. Free. Medical van Mon- 
Fri 2pm to midnight GY P AM MH 



^TpaS EVANS ••WHUe^rfa7 

Re^a^n^ent OPTICIANS M2^^^> 

& HEARING AIDS 

■i 

• CONTACT LENSES • HEARING AIDS 

. PRESCRIPTIONS FILLED • BATTERIES ACCESSORIES 

LENSES DUPLICATED CREDIT CARDS Af CEPTED 

49 BROMFIELD STREET. BOSTON • 542-3402 
Ri^ht off the Freedom Trail near Old Granary Burial Groun 



55 



ChOdren's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston (734-6000). 
Spanish. Fee $20 not including X-ray, lab, supplies. G P D GY 

Massachusetts General Hospital, Fruit St., Boston (726-2000). 
Most languages. $25 minimum. G P D (oral surgery) O GY MH 

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles St., Boston 
(523-7900, ext. 601). Spanish and French. Other languages on 
call 24 hours. $17.50 minimum. G P 

New England Medical Center Hospital, 171 Harrison Ave., 
Boston (482-2800). Spanish and Chinese. $26 base fee and 
^ sliding scale according to ability to pay. G P D GYN E AM MH 

Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, 721 Huntington Ave., Boston 
(734-8000, ext. 2344, 2345, or 2346 ). Spanish. Fee $28 in 
main emergency room, $23 in general practice unit. G D E 
GY AM MH 

Cambridge Hospital, 1493 Cambridge St., Cambridge (354- 
2020). Most languages. Fee $10 not including lab, supplies. 
X-ray. G P O D E GY MH 

THE HANDICAPPED PERSON 

The Visiting Nurse Association of Boston, 14 Somerset St., 
Boston (742-0900), maintains a staff of professional nurses 
who provide bedside nursing care in the home to individuals 
and families on an hoinrly or part-time basis. The nurses also 
instruct families in proper care of patients between the nurse's 
visits. If you are traveling with an invalid, the Association 
could be invaluable. 

Wheeling Through Boston is a booklet designed to help 
Boston natives and visitors who are physically handicapped. 
The book contains staircase designations, door widths, elevator 
locations, bathroom accessibility and available ramps for Boston 
theaters, nightclubs, historic sites, and churches. The booklet 
also includes a map of Boston geared to the handicapped per- 
son. It is free in limited quantities from the Easter Seal Society, 
14 Somerset St.,- Boston (227-9605). 

For the Cambridge area, similarly, Access to Cambridge: 
A Guide to Architectural Barriers is available free from the 
M.I.T. information center (253-1000 ext 4795). The pamphlet 
contains information pertaining to grading, elevators, doors and 



56 



doorways, entrances, ramps with gradients, and stairs for all 
places of business in the Cambridge area. 

The Massachusetts Association for the Blind, 120 Boylston 
St., Room 446, Boston (542-3106) was organized to serve blind 
and visually handicapped people. It provides volunteer services, 
recreation and emergency financial assistance to the blind. This 
book is available in Braille and on tape cassettes, thanks to the 
National Braille Press, a non-profit service organization for the 
blind. Inquire at any Boston 200 Visitor Information Center. 

DRUG-RELATED PROBLEMS 



For emergency drug situations see the section on emergency 
rooms in the Boston area. Project TumoflF maintains a 24-hour 
hotline specifically for those with drug-related problems. The 
project is run out of Boston City Hospital's accident floor. 
Tumoff provides referrals to drug specialists or may arrange 
hospitalization (261-2600). 

Project Place (Action Programs for Drug Abuse Prevention) 
is probably the best-equipped program for deahng with drug- 




Only one is accepted everywhere. 

There are a lot of good times to be had in Boston 
during the Bicentennial. 

With any Blue Cross and Blue Shield card it's nice to 
know you're prepared for ail times, m BJue cross 

— '^^^ '"^^ B4ueSh»ekJ 



57 



related problems of any sort. Project Place is located at 32 
Rutland St., Boston, Mass. 02118 (267-9150), and maintains 
five programs to provide services which traditional social service 
organizations do not cover. 

CRISIS INTERVENTION PHONE NUMBERS 

Unless otherwise specified, the following numbers provide a 
large range of services including referrals for any medical, 
sexual, legal, or psychiatric problems. The people manning the 
crisis phones are either professional psychologists or volunteers 
backed up by a team of experts. The hotline teams are com- 
petent to deal with specific problems by referral and often 
clinical appointments, but they are also available for taUdng 
about any problem. 

Cambridge Hot Line 876-7528 
Seven days a week, 10am to 2pm. All manner of referrals. 
Not a rap Hne but provides solutions to specific problems. 
Non-professional counseling. 

Cambridge Birth Control Information Service 338-6500 
This number will be answered by an answering service who 
will give you the name of the person on duty for the day to 
provide information about VD, birth control, pregnancy coun- 
seUng, sterilization, and individual help witib birth control 
devices or prescription. 

State Department of Public Health 727-2686 
Referrals, counseling, doctors on hand. For VD and other com- 
municable diseases. Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm. 

Women's Center 354-8807 
46 Pleasant St., Cambridge. Referrals for women. Sexual, preg- 
nancy and emotional counsehng. 

Boston Legal Aid Society, 14 Somerset St., Boston (227-0200). 
The Legal Aid Society makes available legal advice and as- 
sistance in non-criminal matters, including court representa- 
tion, to any resident unable to employ private counsel. The 
organization is partially funded by United Way. Walk-in 
services. 



58 



ACCOMMODATIONS 



Greater Boston's tourist accommodatioiis have been divided 
into three groups according to their relative proximity to down- 
town Boston and the availability of public transportation. 
Downtown accommodations are all located in Boston and are 
within easy walking distance of an MBTA station or streetcar 
stop. Near town encompasses suburbs adjacent to Boston which 
are adequately serviced by the MBTA and are no more than 
20 minutes from downtown by bus or subway. 

Many listings refer to the policy of a hotel or motel toward 
children. Where children under a particular age are accommo- 
dated free it is understood that they must be traveling with 
their parents. 

The following is a list of abbreviations used in the listings: 



s single occupancy 

d double occupancy 

R restaurant 

C coflFee shop 

L cocktail lounge 

S swimming pool 

K kitchenettes 

AC air-conditioning 

TV television 

V valet service 



H health club with sauna 

B baby sitting available 

P pets allowed 

W coin-op laundry 

AE American Express 

BA BankAmericard 

DC Diners Club 

CB Carte Blanche 

MC Mastercharge 



DOWNTOWN 

1200 Beacon St. Hotel, 1200 Beacon St., Brookline (232-7979). 

T-Beacon St. line; free parking. 197 rooms, $18-s, $22-d, chil- 
dren under 12 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. Cards: AE, BA, 
CB, DC, MC. 

Bradford Hotel, 275 Tremont St., Boston (426-1400). T-Boyls- 
ton; free overnight parking. 350 rooms. $16-s, $21-d, children 
free. C, L, AC, TV, V, P. Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA. 

Children's Inn, 342 Longwood Ave., Boston (431-4700). 
T-Longwood on Riverside Line, or bus lines; free parking. 82 
rooms. $24-s, $26-d, children under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, 
V. Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA. 



59 



Colonnade Hotel, 120 Huntington Ave., Boston (261-2800). 
T-Prudential; free parking. 300 rooms, $30-s, $38-d, children 
under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, H, B. Cards: AE, DC, CB, 
BA, MC. Boston 200 Information Center. 

Copley Plaza Hotel, 138 St. James Ave., Boston (267-5300). 
T-Copley; free parking. 450 rooms. $23-s, $37-d, children un- 
der 18 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. French, German, Japanese 
spoken. Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA, MC. Boston 200 Informa- 
tion Center. 

Copley Square Hotel, 47 Huntington Ave., Boston (536-9000). 
T-Huntington Ave. line; free overnight parking. 155 rooms. 
$18-s, $22-d, children under 14 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. 
Greek, Italian spoken. Cards. AE, CB, DC, BA, MC. 

Diplomat Hotel, 26 Chandler St., Boston (482-3450). T- Arling- 
ton or Dover; no parking facilities. 55 rooms. $13-s, $13-d. L. 
No credit cards. 

Eliot Hotel, 270 Commonwealth Ave., Boston (267-1607). 
T- Auditorium; parking garages nearby. 96 rooms. $16-s, $25-d. 
R, L, K, AC. Televisions available. Cards: AE, DC, MC. 

Essex Hotel, 695 Atlantic Ave., Boston (482-9000). T-South 
Station; free overnight parking. 400 rooms. $13-s, $20-d. Chil- 
dren under 14 free. R, L, AC, TV, V. Spanish, French spoken. 
Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA. 

Fenway Boylston Motor Hotel, 1271 Boylston St., Boston 
(267-8300). T-Kenmore; free parking. 94 rooms. $17-s, $25-d, 
children under 14 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, B, P. Spanish, 
Greek spoken. Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA, MC, Phillips 66. 
Boston 200 Information Center. 

Fenway Commonwealth Motor Hotel, 675 Commonwealth 
Ave., Boston (267-3100). T-Kenmore; free parking. 178 rooms. 
$19-s, $26-d, children under 14 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, H, 
B, P. Spanish spoken. Cards: AE, BA, DC, CB, MC, Phillips 
66. Boston 200 Information Center. 

Hilton Inn, Logan International Airport, Boston (569-9300). 
T-Airport, then bus; free parking. 580 rooms. $25-s, $29-d, 
children under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, H, B, P. French, 
Spanish, German, Italian, Greek, Turkish, Arabic spoken. AE, 
BA, CB, DC, MC. Boston 200 Information Center. 



60 



Our nation is having 
a birthday. 
And yoy can celebrate it 
all over New England. 
Thanks to Holiday Inn. 




This year New England is more exciting than 
ever. And you can be part of that excitement. The 
Nation's 200th birthday will be kicked off the day 
Paul Revere took his famous ride. Your travel agent 
can help put your vacation in this historic setting with 
some great fly and drive packages featuring the 
Holiday Inns of New England. 




The most accommodating people in the world.® 



Holiday Inn — Government Center, 5 Blossom St., Boston (742- 
7630). T-Govemment Center; free parking. 298 rooms. $25-s, 
$31-d, children under 12 free. R, C, L, S, AC, TV, V, W, B, 
P. Cards: AE, MC, BA, DC, Gulf. Boston 200 Information 
Center. 

Hotel Avery, 24 Avery St., Boston (482-8000). T-Boylston or 
Essex; free parking. 150 rooms, $18-s, $23-d, children under 
14 free. L, AC, TV, V, P. French, Spanish spoken. Cards: CB, 
DC, AE, BA. 

Howard Johnson's Motor Lodge, Howard Johnson Plaza at exit 
16 of Southeast Expressway, Dorchester (288-3030). T- Andrew 
Station; free parking. 100 rooms. $19-s, $23-d, children under 
12 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA, MC, 
Humble, Standard. 

Howard Johnsons 57 Hotel, 200 Stuart St., Boston (482-1800). 
T-Boylston; free parking. 350 rooms. $29-s, $35-d. Children 
under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, B, P. French spoken. All 
major credit cards. Boston 200 Information Center. 

Lenox Hotel and Motor Inn, 710 Boylston St., Boston (536- 
5300). T-Copley; free overnight parking. 225 rooms. $20-s, 
$26-d, children free. R, L, AC, TV, V, H, B, P. Cards: AE, 
DC, CB. Boston 200 Information Center. 

Madison Motor Inn, 25 Nashua St., Boston (227-2600). T- 
North Station; free parking. 467 rooms. $15-s, $18-d, children 
under 12 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. Spanish, Greek, Italian 
spoken. Cards: AE, DC, MC, BA, CB. 

Midtovm Motor Inn, 220 Huntington Ave., Boston (262-1000). 

T-Symphony or Prudential; free parking. 161 rooms. $20-s, 
$34-d, children under 12 free. R, S, AC, TV, V, H, B, P. 
French, Arabic spoken. Cards: AE, CB, DC, MC, BA. 

Northeast Hall, 204 Bay State Rd., Boston (267-3042). T- 
Commonwealth Ave. line; parking $l/day. 6 rooms, $8 to 
$10-s, $10 to $14-d. TV. 

Parker House, 60 School St., Boston (227-8600). T-Park or 
Government Center; free overnight parking. 483 rooms. 
$26.75-s, $34.75-d, children under 12 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, 
B, P. Spanish, French, German spoken. All major credit cards. 
Boston 200 Information Center. 



62 



^lavorQofAineiica 

salutes 




We 



BOSTON 
200 M 



22 Howard Johnson's Motor Lodges 
9 Red Coach Grills 
7 Ground Round Restaurants 

All located in historic Massachusetts 
For toll-free 

nationwide lodging reservations 
call 800-654-2000 




M 



81 Howard Johnson's Restaurants 




Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 15 Arlington St., Boston (536-5700). 
T- Arlington; parking $5 overnight. 260 rooms. From $40-s, 
$46-d. R, C, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. Several foreign languages 
spoken. No credit cards. 

Sheraton Boston Hotel, Prudential Center, Boston (236-2000). 
T-Copley or Auditorium; free parking. 1434 rooms. $23-s, 
$40-d, children under 17 free. R, C, L, S, H, AC, TV, V, B, P. 
Cards: MC, BA, DC, CB, Sheraton, Pan Am. Boston 200 In- 
formation Center. 

Statler Hilton Hotel, Park Square at Arlington St., Boston 
(426-2000). T- Arlington; parking garages nearby. 1024 rooms. 
$24-s, $34-d, children free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P, W. Many 
foreign languages spoken. Cards; AE, BA, CB, DC, MC, Air 
Canada, Hilton Hotels. 

Terrace Motel, 1650 Commonwealth Ave., Boston (566-6260). 
T-Commonwealth Ave. line; free parking. 75 rooms. $16-s, 
$19-d, children under 12 free. AC, TV, V, K, B. Cards: MC, 
BA, AE, DC, CB. 

Armed Services YMCA, 32 City Square, Charlestown (242- 
2660). T-City Square; free parking. 166 rooms. $6-s, $6-d. 
R, AC, K, TV, S, H, W, B. Spanish spoken. 

Greater Boston YMCA, 316 Huntington Ave., Boston (536- 
7800). T-Huntington Ave. line; free parking. 150 rooms. 
$7.50-s without bath, $ll-s with private bath. R, S, AC, V, 
H, W. Cards: BA, MC. Reserve if possible. 



NEAR TOWN 

Amber Motor Inn, 215 Concord Turnpike (Route 2), Cam- 
bridge (491-1130). T-Harvard Square; free parking. 82 rooms. 
$17-s, $22-d, children under 12 free. R, C, L, AC, TV, V, B. 
Italian spoken. Cards; AE, MC. 

Brookline Motor Hotel, 1223 Beacon St., Brookline (232-7500). 
T-Beacon St. Line; free parking. 60 rooms. $16-s, $19-d, chil- 
dren under 12 free. C, L, AC, TV, K, V, B, P, W. Cards: AE, 
CB, MC, DC, BA. 



64 



After 200 years, 

isn't it time 
you called home? 



Touring through two hundred years of 
our nation's past is far too fascinating to keep 
to yourself. 

Why not call the folks back home tonight 
and share the fun of America's history, while 
you catch up on the local news. 

Incidentally, if you'll need reservations on 
the road back, long distance is the best way to 
make sure you'll have a comfortable reception 
everywhere you go. 

After all, you and America have traveled 
a long way. We'd like to make the rest of the 
journey as pleasant as possible. 



(0; New EnglandTelephone 

V J 



Carlton House, 29 Hancock St., Quincy (328-1500). T-North 
Quincy; free parking. 100 rooms. $18-s, $23-d, children under 
12 free. R, L, AC, TV, V. German, Polish spoken. Cards: AE, 
BA, MC, DC. 

Chalet Susse Motor Lodge, 800 Wm. T. Morrissey Blvd., Dor- 
chester (287-9100). T-Ashmont; free parking. 144 rooms. 
$10-s, $ll-d. R, S, AC, TV, B. Spanish, Italian spoken. Cards: 
BA, MC, AE. 

Charles River Motel, 1800 Soldiers Field Rd., Boston (254- 
0200). T-Watertown-Central Sq. bus line; free parking. 55 
rooms. $16-s, $21-d, discounts to children. C, L, AC, TV, V, 
B, P. Major credit cards accepted. 

Chestnut Hill Motor Hotel, 160 Boylston St., Newton (527- 

9000). T-Riverside line to Chestnut Hill; free parking. 150 
rooms. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, B, P. Spanish spoken. Cards: AE, 
DC, MC. 

Fenway Cambridge Motor Hotel, 777 Memorial Drive, Cam- 
bridge (492-7777). T-Central or Harvard; free parking. 205 
rooms; $22-s, $29-d, children under 14 free. R, C, L, S, AC, 
TV, V, B, P. Spanish spoken. Cards: AE, CB, BA, MC, DC. 
Boston 200 Information Center. 

Holiday Inn of Boston-Newton, 399 Grove St., Newton (969- 
5300). T-Riverside; free parking. 197 rooms. $20-s, $25-d, 
children under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, B, P. Spanish, 
Himgarian, German French, Yiddish spoken. Cards: AE, MC, 
DC, BA, Gulf. 

Holiday Inn of Boston-Somerville, 30 Washington St., Somer- 
ville (628-1000). T-Sullivan Square; free parfing. 189 rooms. 
$24-s, $30-d, children under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, H, W, 
V, B, P. Italian, Spanish spoken. Cards: MC, AE, BA, DC. 

Holiday Inn of Cambridge, 1651 Massachusetts Ave., Cam- 
bridge (491-1000). T-Harvard; free parking. 135 rooms. $22-s, 
$28-d, children under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, B, P. 
Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA, Gulf. 

Homestead Motor Inn, 220 Alewife Brook Parkway (Route 3), 
Cambridge (491-1890). T-Harvard, then Arlmont or Belmont 
bus; free parking. 46 rooms, $18-s, $22-d. Children imder 12 
free. L, S, AC, TV, B, P. Cards: AE, CB, DC, MC. 



66 



Hotel Stanley, 15 Congress St., Chelsea (884-9080). T-Boston- 
Revere bus Hne; no parking facilities. 42 rooms. $12-s, $14-cL 
Children free. R, L, AC, TV, B, P. Italian, Spanish spoken. 
No credit cards. 

Hotel Sonesta, 5 Cambridge Parkway, Cambridge (491-3600). 
T-Lechmere; free parking. 197 rooms. $26-s, $30-d, children 
imder 16 free. R, C, L, S, AC, TV, V, B, P. German, Portu- 
guese spoken. Cards: AE, DC, MC, BA. Boston 200 Informa- 
tion Center. 

Howard Johnson's Motor Lodge, 320 Washington St., Newton 
(969-3010). T-Mass. Pike bus Kne; free parking. 272 rooms. 
$23-s, $32-d, children under 12 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, H, 
B, P. Cards: BA, AE, MC, DC, CB, Exxon, Chevron. 

Kirkland Inn, 67 Kirkland St., Cambridge (547-4600). T- 
Harvard; free parking. 75 rooms, $10-s, $14-d. Apartments 
also available. TV, K. 

Longwood Inn, 123 Longwood Ave., Brooldine (566-8615). 
T-Beacon St. or Riverside line; free parking. 17 rooms. $7.50 
to $10.50-s, $11 to $16-d. Some without private bath. TV in 
living room, W. 

The Market Place, 200 Beacham St, Chelsea (884-8600). 
T-Sullivan Square; free parking. 20 rooms. $13-s, $18-d. Chil- 
dren under 5 free. R, C, L, AC, TV, V. Italian spoken. 



Boston's four best motor hotels 
are all Fenways. 

Fenway Boylston near Fenway Park 
Fenway Cambridge on the river 
Fenway Commonwealth in Kenmore Square 
Fenway North near Logan Airport 
Central reservations: 262-1745. 




67 



President's City Motel, 845 Hancock St., Qtiincy (479-6500). 
T-Wollaston; free parldng. 26 rooms. $18-s, $18-d. Children 
under 6 free. R, C, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. Cards: AE, DC. 

Ramada Inn, 1234 Soldiers Field Road, Boston (254-1234). 
T-Watertown-Central Sq. bus line; free parking. 115 rooms. 
$20-s, $26-d. Children under 18 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, V, 
B, W. Cards: AE, DC, CB, MC, BA, Humble, Chevron, 
Boston 200 Information Center. 

Ramada Inn, 225 McClellan Highway, East Boston (569-5250). 
T-Orient Heights; free parking and airport limousine. 250 
rooms. $26-s, $32-d. Children under 18 free. R, L, S, AC, TV, 
V, H, B, P. Italian spoken. Cards: AE, DC, CB, MC, BA, 
Exxon, Arco. 

Sheraton Conunander, 16 Garden St., Cambridge (547-4800). 
T-Harvard; free parking. 107 rooms. $18-s, $24-d, children 
under 16 free. R, L, AC, TV, V, B, P. Italian, Japanese spoken. 
Cards: AE, DC, CB, BA, MC, Sheraton. 

Town House Motor Inn, 100 N. Beacon St., Watertown (926- 
2200). T- Watertown bus; free parking. 40 rooms. $15-s, 
$21.d. R, L, AC, TV. Cards: AE, MC. 

Treadway Motor House, 110 Mt. Auburn St., Cambridge (864- 
5200). T-Harvard; free parking. 72 rooms. $24-s, $30-d, chil- 
dren free. AC, TV, V, W, B, P. Cards: AE, MC, CB, BA, DC. 
Boston 200 Information Center. ^ 



Woodbridge Inn, 27 College Ave., Somerville (666-1300). 
T-Harvard, then bus; free parking. 40 rooms. $14 to $16-s, $18 
to $20-d. No children. R, L, AC, TV. Cards: AE, BA, DC, 
MC, CB. 

Cambridge YMCA, 820 Mass. Ave., Cambridge (876-3860). 
T-Central; no parking available. 125 rooms. $8-s, $10-d. R, S, 
H. No credit cards. 

Cambridge YWCA, 7 Temple St., Cambridge (491-6050). 
T-Central; street parking. 110 rooms. $6.50-s. R, S, H, W. 
Spanish, French spoken. No credit cards. 



68 



BOSTON 200 INFORMATION CENTERS 
OUTSIDE BOSTON 



Holiday Inn, Rt 2, Fitchburg, Mass. 
Holiday Inn, Rts 1 and 128 South, Dedham, Mass, 
Holiday Inn, Rts 495 and 20, Marlboro, Mass. 
Holiday Inn, Rt 495, Tewksbiuy, Mass. 
Jug End Resort, South Egremont, Mass. 
The Sheraton Tara, 1657 Worcester Rd., Framingham, Mass, 
The Sheraton Tara Hotel, 37 Forbes Rd., Braintree, Mass. 
The Colonial Hilton Inn, Rt 7, Rttsfield, Mass. 
Dedham Inn, 235 Elm St., Dedham, Mass. 
Fenway North Motor Hotel, 407 Squire Rd., Revere, Mass. 
Marriott Motor Hotel, Commonwealth Ave. at Rt 128 and Mass. 
Pike, Newton, Mass. 



Visit The Ritz for luncheon, dinner, 
tea, cocktails, or late supper after the theater 
or the concert. 




Reward yourself 
with another famed Boston 
tradition. 



The Dining Room * The French Room 




The Cafe -The Ritz Bar 





Ritz-Carlton 



I 



Ailington at Newbuiy overlooking the Public Garden 



60 



YOUTH HOTELS 



American Youth Hostels has two hostels in the area open from 
June 1 to September 1. The Brookline hostel is at 45 Strath- 
more Road (232-2451) and can be reached by the MBTA 
Beacon Street line. Rates are, $2 per night with a three-day 
maximum. The Dorchester hostel, 1620 Dorchester Avenue 
(436-0893) also has a three-day maximum and is $1.50 per 
night. MBTA stop is Fields Comer. The Charlestown YMCA, 
32 City Square, Charlestown (242-2660) also functions as a 
youth hostel. Check-in time at all hostels is 4-5pm and check- 
out is at 9:30am. A 10pm curfew is enforced. 

CAMPING 

Wompatuk State Reservation on Route 228 in Hingham is 
located near South Shore beaches and has 450 campsites. 
Hingham is 40 minutes south of Boston. 

Harold Parker State Forest is 50 minutes north of Boston on 
Route 125, North Reading. 125 campsites are available and a 
lake within the park is used for swimming, boating and 
fishing. 

Public campgrounds in Massachusetts are open between the 
last Saturday in June and the Saturday before Labor Day. 
Campsites are allotted on a first come, first serve basis and have 
a two-week maximum. The two parks listed have improved 
sanitary facilities. The daily fee is $3. (For more information, 
see Tours and Daytrips.) 



^^Go North,young man.^^ 



Horace Greeley, a New Hampshire- 
man, should have said it. "North, to 
fort No 4 in Charlestown. to Daniel 
Webster's birthplace in Franklin: to the 
Strawbery Banke restoration of 



colonial Portsmouth. North to history, 
to natural beauty, to a swell time'" 

For historical information, wnte N H 
Vacation Center. Dept. 33. State House 
Annex. Concord N.H 03301 



The way America was, New Hampshire still is 



70 



A welcome to Boston 
from a 191-year-old resident* 



Here's where our bank's history 
started — on Tremont Street (then called 
Long Acre) near Hamilton Place. The 
Governor of Massachusetts was one of our 
directors then and had an account with us. 
You'd probably recognize his signature: 
John Hancock. He put it on our first charter 
back in 1784. 

All of us at The First wish you 
happiness in the midst of Boston's history. 
Have a nice stay. 





THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON 



RELIGIOUS SERVICES 



APOSTOLIC 

Church of the Lord, 640 Tremont St., Boston (262-8866). 
Services: Sun, 11:30am. 

BAPTIST 

Concord Baptist Church, 190 Warren Ave., Boston (267-4225). 
Services: Sun, 10:45am. 

First Baptist Church of Boston, 110 Commonwealth Ave., Bos- 
ton (247-9119). Services: Sun, 11am. 

Tremont Temple, 88 Tremont St., Boston (523-7320). Ser- 
vices: Sun, 11am and 6:45pm. 

CATHOLIC 

Our Lady of Lourdes Chapel, 698 Beacon St., Boston (536- 
2761). Services: Sat, 4pm and 5:10pm. 

St. Anthony Shrine, 100 Arch St., Boston (542-6440). Services: 
Sun, 5:30am, 6:15am, 7am, every half hotir from 7:30am to 
12:45pm, 3:45pm, 4pm, every half hour until 6:30pm. 

St. Francis Prudential Chapel, Prudential Center, Boston (542- 
6448). Services: Sun, 9am, 10am, 11am, noon, 4pm, 5pm, 
6pm. 

St Paul's, 34 Mt. Auburn St., Cambridge (491-8400). Ser- 
vices: Sun, 7:30am, 9:30am, 11am, 12:30pm, 5pm. 

CHMSTIAN SCIENTIST 

The Mother Church, Christian Science Center, 105 Falmouth 
St., Boston (262-2300). Services: Sun, 10:45am. 

CONGREGATIONAL 

Church of the Covenant, 67 Newbury St., Boston (266-7480). 
Services: Sun, 11am. 

Old South Church, 645 Boylston St., Boston (536-1970). 
Services: Sun, 11am. 



72 



Liberty MutiMl 
isproudto 
help celebrate 
''Boston 200'' 
by providing 
the funds for the 
interpretive markers 
onthe 

historic trails 
within the inner city. 



LIBERTY 
MUTUAL 




Liberty Mutual Insurance Company /Liberty Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
^ Liberty Life Assurance Company of Boston/1 75 Berkeley Street, Boston 



Park Street Church, 1 Park St., Boston (523-3383). Services: 
Sun, 10:30am, 7:30pm. 

EASTERN ORTHODOX 

Russian Orthodox Cathedral, 165 Park Drive, Boston (262- 
9490). Services: Sun, 10am. 

St John the Baptist Greek Orthodox Church, 15 Union Park, 
Boston (536-5692). Services: Sun, 9am-llam. 

EPISCOPAL 

Christ Church, Garden St., Cambridge (876-0200). Services: 
Sun, Sam, 10am. 

Old North Church, 193 Salem St., Boston (523-6676). Ser- 
vices: Sun, 9:30am (Holy Eucharist), 11am (Prayer and 
Sermon). 

St. Paul's Cathedral, 136 Tremont St., Boston (542-8674). 
Services: Sim 9:30am (Holy Communion), 11am (Holy Com- 
munion and Sermon). 

Trinity Church, Copley Square, Boston (536-0944). Services: 
Sun, Sam (Holy Communion), 11am (Prayer and Sermon). 

FRIENDS 

Beacon Hill Friends House, 6 Chestnut St., Boston (227-9118). 
Services: Sun, 11am. 

JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES 

Jehovah's Witnesses, Kingdom Hall, 136 St. Botolph St, Boston 
(267-1108). Services: Sun, 10am. 

JEWISH 

Charles River Park Synagogue, 55 Martha Road, Boston (523- 
9857). Services: Fri evening; Sat, 9am. Modem Orthodox. 

Young Israel, 62 Green St., Brookline (734-0276). Services: 
Fri, 7pm; Sat, 7am, 8:30am. Orthodox. 

Congregation Kehillath Israel, 384 Harvard St., Brookline 
(277-9155). Services: Fri, 7:30pm; Sat, 6:30am, 8:45am. 
Conservative. 

74 



One hundred 
years after the 
Cradle of Liberty'' 

was rocked, 

Commercial Union first opened for business 
in the United States in Boston. 
We've come a long way since then. 
Boston, a great metropolis. . . Commercial 
Union, one of the largest international 
insurance groups in the world. 
Commercial Union is pleased to remember 
our 200th birthday by hosting "Boston 200" 
headquarters at our own U.S. headquarters at 
ONE BEACON STREET right in the heart 
of Boston, where it all began. 



Temple B'Nai Moshe, 1845 Commonwealth Ave., Brighton 
(254-3620). Services: Fri, 7pm; Sat, 9am. Conservative, 

Temple Ohabeishalom, 1187 Beacon St., Brookline (277-6610). 
Services: Fri, Gpm; Sat, 10:15am, 6pm. Reform, 

Temple Sinai, Charles St. and Sewall Ave., Brookline (277- 
5888). Services: Fri, 8:15pm; Sat, 10:45am. Reform. 

LUTHERAN 

First Church, 299 Berkeley St, Boston (536-8851). Services: 
Sun, 10am. 

METHODIST 

Church of All Nations, 333 Tremont St., Boston (357-5777). 
Services: Sun, 10am. 

Harvard-Epworth Methodist Church, 1555 Mass. Ave., Cam- 
bridge (354-0837). Services: Sun, 10am. 

Old West Church, 131 Cambridge St., Boston (227-5088). 
Services: Sun, 11am. 

PRESBYTERIAN 

Church of the Covenant, 67 Newbury St., Boston (266-7480). 
Services: Sun, 11am. 

UNITARIAN 

Arlington Street Church, 355 Boykton St., Boston (536-7050). 
Services: Sun, 11am. 

Charles Street Meeting House, 70 Charles St., Boston (523- 
0368). Services: Sim, 11am. 

First and Second Church in Boston, 64 Marlborough St, Boston 
(267-6730). Services: Sun, 11am. 

First Parish, 3 Church St, Cambridge (876-7772). Services: 
Sim, 11am. 

King's Chapel, 58 Tremont St, Boston (523-1749). Services: 
Sun, 11am. 

76 



THE LARGEST WOOLWORTH 
STORE IN THE WORLD . . . 




5 PARKING FLOORS • 4 SALES FLOORS . 
RESTAURANT • DEU . COFFEE SHOP . CAFE- 
TERIA . OPTICAL DEPT . WATCH & SHOE RE- 
PAIR . KEYS . FINE JEWELRY . SPORTING 
GOODS . SOUVENIERS • MUSIC . PETS . 
CAMERAS . COMPLETE LINE OF HOME FUR- 
NISHINGS . MUCH MORE 



WASHINGTON & FRANKUN STREETS 



DOWNTOWN-BOSTON 



SUGGESTIONS FOR A SHORT STAY 



Three-Day Stay: Plan to arrive in the morning, and stop by a 
Boston 200 Visitor Information Center to check on special 
events, the time-saving Shuttle Bus and other hints. You may 
want to begin by riding the Shuttle Bus on its entire circuit 
(1 to 13i hours) to get an overall view of the city without 
having to drive. Then get ofF the bus at Prudential Center to 
see Boston 200's exhibit Where's Boston: Visions of the City, 
the best introduction to 20th-century Boston. Finish with din- 
ner at a restaurant in the surroimding Back Bay area. 

The next day, see Boston's Revolutionary kmdmarks. Start 
with The Revolution: Where It All Began, Boston 200's exhibit 
at Quincy Market. When you have seen the exhibit, you can 
move directly into either the Freedom Trail: Downtown or 
the Freedom Trail: North End (both start here). The Free- 
dom Trail: Downtown contains most of the famous sites as- 
sociated with the Revolution, including Faneuil Hall, Old 
South Meeting House, the Boston Tea Party Ship and Museum 
and Granary Burying Ground. The Freedom Trail: North End 
includes Old North Church, Paul Revere's House and Copp's 
Hill Burying Ground, and also introduces you to a fascinating 
Italian community. After either trail, have an Italian limch in 
the North End. In the afternoon you can easily visit either 
the U.S.S. Constitution ("Old Ironsides") in nearby Charles^ 
town (and walk the Charlestown Discovery Trail from there) 
or go to the New England Aquarium and walk the Waterfront 
Discovery Trail. Then enjoy a seafood dinner at a restainrant 
near the harbor. 

On your third day, explore Boston's 19th-century heritage. 
In the morning, visit Boston 200's Grand Exposition of Progress 
and Invention at Stuart St. Armory, an exhibit on the city's 
development in the 19th century. Then take a break in Ae 
adjacent Public Garden, and perhaps a Swanboat ride. After 
lunch, walk the Beacon Hill or Back Bay Discovery Trail for 
a look at the city's beautiful 19th-century houses. AHematively, 
you may want to visit one of Boston 200's special exhibits- 
Boston Women, Literary Boston, Medicine in Boston and 
others are described in the section "Themes in Boston His- 
tory"— or see one of the city's superb museums. 



78 



THE GRAND EXPOSITION 




RELIVE AMERICA'S REMARKABLE 
19TH CDITURY 

Go bock Into one of the most explosively Inventive 
periods In our hilstory. WItti film, sound, motion, 
and panoramas, relive ttie development of the railroads, 
telephone, sewing machine, the start of modem 
entertainment and much, much more. 

Trace the changes and progress contributed by Boston 
to our country's dynamic growth as a political, social 
and Industrial leader. 

It Is all happening at the Gillette exhibit at the 
1st Corps of Cadets Armory (Stuorf Street Armory), easy 
to get to, and filled with excitement from this 
remarkable period In our history. 

Address-Comer of Stuart and Arlington Sts. 
Admission -$1.50 For Adults, $.75 For Children Under 12 
Hours-10 AM-8 PM Dolly 



ARLINGTON ST. 




Our declaration of independence. 

With his usual flourish, John Hancock signed it on 
June 3, 1792. This document brought our predecessor, 
Union Bank, into existence. 

Since then, our charter has stood as a 
declaration of banking ingenuity. It's also repre* 
sented financial independence for a great ^^^^ 
many people. 




State Street Bank 

do our homewodc. 

Boston, Mass. 02101 

Wholly-owned subsidiary of State Street Boston Financial Corporation. Member FDIC. 



TRANSPORTATION 



Boston is at its best when you walk The downtown area 
is smaller than in most American cities, and is laced with wind- 
ing one-way streets— the descendants of colonial wagon tracks 
—which are a delight for walkers but a headache for drivers. 
The city's finest features— its blend of old and new buildings, 
its beautifully integrated Common and Public Garden, its resi- 
dents themselves— belong to Ae pedestrian rather than to the 
driver. Most Bostonians try to use the MBTA and their feet 
for travel within the city, thereby avoiding both the perennial 
parking dilemma (Boston police do tow) and the haphazard 
driving of their fellow citizens. 

If you do plan to drive into town, think in advance about 
logistics. Equip yourself with a map that includes street direc- 
tions, and check our list of large public parking facilities. (You 
may want to consider a cab— not outrageous in this city— as 
an alternative to taking yoin: own car and having to park.) 
Keep in mind that the best times to drive in Boston are week- 
ends and holidays— Sundays are especially quiet. Rush hours 
(Sam to 10am and 4pm to 6:30pm) are of course worst, espe- 
cially on Friday evenings. But downtown, particularly on 
Washington St., cars move at a snail's pace during the entire 
business day. 

Traveling between the airport and the center of Boston can 
take anywhere from 15 to 40 minutes by cab, depending on 
the time of day. The average fare is about $3.00. The Callahan 
and Sumner Tunnels, which connect the North End to East 
Boston and the airport, cause bottlenecks at rush hours and on 
Friday and Sunday nights. At these times the fastest route to 
Logan is always the subway. 

If you're coming to and from Boston by train or bus, remem- 
ber that weekends, holidays and school vacations can be ex- 
tremely busy. If you're not fettered by a schedule, take 
advantage of your freedom to travel in the middle of the week. 



81 



RIDING THE MBTA 



In Boston some streetcars run in the subways and some sub- 
way trains run on elevated tracks over the streets. Don't let this 
bother you. To master the public transportation system, famil- 
iarize yourself with the foujf major MBTA lines (called the 
Blue, Orange, Green and Red lines) and remember that they 
all radiate from downtown Boston, so that each line passes 
through at least one of the downtown Boston stations— Park 
Street, Washington, State or Government Center. (Refer to 
the MBTA map at the front of the book.) MBTA stations are 
indicated by signs with a large circled letter T. 

Most of the MBTA stations are named for the landmarks 
they are near (such as Aquarium or Symphony) or for the 
streets on which they are located (such as Essex or Wash- 
ington). For the downtown shopping district, you can get oflE 
at Park Street or Washington; for the downtovm theater dis- 
trict, Boylston station; and for the Back Bay shopping district, 
Arlington, Copley or Auditoriimi. 

If you can't get to a place by subway you can almost cer- 
tainly get there by bus (sometimes both). Rck up a map of 
surface bus lines at the information booth in Park Street sta- 
tion, the information kiosk on the Boston Common, or just 
about any hotel. Two lines which may be helpful to you are 
the Harvard /Dudley bus, which runs from Harvard Square 
down Massachusetts Ave. (past M.I.T.) to Washington St. 
and Dudley station in Roxbury, and the Harvard/Lechmere 
bus, which runs from Harvard Square along Cambridge St. to 
Lechmere station near the Museum of Science. 

The MBTA runs from about 5:20am to lam. If at all pos- 
sible avoid the rush hour and ride the MBTA between 9:30am 
and 4pm and after 6:30pm. Not only will you keep your ribs 
intact but you may even save some money. From 10am to 
2pm weekdays and all day Sunday, otherwise known as Dime 
Time, it costs only 10^ to ride the subways; normally fares are 
25(p for the subway and 20^ for surface Knes. Have EXACT 
CHANGE for surface lines. If you get on or oflF a surface line 
one stop outside the subway, you don't pay an additional 20^ 
surface fare. Call the MBTA at 722-5700 for more information 
and directions. 



82 



lake 
Paul Revere's 
Ride 

k Get or> the® 5 a^g^f 
\^^2.,kPtSThm- Follow 



.or 



^ House 3fi9n/orrh 



■^f^ere^^'' you're. 
^"^ 'fom 3''°'"^'^ Boston, 

7 YtTtfonsCe^CepfOmcYujhere its 
hs/ff3i-eX pick up s freefn^P.jT 
our Porh Street Sf3fJon.-sjte 
of the fif-st sc/biosy fa Amer/ca ! 

0'the ansu/sr , 

For direct ibm or in-por/^^at/Qi^ O// -SiSl 



DRIVING 



Driving in Boston can be as difficult for the resident as for 
the visitor. Therefore disregard any feelings of inadequacy and 
make every effort to be alert and imaginative when behind the 
wheel. Due to the age of the city and the lack of planning in 
its early development, many areas have no rational scheme of 
thoroughfares, one-way streets aboimd, and rush hour traffic 
is fierce. 

If at all possible take the MBTA and avoid driving into 
downtown Boston. You'll get lost, you'll have trouble finding 
a place to park, you'll get stuck in traffic jams, and the people 
who were smart enough to take the MBTA will walk along 
the streets and laugh at you. However, if you must drive, make 
as much use as possible of the expressways that nm along the 
periphery of downtown Boston. Storrow Dr., which foDows 
the Charles River along the Back Bay and Beacon Hill, has 
exits at Clarendon, Arlington, and Charles Sts. On the Harbor 
side, the elevated Fitzgerald Expressway (Central Artery) has 
Haymarket Square, Dock Square (Callahan Timnel), Congress 
St., South Station, and Mass Pike exits. Storrow Dr. and the 
Expressway are linked in the vicinity of North Station. Use 
these routes instead of attempting to drive crosstown. 

Leaving the city poses less of a problem, since major routes 
are relatively accessible. Going west, the Mass. Pike (1-90), 
a toll road, begins at the Fitzgerald Expressway and can be 
entered at Arlington St., Copley Square, Newbury St. and 
Mass. Ave. Storrow Dr. leads to Rt 2, which goes to Lexington, 
Concord, and western Massachusetts. The Southeast Express- 
way (Rt 3) is an extension of the Fitzgerald Expressway and 
is die major road going south. To the north, Rts 1-93 and 1-95 
are reached by the Mystic River (Tobin) Bridge. 



PARKING 

If you're headed downtown with your car, expect to find 
parking facilities scarce and expect to pay for them. Here are 
some conveniently located public parking facilities. 



84 



We are working to 
change this picture. 

SCA Services Inc is a nationwide waste 
service company specializing in environ- 
mentally sound industrial and municipal 

systems for solid and liquid waste 
collection, processing, disposal, and 
resource recovery. 



SCA Services, Inc., 99 High Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02 110 



DOWNTOWN 



Govemment Center Garage (Eastern Parking Co.), 50 New 
Sudbury St., 1,865 cars, $2 daily. $1 all night. 

Tufts N.E. Medical Center, 274 Tremont St, 937 cars. $2.50 
for 24 hrs. Near Chinatown. 

Woolworth Garage, 350 Washington St., 900 cars. $3.75 daily. 
(See Shopping section.) 



BACK BAY 

Boston Common Parking Garage, Charles St. and Boston Com- 
mon, 1,500 cars, $2 daily. 

Prudential Center, 800 Boylston St., 948 cars; 81-115 Hunt- 
ington Ave., 225 cars; Boylston, Exeter & Huntington, 894 
cars; $3.00 daily. 

Hancock Building Garage, 100 Clarendon St., 1800 cars, $2.50 
daily. 



GETTING TOWED AND BREAKING DOWN 

If you have been towed, call the Boston Police at 911 for 
the garage where your car has been stored. You'll have to go 
to the garage, pick up your car and pay a fine— $12 to $17 
for the tow and $3 per day for storage. 

AAA, 1280 Boylston St., Chestnut Hill (738-6900). Route 
maps and emergency services. Branch office at 6 St James 
Ave., Park Sq. 

ALA, 888 Worcester St., Wellesley (237-5200). Route maps 
and emergency services. 



86 



TAXIS, RENT-A-CAR, BOSTON 200 SHUTTLES 



Some major taxi stands in Boston are located at: Logan 
International Airport; Bowdoin MBTA station at Bowdoin and 
Cambridge Sts.; the State Street Bank on Franklin St.; the 
Parker House on School St; Park Square; Copley Plaza Hotel 
in Copley Square; and Kenmore Square. Rates are about 50^ 
initial fare and 10^ for each one-fifth mile or one waiting 
minute thereafter. If you're sharing a cab with another party, 
the taxi driver is required by law to restart the meter at each 
stop. Call the Hackney Division of the Boston Police with 
complaints about service or overcharging. 

Checker Cab (536-7000), Town Taxi (536-5000), YeUow 
Cab (522-3000) and Boston Cab (536-5010) all service the 
Boston area. Look in the Yellow Pages for other companies. 

To rent a car you can call Hertz (482-9100), Avis (262- 
3300) or National (426-6830), which all have offices in Logan 
Airport and Park Square, Refer to the Yellow Pages for other 
listings. 

Boston 200 is setting up additional transportation services 
for the Bicentennial. Ask at the Boston 200 Visitor Information 
Centers for routes and schedules of water taxis and shuttle 
buses. 

For listings of bicycle rentals, refer to Outdoor Activities, 
p. 26L 




Banking with 
Boston for 150 
years. See our 
collection of 
antique 
coin banks. 



Incorporated 1825. Ten School Street, Boston 




The 

i Boston 
Five 



87 



TOURS AND DAYTRIPS 

If you've had enough of walking around Boston, relax and 
do some sightseeing from a boat. Three companies which give 
cruise tours of Boston harbor and its islands are: Boston Harbor 
Cruises, Long Wharf (227-4320); Baystate-Spray and Prov- 
incetown Steamship Co., Long Wharf (723-7800); and Massa- 
chusetts Bay Line, Rowe's Wharf (542-8000). All are located 
near the New England Aquarium and give harbor tours sev- 
eral times a day. Baystate-Spray also runs a boat to Province- 
town and Mass. Bay Line a ferry to Nantasket Beach. 

Another short excursion from Boston is a visit to Quiney by 
MBTA Red line to Quincy Center (and from there another 
bus). See the saltbox cottages where Presidents John Adams 
and John Quincy Adams were bom; the Adams National His- 
toric Site, including the "Old House," which served as the 
Adams* family home for four generations; the Quincy Home- 
stead, once the home of Dorothy Quincy (wife of John Han- 
cock); the Colonel Josiah Quincy Homestead, the home of 
a prominent merchant and patriot which has been restored by 
the Society for the Preservation of N.E. Antiquities; and the 
United First Parish Church, where the two Presidents Adams 
are buried. For more information on sights in the area, con- 
tact the Chamber of Commerce, 36 Miller Stile (479-1111). 

Those with more time or ambition may want to take a 
daytrip from Boston. This book describes five of the most 
popular places to see outside Boston, but you may also con- 
sider going to the colonial ironworks in Saugus, the salty fish- 
ing port of Gloucester, the historic shipbuilding town of 
Newburyport and the adjacent wildlife refuge on Plum Island, 
the wealthy resort town of Newport, and the 19th-century 
whaling port of New Bedford. For more information on other 
places worth a visit, pick up a copy of The Commemoraiive 
Guide to the Massachusetts Bicentennial (Official Publication 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts) at State Information 
Centers and Turnpike rest stops. The Guide is also available 
through local Bicentennial Commissions. By mail write to: 
Massachusetts Bicentennial Guide Book, P.O. Box 5134, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 02107 (send check or money order for $2.95). 
You can also pick up a booklet of historic houses belonging 
to the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities 
at the Harrison Gray Otis house, 141 Cambridge St. (227- 



88 



3956) and a brochure listing wildlife sanctuaries and na- 
ture centers at the Massachusetts Audubon Society, Great 
South Rd. in Lincohi (259-9500). Farther afield, you may 
want to visit the Berkshires in western Massachusetts for 
hiking, swimming, fishing and (in the summer) symphony 
concerts at Tanglewood. Check with the Berkshire Hills Con- 
ference, 107 South St., Pittsfield (413-443-9186) or write to 
the Mohawk Trail Association, Charlemont, Mass. 

Most of these places are serviced by the bus lines of Grey- 
hound, Continental Trailways, Peter Pan or Almeida, and by 
the Boston & Maine Railroad. 

For those of you who want to take an organized bus tour, 
Hub Bus Lines offers tours of Boston, Cambridge, Lexington, 
Concord and Roxbury. Copley Motor Tours and The Gray 
Line both have tours of Boston, Cambridge, Lexington and 
Concord, Salem and Marblehead, the North Shore and Cape 
Ann, Quincy and Plymouth, and the South Shore and Cape 
Cod. The Gray Line also offers trips to Martha's Vineyard and 
a "coastline tour" to Maine. You can catch Hub Bus Lines 



THE COMMEMORATIVE GUIDE TO 
THE MASSACHUSETTS BICENTENNIAL 

The Official Publication of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

This beautiful book not only captures 
the dramatic moments of our country's 
beginnings, it is a guide to Massachusetts 
Bicentennial events and activities during 
1975. The guide includes descriptions of 
the Commonwealth's state-wide plans 
and programs for the Bicentennial 
celebration, plus those of the State's 
cities and towns. There are maps, 
transportation information, and 
listings of things to see and do 
throughout the Commonwealth. 

Softbound, 160 pages. 814 x II, four-color illustrations, maps, 
photographs, engravings, paintings and drawings. ONLY $2.95. 
Available on newsstands and in bookstores, or send check or 
money order to: Massachusetts Bicentennial Guide, P.O. Box 5134, 
Boston, Massachusetts, 02107 




89 



at the Boston Public Library in Copley Square; Copley Motor 
Tours at the Copley Plaza Hotel; and The Gray Line at the 
Copley Plaza Hotel, the Sheraton-Boston and the Statler- 
Hilton. Call them for schedules and prices (The Gray Line, 
427-8650; Hub Bus Lines, 445-3770; Copley Motor Tours, 
266-3500). 

Be sure to do some advance planning on your daytrip, espe- 
cially during tomist season. If you want to camp out, keep in 
mind that it's difficult to camp within quick driving distance 
of most places. You can write to Mass. Dept of Commerce & 
Development, Div. of Tourism, 100 Cambridge St., Boston 
02202 for a brochure on camping. Boston 200 Visitor Informa- 
tion Centers can also help you with camping as well as give 
you information about places and the best ways to reach them. 
Ask about special transportation services set up for the Bi- 
centennial—it may be possible to park your car outside a town 
and then ride in on a shuttle bus. 

LEXINGTON AND CONCORD 

Make a visit to Lexington, Paul Revere's destination on his 
famous ride, and then (unlike Revere, who was stopped by 
the British) continue to Concord, to the site of the first battle 
of the Revolution. You can finish up yoiur day with a visit to 
Longfellow's Wayside Inn in nearby Sudbury. 

Your first stop in Lexington should be the information cen- 
ter at Massachusetts Ave. and Meriam St, across from the 
Minute Man statue. (Ask for a combination ticket to some of 
the historic houses while you're here.) Then, armed with pam- 
phlets, brochures and maps, make your way to Lexington 
Green, where the first group of Minute Men tried to stop the 
British march on Concord. ("Stand your ground, don't fire 
unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war let it begin 
here," ordered Minute Man Capt. Parker.) You may also want 
to visit Buckman Tavern, the rendezvous pcant for the Minute 
Men on the morning of the battle; the Hancock-Clarke House, 
the place where Samuel Adams and John Hancock were hiding 
out on that famous day and year; and the Munroe Tavern, 
the headquarters for Earl Percy when he came with relief 
troops for the British retreating from Concord. 

From Lexington head for Concord on Rt 2A. At the 750- 
acre Minute Man National Historic Park in Concord you can 



90 



visit the site of the first battle of the Revolution and relive 
in yoiu: imagination "How the British Regulars fired and fled/ 
How the farmers gave them ball for ball/From behind each 
fence and farm-yard wall." In the park are the Old North 
Bridge, where the Minute Men made their stand; the graves 
of some British soldiers ("they came 3000 miles and died/To 
keep the past upon its throne"); and Wayside Inn (not to be 
confused with Longfellow's), the home of the Concord Muster 
Master on the day of the battle. For information on other his- 
toric Revolutionary sites in the area, stop at the town informa- 
tion booth at Hayward St. and Rt 2A. You should also visit the 
part of the park which commemorates some of Concord's fa- 
mous 19th-century authors: Orchard House, Bronson Alcott's 
School of Philosophy and the place where Louisa May Alcott 
wrote Little Women; Emerson House, the home of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson from 1835 to 1882; Antiquarian House, a 
musemn with period furniture, a "Thoreau" room, and an herb 
garden; and the Thwreau Lyceum, a museum of Thoreau 
memorabilia. Nearby is the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, where 
you can climb the "Authors' Ridge" to see the graves of the 
Alcotts, Emerson, Thoreau and Hawthorne. 

Rest up from yoiu: touring at Walden Fond, now a state 
beach a mile and a half south of Concord on Walden St. (Rt 
126), with picnic areas and a footpath to Thoreau's cabin; 
or visit the Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, 950 
acres of ponds and freshwater marshes on the Concord River 
northeast of the North Bridge information station. The en- 
trance to the Refuge is. located on Monsen Rd. oflE Rt 62. 

SALEM 

Salem, founded in 1626, is famous for its witch trials of the 
1690s, and more happily, for its prominence as a Yankee clip- 
per ship port of the 1850s. Today you can visit Salem and 
follow a weU-marked trail that includes most of the historic 
sites in the city. The trail is long, so expect to spend the entire 
day in Salem. Start at the information booth at 18 Washington 
Sq. (open 8:30am to 4pm daily; 744-0004) and pick up 
pamphlets and maps. If you're interested in the Salem witch 
trials, you can visit the Witch Museum aoross the street, a 
multimedia presentation of the 17th-century witch hysteria. 
Otherwise head for the Essex Institute at 132 Essex St., a 



92 



The can that 
iqiened America. 




It first appeared in the late ISSCs 
in Boston. In a small waterfront 
building, William Underwood, a 
pioneer in the preservation of 
food, started packing his prod- 
ucts in tin cans instead of glass. 
An innovation that opened up a 
.whole new menu for a country 
raised basically on fresh meats 
and vegetables. Suddenly Amer- 
ica could buy food now, and eat 
it later. Fresh food packed safely 
in tins. Ever>-thing from a unique 
spiced deviled ham to fish, 
turkey, fruits and vegetables. 

The word spread quickly. 
When young men went West 
they usually laid in a good supply 
of Underwood provisions. Few 
dipper ships left port without 
cases of Underwood cans stocked 
below. In both world wars 
Underwood products were 
served in both C and K-rations. 

Today Underwood markets a 
whole line of canned foods. It's 
not only the nation's oldest can- 
ner, but one of the most versatile. 
Ever>' thing from canned meat 
spreads and beans to sardines 
and Ac'cent....all high quality 
produrts. 

This is the William Underwood 
Company in the 1970's. Yankee 
ingenuity with a quality heritage 
that spans over a century and 
encircles the globe. An ingenuity 
in products— traditional and new 
— that are found in homes all 
across America. Where each 
year more and more Americans 
are opening the can that opened 
America 

UNDIRJ^WOOD 



historical museum with coUections of books, manuscripts, dolls, 
toys, costumes and imiforms. 

Slightly farther down the street, at 161 Essex, is the Feabody 
Museum (open weekdays 9am to 5pm, Sunday 1pm to 5pm), 
the oldest continuing operating museiun in the coimtry— it was 
founded in 1799~and the only one begun by a Marine Society. 
The musemn contains ship models, marine paintings, nautical 
instruments, shipbuilder's tools, figureheads, porcelain from 
the China Trade, art and artifacts from the South Pacific, and 
the full-size cabin of the yacht Cleopatra's Barge. If you like, 
you can learn more about Salem's marine history by touring 
the old wharves, now known as the Salem Maritime National 
Historic Site. You can visit three historic houses here: Derby 
House, a restored Georgian house built for a prosperous mer- 
chant family in the Far East trade; the Customs House, where 
Nathaniel Hawthorne worked as a hard-hearted customs in- 
spector and scribbled the manuscript of The Scarlet Letter in 
his spare time; and the House of Seven Gables, where the tour 
takes you through Hepzibah's Penny Shop, up the secret stair- 
case to CliflFord's room and then downstairs to the parlor 
where the old Judge was found dead. 

Before leaving the city take a walk down Chestnut St, lined 
with the stately homes of Salem's old merchant aristocracy. 
In this area you can visit tihe Witch House, the site of the 
preliminary hearings of the witch trials, as well as the Ropes 
Mansion, the Peirce-Nichols House and the Assembly House. 
Then head to the other side of town to Pioneer Village, a 
reconstruction of the early Salem settlement with bark-covered 
wigwams, pine cottages with thatch roofs, herb gardens, a 
forge, a brick Idln, and a pit for sawing logs. The Village is 
located by the ocean and is open Jime to Labor Day, 9:30am 
to 6:30pm daily, and Labor Day flirough November, 10am 
to 5pm daily. 

PLYMOUTH 

If you've heard of Pilgrims, you've heard of Plymouth. Most 
visitors come here to see Plimoth Plantation, the early Pilgrim 
village rebuilt according to old records, eyewitness accounts, 
the writings of Pilgrims William Bradford and Edward Wins- 
low, and a little modem archaeological digging. You're free 
to wander around the Plantation and watch members of the 



94 



community demonstrate various farm tasks Hke thatching a 
roof or making a barrel. The Plantation staff has been hired 
to live here as the Pilgrims did: they inhabit the houses, 
grow their own vegetables and cook their meals in big pots 
over the fireplaces. Near the village is the reconstruction of 
an early 17th-century Indian settlement— researched, directed 
and staffed by Native Americans— where you can watch the 
making of clay pottery, the harvesting of reeds from a dug-out 
canoe, and the preservation of fish by smoking. To visit the 
third part of the Plantation, the Mayflower II, you'll have to 
leave the village and the Indian camp and take a three-mile 
trip towards the center of town. The Mayflower II is a full- 
size facsimile of the original ship and it made its own Atlantic 
crossing in 1957 (the trip took 53 days). You can go on board. 

Before you leave Plymouth be sure to see Plymouth Rock, 
according to legend the place where the Pilgrims first set foot 
on the New World. (Legend happily ignores that their ship 
stopped at Provincetown before coming to Plymouth.) Across 
the street from the Rock are Brewster Gardens, a park on the 



^ METROBANKING 

Bank at home with METROBANK in 3 suburban v 
I : locations or bank at work with 

I ; 6 UNITED STATES TRUST CO. offices in town. 

Either way. Metrobanking gives you the choice. 
Services are available separately or 
as a package, so you can bank 
the way you want to. 

METROBANK / UNITED STATES TRUST CO. 
Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation J 





95 



site of the colony's first gardens, and Cole's Hill Burying 
Ground, the mass grave for the Pilgrims who died during the 
first winter. If you have time to spend in the town, try to see 
Pilgrim Hall (tihe Pilgrim musemn), 75 Court St. (open 10am 
to 4:d0pm daily), which displays relics of the colony such as 
Governor Bradford's Bible arfd the cradle of Peregrine White, 
the baby bom on the Mayflower. 

OLD STURBRIDGE VnXAGE 

About 56 miles west of Boston is Old Sturbridge Village, 
a re-creation of a typical New England village of the early 
1800s. Old Sturbridge Village and its outlying farm cover 
about 200 acres and include forty buildings— homes, shops, 
a meeting house, and a schoolhouse among them— all restored 
and furnished to the style of that period. You can watch 
demonstrations of tinsmithing, broommaking, potting, and can- 
dlemaking by appropriately costumed artisans, and taste fresh 
gingerbread at the farmhouse. At special times of the year you 
can also see maple-sugaring and sheep-shearing (call or write 
ahead to Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Mass. 01566, 
347-3362). 

The Village is open all year except Christmas and New 
Year's; admission costs $4 for adults and $1.25 for children. 
To get there you can go by car on the Mass. Turnpike to 
Exit 9, or you can take Peter Pan Bus Lines from the Trail- 
ways station in Park Square. A bus leaves Boston daily at 
10:30am, stops at the gate of the Village, and returns to 
Boston from Sturbridge around 7pm. Round-trip bus fare costs 
about $11 for adults and about $5 for children, with the cost 
of admission to the Village included in the fare. 



96 



A Restful 
Step Backward 
to Sturbridge 

Historic Sturbridge is a small town where 
modern visitors relax in the New England 
countryside, eat memorable meals in authen- 
tic settings, sleep well in excellent accommo- 
dations, and visit the many and varied lovely 
shops in the area. Daily life in rural New 
England during the half-century following the 
American Revolution is portrayed at Old Stur- 
bridge Village. A visit to Sturbridge is a restful 
step backward, and only 50 minutes by auto 
from Boston. 

For information write the Greater Sturbridge 
Area Tourist Association, Sturbridge, Massa- 
chusetts 01566, or the Central Massachusetts 
Tourist Council, 100 Front Street, Mechanics 
Tower, Worcester, Massachusetts 01608. 

The PubUck House The Liberty Cap Motel 

The Carriage House Sturbridge Yankee Worlishop 



CITYGAME— THE CITY IS THE EXHIBIT 

Because of its prominent position in American history, Boston 
plays a special role in the Bicentennial of the United States. 
Not only was it a well-established community before the Ameri- 
can Revolution, but it also became directly involved in the 
events which led to the establishment of our country. More- 
over, the roots of American government, cultural Kfe, industry 
and technology may be found in Boston. Each of the periods 
of political, economic, social, and intellectual change in Ameri- 
can history has, in some way, left its mark on the Boston land- 
scape. Thus Boston is an turban environment that encompasses 
a rich variety of individuals, resources, and institutions which 
have grown to form the fabric of the city. 

The focus for Boston's Bicentennial is the city itself. Through 
Citygame, Boston's cultural and educational institutions, its 
fascinating ethnic neighborhoods, its historic areas, and its 
citizens themselves become the basis for celebration. 

The three major exhibitions reveal the world of Boston in 
the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The Revolution: Where It 
All Began, located on the Freedom Trail, is an extensive series 
of displays which invites the visitor to confront the choices 
available to Patriots and Tories. The Grand Exposition of 
Progress and Invention at the Stuart Street Armory depicts the 
sensational technological innovations which changed the face 
of Boston in the late 19th century. And a multi-screened sHde 
presentation called Where's Boston: Visions of the City, lo- 
cated at the Prudential Center, celebrates Boston today: its 
people at work and at play, its architecture, and its uniqueness 
as a city in which the old and new exist side by side. 

New walking trails highlight Boston's heritage and present- 
day activity. These trails challenge the Citygame participants 
to see Boston in new and imaginative ways and to recreate its 
past even as they experience the present-day city. Color-coded 
markers guide visitors along each trail, and maps can be found 
at all information centers and in MBTA stations. 



99 



THE REVOLUTION: WHERE IT ALL BEGAN 



The year is 1773, and the issue is the right of the lawful 
government to tax. Three ships bearing taxable tea wait in 
Boston Harbor to unload. The Crown and its Governor claim 
the Tea Act of 1773 is fair and just. Many Bostcmians de- 
nounce the Act as tyrannical. Both sides say that basic princi- 
ples are at stake. There are public meetings, rallies. Tensions 
mount Then, on the night of December 16, a niunber of men 
secretly board the ships and toss the tea chests overboard: the 
Boston Tea Party. Were they right to destroy the tea? Should 
they have obeyed the law and accepted the tax? 

As John Adams observed, the Revolution consisted not of 
battles, but of the changes in the hearts and minds of people in 
the years leading up to 1776. This exhibit, appropriately situ- 
ated near Faneuil Hall on the Freedom Trail, will recreate the 
process as it developed through the Non-Importation Boycotts, 
the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the "Intolerable 
Acts," and finally the battles of Lexington and Concord. Like 
Bostonians of 200 years ago, you will witness both sides of 
controversial events, and like them, you will have to form your 
own conclusions. 

The Revolution: Where It All Began makes everyone a 
participant in American history. The exhibit, located in Quincy 
Market behind Faneuil Hall, is open daily. Call 338-1975 for 
information. 



101 



The Grand 
Exposition of 
Progress and 

Invention: 

s V : 19th Century 

. Boston 

f 




THE GRAND EXPOSITION OF PROGRESS AND 
INVENTION: NINETEENTH-CENTURY BOSTON 

What do the safety-razor, the telephone, and the sewing 
machine have in common? They were all technological innova- 
tions that contributed to the great economic growth and social 
ferment that marked the last third of the 19th century in Bos- 
ton. Boston 200's 19th-century exhibit dramatizes a time period 
in Boston s history that was uniquely exciting and productive, 
a period from which Boston emerged as a mature industrial 
metropolis. 

As a visitor to the exhibit, which is located at the First 
Corps of Cadets Armory at Arlington St. and Cokmibus Ave. 
and is sponsored by Gillette, you will encounter a variety of 
19th-century themes. You will be able to trace the change from 
a home-oriented, handcraft technology to a factory-oriented, 
machine-made technology, and you'll have the chance to try 
out 19th-century gadgets and inventions that were utilized in 
both public and domestic Bfe. A section on transportation 
will use film clips to convey the sounds and motions of early 
motorized vehicles. Urban planning and topogr£^hical growth 
will be described by large-scale panoramic views detailing land 
reclamation and the introduction of Olmsted's Emerald Neck- 
lace park system. Most important, you will meet the people 
who actually shaped the 19th-century city: Boston's politicians, 
inventors, industrialists, labor leaders, architects, urban plan- 
ners, reformers, educators, writers, artists, inmiigrant factory 
workers and merchants. 

Come see The Grand Exposition of Progress and InventioiL 
More than a history lesson, it is a basis for understanding the 
physical and personal makeup of the city today. The exhibit 
is open daily, 10am to 8pm. Admission is $1.50 for adults, 75^ 
for children. 



103 



WHERE'S BOSTON: VISIONS OF THE CITY 



Did you know that Haymarket, Boston's open air fruit and 
vegetable market, has been operating for 200 years at Dock 
Square? Have you noticed the 200,000 students who attend 
over 100 colleges and universities in the Boston area, providing 
a continuing flow of new ideas and vitality to one of America's 
oldest cities? Did you know that today Beacon Hill is a 
neighborhood where young Bostonians continue the tradition 
of city living established by Harrison Gray Otis, Daniel Web- 
ster, Louisa May Alcott, and many others in the 19th century? 
Have you taken a ride on the Swan Boats which have delighted 
children and adults alike since 1877? 

A visit to the Where's Boston exhibit sponsored by the Pru- 
dential Life Insurance Co. will introduce you to the people, 
architecture, neighborhoods, parks and parades that make Bos- 
ton in the 20th century an exciting and vital city in which the 
old and new go hand in hand. 

As you enter the red, white and blue Prudential Pavilion on 
the Huntington Ave. side of the Prudential Center, huge photo- 
murals will introduce you to the faces of Boston. Once inside 
you will become a part of the city, a player in the City game. 
Clues to the character which is uniquely Boston will surround 
you as you wend your way through the maze of activities and 
neighborhood exhibits. 

In the Pavilion theater 2560 images of Boston will be pro- 
jected on an eight-faceted screen. Quadraphonic speakers will 
supplement the visual display with sounds of the city and the 
voices of Bostonians sharing their feelings about living in one 
of America's most livable cities. Through Where's Boston you 
will glimpse several Boston communities today and will look 
back at the city's past to see what strands of continuity link 
it to the founding fathers. You will see how the city is meeting 
current challenges and will finally become a part of an exuber- 
ant celebration of city life. 

Use the Prudential Pavilion to organize your visit to Boston; 
select aspects of the city that intrigue you, then walk the 
streets and explore. 

The exhibit is open daily, 10am to 10pm. Admission is 
charged. 



105 



THEMES IN BOSTON HISTORY 



BOSTON'S UNIVERSITIES 

In 1636, to guarantee an everlasting supply of educated 
ministers of God, the General Court of Massachusetts voted 
400 pounds to found a "schoale or colledg" in Cambridge. 
Two years later, a yoimg minister bequeathed his library of 
320 books to the school, which was afterward named Harvard 
in his honor. For over fifty years, no other college existed in 
North America. 

Today 179,000 students live and study within fifteen miles 
of the center of Boston. Boston University, Boston College, 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Wellesley College, 
Tufts University, Northeastern University and many other 
schools have joined Harvard here, and together their faculties, 
libraries, laboratories and museiuns make Boston one of the 
most vibrant intellectual centers in the world. Meanwhile the 
students themselves, besides contributing life and color by their 
very presence, have nourished a growth of bookstores, cafes, 
boutiques and night spots that will intrigue visitors of all ages. 

The following information centers can acquaint you with 
coming events on their campuses, and ofFer regularly sched- 
uled tours. 

Boston University Bicentennial Informaticm Center, George 
Sherman Union Center, Commonwealth Avenue, Boston (353- 
2921). For toiurs, call the Presidents Hosts at 353-2934. 

Harvard University Information Center, Holyoke Center, 1353 
Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge (495-1000). Siunmer tours 
weekdays at 10, 11:15, 2 and 3:15. Call for academic year 
schedule. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Information Center, 
Room 7-111, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge (253-4795). 
Tours weekdays at 10 and 2. 

Northeastern University, Huntington Avenue, Boston. Tours 
from Admissions Office, Richards Hall 150, weekdays at 11 
and 3. For tours call 437-2211; for events, call Student Ac- 
tivities, 437-2632. 



106 




The 
400 year old 
crafiberry 



Cranberries were already 200 
years old when John Han* 
cock was signing the 
Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. They are defi- 
nitely a part of our country's heritage, for they 
alone have the distinction of being the only 
berry native to North America. The Ameri- 
can Indian made use of the cranberry not 
only as a fruit, but also for dyeing their blan- 
kets and rugs. Cranberries were originally 
called "Crane- berries" because the Pilgrims 

thought their blossoms re- 
sembled the head of a crane. The idea of 
serving cranberries with the Thanksgiving 
dinner is not a new one, the Pilgrims them- 
selves enjoyed cranberries at that very first 
festive occasion. Today when you enjoy one 
of the many Ocean 
Spray products made 
from the little red 
berry, be it fresh cranberries, cranberry sauce, 
cranberry juice cocktail or a delicious cran- 
berry blended drink, remember, you are shar- 
ing in a small piece of our country's heritage. 



The cranberry people. 







BOSTON ARCHITECTURE 



The city of Boston is both a vital urban center and a 
splendid exhibit for people interested in architecture and urban 
design over the past three and one-half centuries. From the 
early 19th century onwards, Boston city planners undertook 
leveling and land-fiUing operations which were unique in their 
era. As a result of these operations, Beacon Hill and Back Bay 
were each developed as residential areas over a short, con- 
tinuous period of time, and today are architectural museums 
—Beacon Hill commemorating the Federal and Greek revival 
styles of the late 18th to mid-19th centuries, and Back Bay 
reflecting the building fashions of the late 19th century. Bos- 
ton's waterfront district represents a similar series of land fills, 
this time undertaken for business purposes. The buildings of 
the area oflFer a chronological history of commercial design 
from 1825 to the present. 

Boston contains buildings by some of the world's foremost 
architects. Charles Bulfinch designed the Massachusetts State 
House, the Ether Dome at Massachusetts General Hospital, 
St. Stephen s Church in the North End, University and Stough- 
ton Halls at Harvard, and many Beacon Hill houses. Alexander 
Parris designed Quincy Market, several Navy Yard buildings, 
and the Appleton-Parker Houses on Beacon St. H,H. Richard- 
son's masterpieces include Trinity Church in Copley Sq. and 
Sever and Austin Halls at Harvard, while the Boston Public 
library was done by the firm of McKim, Mead and White. 
Contemporary Boston architecture includes the many buildings 
of I.M. Pel (the Christian Science Center, the Hancock Tower, 
Harbor Towers, the Green Building at M.I.T. and the overall 
design for Government Center); buildings by Jos6 Sert (Mugar 
Memorial Library at Boston University and Holyoke Center, 
Peabody Terrace and the Science Center at Harvard) and 
work by the firm of Kallman and McKinnell (Boston City 
Hall. Government Center Garage and the Boston Five Cent 
Savings Bank). Boston— or rather, Cambridge— can also lay 
claim to the only building in America by Le Corbusier: Car- 
penter Center for the Visual Arts at Harvard. Other contempo- 
rary buildings include M.I.T.'s chapel and Kresge Auditoriinn, 
botfi by Eero Saarinen, Minoru Yanasald's William James 
Hall at Harvard, Paul Rudolph's Hurley Building and Linde- 



108 



Tilings we wish we'd liuiit. 




Faneuil Hall, the handsome brick structure given to Boston 
in 1 742 by Peter Faneuil for use as a market and public 
meeting-place, still serves its donor's original purpos'Bs 
more than 230 years later. Architect: John Smibert. Enlarged 
by Charles Bulfinch in 1805. We wish we'd built it, but we 
weren't around then. We're all around now. though. Almost 
any place you look there's a Vappi building. 



Everything we do is constructive 




>teppi & Company Is a subsidiary of Tech/Ops lix., Boston 



mann Center, Alvar Aalto's M.I.T. dormitory, and Philip John- 
son's new wing of the Boston Public Library. 

Boston's modem skyscrapers are laid out in a "high spine" 
that extends from the Harbor Towers to Prudential Center, 
flanked on each side by older and lower sections of the city. 
The design has allowed innovative new buildings to comple- 
ment the city's more traditional architecture without destroy- 
ing the visual impact of historic areas. Quincy Market, Old 
City Hall, the Warren Tavern in Charlestown, and the Institute 
of Contemporary Art building are outstanding examples of the 
adaptation of attractive old buildings to new uses. 

You will discover these and hundreds of other important 
buildings on the Neighborhood Discovery Trails. In addition, 
a brochure on Boston architecture is available at Boston 
200 Visitor Information Centers. Guided tours of Boston's 
architecture by professional architects can be arranged in 
advance for special interest groups at a nominal charge. 
Telephone the Boston Society of Architects, 267-5175. 

LITERATURE IN BOSTON 

As you follow the Discovery Trails through Boston's neigh- 
borhoods, you will find a number of buildings, statues and 
markers related to Boston's rich literary past. Christ Church, 
immortalized as Old North in Longfellow's poem "The Mid- 
night Ride of Paul Revere," and King's Chapel Burying 
Ground, which contains the grave of Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
model for Hester Prynne of The Scarlet Letter, are only 
two of the many Boston sites with literary associations. For 
more examples, take the literary history trail described in 
the brochure "Literary Boston," available at the Boston Public 
Library and at Boston 200 Visitor Information Centers. The 
library is also presenting a major exhibit on literature in 
Boston, featuring films, artifacts, lectures and poetry readings. 

Boston Public Library, Copley Sq. Open weekdays 9am to 
9pm; Saturdays, 9am to 6pm; Sundays (except June-Septem- 
ber) 2pm to 6pm. See Back Bay trail, p. 195. 

Boston Athenaeum, 10^ Beacon St. Founded in 1807 by a 
group of literati who later started the Boston Review, the 
Athenaeum became an exclusive literary chib. The Ubraries of 
the original members were pooled to form the nucleus of the 



110 



present library, open to members and researchers only. Visitors 
may tour the art gallery on the second floor. Open daily 9am 
to 5:30pm; in smnmer, weekdays only. 

RELIGION IN BOSTON 

Protestantism: Boston's early history is inseparable from reli- 
gion, since Pmitanism was the motivating force of the town's 
early settlers. A congregational church was foimded in the 
colony in 1630, and although it had no official connection with 
government, it was a powerful political and social force. Bos- 
ton's First Chiurch (1630), Second Church (1650) and Old 
South Church (1669) all trace their origins to this period. 
Eight more congregational churches joined them by the time 
of the Revolution, but Piuitan intolerance kept out most otiier 
sects, and only five non-congregational churches existed by 
1776: a Baptist one (1665), a Quaker meeting house (1697) 
and three Anglican churches; Anglicanism had been introduced 
by Governor Andros, much against the Puritans' will, with the 
construction of King's Chapel in Tremont Street in 1688. 

The century following the Revolution brought a flowering 
of Protestantism, evident in the building of 120 new churches. 
Many of these were the homes of newly established sects like 
the Unitarians, while others were built by dissenters who 
split off from an existing congregation. Some of the most beau- 
tiful of these Protestant churches were built diuing the city's 
expansion into the Back Bay, and await you on that Discovery 
Trail. There you will also find The Mother Chiurch of Christian 
Science, founded in Boston by Mary Baker Eddy (see page 
196). Other churches are scattered along the Freedom Trail. 

Catholicism: Priests first visited Boston in 1647, but Puritan 
rule kept Catholicism from becoming active before the Revo- 
lution. In the decade after independence was won. Father 
(later Bishop) Jean de Cheverus gained the support of many 
influential Bos tomans, including John Hancock, Samuel Adams 
and the architect Charles Bulfinch. All three men contributed 
toward building the city's first Catholic Cathedral, and the 
first Mass was publicly celebrated in Boston in 1788. 

In the 19th century waves of Catholic immigrants— first 
Irish, then Italians and Slavs— arrived in Boston, and the 
Church grew to absorb them. Neighborhood parishes provided 
these newcomers with a source of continuity from the Old 



111 



World to the New, preserving their language and social cus- 
toms as well as serving their religious needs. Other institutions 
were bom as a response to this growth as well: The Pdot, 
America's oldest Catholic news weekly, began publication in 
1829, and BostiMi College, New England's largest Catholic 
college, was foimded in 1863. The vitality of Catholicism in 
Boston is evidenced by the continuing political power of Cath- 
olic voters and by the enormous growth of Catholic institutions 
in the 20th century, especially imder the leadership of Richard 
Cardinal Cushing. The archdiocese of Boston, which celebrates 
its own bicentennial in 1975, contains the largest school system 
in New England, with six Catholic colleges and literally hun- 
dreds of grammar and high schools. 

Catholic churches of particular interest to visitors include 
St. Joseph's Church at 66 Chambers St., St Stephen's Church 
in the North End, Our Lady of Perpetual Help Basilica in 
Roxbury, and The Paulist Center at 7 Park St. The PauHst 
Center oflFers a variety of exhibits during the BicentenniaL 

Judaism: Boston's first Jewish resident, Solomon Franco, ar- 
rived in 1649, and Isaac Lopez was elected town constable 
in 1720. But a true Jewish commxmity was not established until 
1842, with the founding of Temple Ohabei Shalom at 1187 
Beacon St. in Brookline. Boston, therefore, was the last city 
in the Northeast to become a major Jewish population center. 
As late as 1890 the Jewish population of Boston did not exceed 
5000, and was composed primarily of German immigrants. 

Within the following decade the Jewish population bur- 
geoned as a result of the massive immigration of East European 
Jevny, predominantly Russian and Orthodox. 

The first Jewish charitable organization was founded in 
1864, and by 1895 the network of charities was sufficient to 
warrant the formation of the Federation of Jewish Charities, 
the first such federated body in the United States. Mt Sinai 
Hospital opened in 1902 as an outpatient clinic in the West 
End, but was replaced in 1915 by Beth Israel Hospital at 300 
Brookline Avenue. 1921 marked the establishment of the He- 
brew Teachers College, now Hebrew College at 43 Hawes St., 
Brookline. 

Brandeis University, founded in Waltham in 1948, stands 
as a major manifestation of Jewish dedication to learning, as 
do Harvard's chairs of Jewish philosophy and literature and 



112 



its renowned Hebraica and Judaica collection in Widener Li- 
brary. 

The American Jewish Historical Society will be glad to 
furnish information on Bicentennial events pertaining to the 
Jewish community in Boston. Call 891-8110. 

BOSTON WOMEN 

The essential role of women in United States history has 
too often been overlooked— not so in Boston in 1975 and 1976. 
Boston has traditionally been a city of strong women. Eliza- 
beth Glendower Evans, a social reformer who helped make 
Massachusetts a leader in progressive penal techniques, also 
led the Massachusetts campaign which resulted in the first 
minimum wage act for women in the United States. Pauline 
Agassiz Shaw, daughter of naturalist Louis Agassiz, organized 
a chain of day nurseries in 1877 and in 1881 founded the 
North Bennet Street Industrial School, where public school 
children learned cooking, printing, and metal and wood work- 
ing. Abigail Adams kept her husband John informed by letter 
of military and political developments in Boston while he 
served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadel- 
phia. "And, by the way," she added in March, 1776, "in the 
new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary to 
make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more 
generous and favorable to them than yoiu: ancestors. Do not 
put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. 
Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular 
care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined 
to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by 
any laws in which we have no voice or representation.** 

These are only three of the many outstanding women- 
novelists, teachers, abolitionists, welfare workers, scientists, 
missionaries, doctors, poets, theosophists and many more— 
who have lived and worked in Boston. You are invited to visit 
the exhibit Boston Women, which celebrates the contributions 
women have made to the city during the last 300 years. 
The exhibit will travel to a variety of locations throughout, 
the city during 1975 and 1976, sponsored by women's groups 
who will combine the exhibition with events of special in- 
terest to women. The schedule of locations is in the Boston 
200 Newspaper. 



113 



MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN BOSTON 



Boston got o£F to a healthy start, since its location on a 
hill saved it from the malaria and typhoid epidemics that 
decimated most colonial towns. From that beginning the dty 
grew to become a world-ftoous health care center, whose 
hospitals, teaching facilities and research institutions have been 
responsible for dozens of medical "firsts". Boston clinics saw 
the first use of ether, the first smallpox vaccination, the first 
development of gamma globulin, and the first artificial kidney 
unit. Massachusetts was the first state to pass pure food legis- 
lation, and Boston the first city to establish a municipal water 
supply. And Boston institutions graduated the first trained 
nurse and the first black nurse. 

Visitors to Boston can view a special exhibit on Boston 
medicine at the Museum of Science (see p. 234 for location 
and hours). The exhibit will trace changes in our understand- 
ing of the human body over the past 300 years, including 
special sections on the heart, the brain, the cells and cancer. 
In addition, the following places offer tours and exhibits con- 
cerning medical history. For more suggestions, pick up a 
Boston 200 medical brochure. 

Massachusetts General Hospital, Fruit St. at Charles St. T- 
Charles. The Ether Dome, designed by Bulfinch, contains an 
exhibit on the first use of ether anaesthesia. Call 726-2000 for 
schedule of Ether Dome tours and slide shows on hospital 
history. 

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles St. T- 
Charles. An exhibit of 300 years of eyeglasses and other aids 
to vision is on display Mon-Fri, 9am to 5pm. Tours given one 
day a week, by appointment: call 523-7900, ext. 603. 

Harvard Medical School, Longwood Ave. T-Longwood on 
Arborway line. Founded in 1782, the school had six locations 
before these monumental white marble buildings were built 
in 1906. Countway Medical Library has changing exhibits on 
the history of medicine (open Mon-Thm's, Sam to 11:30pm; 
Fri, Sam to 5pm; Sun, 2pm to 11:30pm). For tours of the 
school, call 734-3300, ext. 438. 



114 



BANKING AND FINANCE IN BOSTON 



Boston commerce began with tbe sea. The town's career as 
the merchant center of New England started with an active 
17th-centiiry trade in fish, hunber and other commodities, 
which later expanded to include rum, tea and manufactured 
products. The fortunes of some of Boston s proudest families— 
the Hancocks, the Otises, the Forbeses, the Parkers— were made 
in trade with the West Indies, Europe and later China. And 
already by the time of the Revolution banking operations were 
keeping pace with business: in 1784 a group of merchants 
formed the Massachusetts Bank, the first independent joint- 
stock bank in the country. 

In the century that followed, Boston grew into a vital bank- 
ing center for the new nation, providing capital which financed 
the railroads, opened the mines of the West and transformed 
rural New England into one of the most highly developed 
industrial areas in the coimtry. A number of the city's mu- 
seim[is and exhibits imfold this exciting history. 

Boston Stock Exchange, 53 State St Adult visitors can view 
the active trading floor. Mon-Fri, 10am to 2pm, by appoint- 
ment Call 723-9500 ext 71. 

The State Street Bank's banking office, 53 State St The archi- 
tecture and accouterments of this business office echo the 
maritime and banking history of Boston. It contains ship 
models, nautical materials, and a 17th-century banking office. 
Open Mon-Fri, 9am to 5pm. 

The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 30 Pearl St. Guided 
tours are available weekdays by appointment. Call 426-7100, 
extension 511. The new Federal Reserve Bank building at 
Federal Reserve Plaza is scheduled for opening in the spring 
of 1976, and will offer guided tours, a "Money Museiun" and 
economics exhibits. Call the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 
for further details. 

Boston Five Cents Savings Bank, 10-30 School St. Facing Old 
South Meeting House, this dramatic building has a small park 
where you can rest as you walk the Freedom Trail. From 
8:30am to 4pm weekdays, you can view an exhibit in the 
main lobby of rare coins and unique mechanical coin banks 
from the Victorian era. 



115 



Give me liberty 

and 
give me dinner. 

Boston's finest market restaurant 

is located 
directly across from Faneuil Hall, 
where fresh food and new ideas 
have been marketed since 1742. 

Hearty meals 
Market-fresh salad bar 
Man-sized sandwiches served 
noon to midnight . . . $2.50 and up 
Bountiful drinks upstairs or 
Downstairs at the Pub 
Lunch from $2.50 Dinner from $4.50 

one dock square 

restaurant and pub ^ 723'9887 



NEIGHBORHOOD DISCOVERY TRAILS 



Explore Boston on the Neighborhood Discovery Trails. Be- 
cause Boston is above all a city to walk in, Boston 200 has 
designed these neighborhood walking trails to help you dis- 
cover the city on your own. Each trail begins near an MBTA 
station, and sites of interest are explained by interpretative 
markers sponsored by the Liberty Mutual Insurance Com- 
panies. The trails are designed to take about 132 hours each 
(longer if you spend time in exhibits and museiuns) and to 
include places to eat and rest along the way. To follow each 
trail, look for the color-coded trailblazer signs. Public rest- 
rooms are marked on the trail maps. Remember that this sec- 
tion is not intended as a textbook on Boston. It contains stories 
and accounts which we hope will give some pleasure and a 
flavor of the way some Bostonians have viewed their past. 

You will learn as you walk the trails that every section of 
Boston is unique. You can explore a difPerent part of the city's 
life on each trail, and find very little repetition. The Freedom 
Trail, of course, covers the sites where the Revolution began, 
but its Downtown landmarks rub shoulders with high-rise 
banks and the dramatic Government Center buildings, while 
its North End portion will introduce you to a colorful Italian 
community in the shadow of Old North Church. The Charles- 
tovm Trail contains "Old Ironsides," a historic biuying ground 
and a number of magnificent homes dating from just after the 
Revolution, set in a community that has done much to pre- 
serve its distinctive nineteenth-century architecture. The Wa- 
terfront Trail traces Boston's history as a port, from the days 
of smuggling and privateers through the clipper ship era to the 
coming of the railroads and the decline of sea trade. 

The Beacon Hill and Back Bay Trails are the city's tribute 
to the nineteenth century. On Beacon Hill you'll find not only 
the elegant homes of Boston's oldest elite, but also the meeting 
houses where the Abolitionist movement began, and even a 
tunnel that was part of the Underground Railroad. And in Back 



117 



Bay you'll see a nineteenth-century land fill that became the 
pet project of Boston's First Families, who built museums, 
churches, private clubs and palatial homes on land that had 
once been imder water. 

The South End Trail is for city- watchers: it shows you the 
changing fortunes of a section that has gone from mansions to 
tenements and is now being rediscovered by people with vary- 
ing backgrounds and incomes. And the Cambridge Trail gives 
you a glimpse of Boston's neighbor across the Charles, and 
particularly of Harvard University, the institution with which 
Cambridge's fate has been linked since 1636. 

Unless you plan a long stay, you won't have time to walk 
all eight trails. But we urge you to take more than one in order 
to get a sense of the contrasts that exist in the city. Read 
through the trail descriptions before you go, to find the trails 
that especially appeal to you. Then put on your walking shoes, 
board the MBTA, and discover yoiur own particular Boston. 



FREEDOM TRAIL: DOWNTOWN 

(Map, pp. 130-131) 

Begin your tour of the oldest part of Boston with the new 
Government Center complex. After emerging from the subway 
(appropriately called Government Center) find a suitable spot 
on the eight-acre expanse of City Hall plaza and pick out the 
prominent buildings of the area. If you stand facing City Hall, 
to yoiu: left will be the twin towers and low-lying rectangular 
building of the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, and 
farther in the same direction, the piered tower and surround- 
ing bulwark of the State Service Center, designed by the well- 
known architect Paul Rudolph. You should be able to see the 
white spire of Old North Church in the distance. To your 
right and behind you is a study in architectural reflection, the 
19th-century Sears Crescent reflected in its distinctive curving 
shape and red-brick texture by the modem Center Plaza 
office building. The architectural theme of red brick is further 
carried out in the City Hall plaza, as an extension not only of 
Sears Crescent, the meeting place of writers, artists and poets 
in the last century (Emerson and Hawthorne included), but 
also of other historic Boston landmarks such as Faneuil Hall. 



118 



The overall concept for Government Center was the work of 
architect I. M. Pei, who stipulated the size, height and style 
relationships for the buildings. It was built on the site of old 
Scollay Square, a colorful but dilapidated section of Boston 
where the famous Old Howard burlesque theater once stood. 
"They're hanging crepe on Scollay Square," lamented poet- 
songwriter Francis W, Hatch. "Some coward/ Closed the 
Old Howard/ We don't have burley anymore!" Today cheese- 
cake has given way to businessmen and bureaucrats. 

The heart of Govenmient Center is the City Hall, whose 
design by the architectural firm of Kallmann, McKinnell and 
Knowles won Boston's four-year national competition for a 
new City Hall. Both the structure and its surrounding funnel- 
ing plaza represent the ideals of openness and accessibility in 
city government: the city is particularly proud of the plaza, 
which continues from outside into the building in "a gesture 
of welcome," and of the interior stairways designed so that 
visitors can walk through City Hall without ever opening a 
door. In good weather the plaza serves as a stage for political 
rallies, plays, and concerts. If you want to learn more about 
City Hall and the Government Center area, visit the informa- 
tion booth in the ground-floor lobby for tours of the building 
that are given every weekday 10am to 4pm every half-hoiu*. 
You also may want to see the public art galleries on your own 
(see p. 230). 

Start the Freedom Trail by picking up brochures of times 
and admission fees of Freedom Trail sites at the special Boston 
200 Visitor Information Center in City Hall (open 10am to 
6pm daily; follow the signs in City Hall plaza). Then proceed 
to the first oflBcial site, FaneuH Hall, a historic marketplace 
and the political forum for Revolutionary leaders. The markets 
are in the lower floors and the meeting hall is on the second 
floor. Francis W. Hatch once wrote: "Here orators/In ages 
past/Have mounted their attack/Undaunted by proximity /Of 
sausage on the rack." Merchant Peter Faneuil built the HaU 
and gave it to the city in 1742, as replacement for an earlier 
structure. That first market building was made of wood and 
dismantled by a mob who were unconvinced that a fixed 
market was better than house-to-house peddling. You may 
notice that Faneuil Hall, Boston's second attempt at a fixed 
market, is made of brick. 

In front of the Hall is a statue of "the man of the town 



119 



meeting," patriot Samuel Adams. Begimiing with the Sugar 
Act in 1764, Adams led the town meetings at Faneuil Hall in 
thwarting British attempts at taxation. With a short bow to 
this patriot leader, proceed around the building to the entrance 
of the Hall (it faces away from City Hall) and climb the 
stairs to the second-floor chamber. This hall is still used for 
public meetings, thus continuing a tradition over 200 years 
old. 

As you leave Faneuil Hall, you may give a glance to its 
world-renowned grasshopper weathervane. Then continue 
straight ahead to the restored buildings of Quincy Market 
(built 1824), to the Boston 200 exhibit on the American 
Revolution. There you can put yourself in the places of Patriot 
and Tory with a variety of films, broadsides, pictures and 
puppet shows, and decide on the major issues and events that 
led to the Revolution. 

The Market itself is named for Josiah Quincy, the Boston 
mayor who conceived of and executed the plan for these 
buildings. Years later he wrote with justifiable pride, "All this 
was accomplished in the centre of a populous city, not only 
without any tax, debt or burden upon its pecuniary resources, 
but with large permanent additions to its real and productive 
property." 

As you come out of Quincy Market into Dock Square (the 
site of 18th-century Town Dock), follow the trail to the next 
oflBcial Freedom Trail site, the Old State House. On your way, 
pause at 53 State St., where a plaque marks the site of the 
Bunch of Grapes Tavern, a patriot meeting place. Continue 
until you come to the area in front of the Old State House. 
You may notice the traflBc whizzing by in five different direc- 
tions—this is still a crossroads in Boston. 

As early as 1634 the Puritans used this place to set up their 
pillory and stocks. Offenders were locked up in these devices, 
shouted at, and pelted with rotten vegetables. Later the square 
became a common place for political protest before the Revo- 
lution. When eflSgies of British officials were hanged on the 
Liberty Tree to protest the Stamp Act, patriots dressed as 
pallbearere cut them down, carried them respectfully down 
present-day Washington St., and held the "funeral" in front 
of the Old State House. But the best-known event connected 
with this place is the Boston Massacre. The Massacre occurred 
on March 5, 1770, about a year after British soldiers began 



120 



occupying Boston to help enforce Britisli taxation laws. Of 
course relations between the soldiers and the townspeople 
were never very good: the soldiers would prick people with 
their bayonets to move them out of their way, and the towns- 
people would haul the soldiers into coiurt on the smallest pre- 
text. Other diflPerences of opinion were resolved by tavern 
brawls or fistfights in back alleys. The Boston Massacre came 
about when a mob led by former slave Crispus Attucks began 
to assault soldiers on guard at the Royal Customs House (now 
the intersection of Congress and State Sts.) The soldiers fired 
into the crowd and Attucks and four others were killed. 
Patriot spokesmen used the incident to have the soldiers with- 
drawn from the city (but not for long— the soldiers were back 
in two years), and later they propagandized the Massacre as 
the first military action of the Revolution. In front of the Old 
State House is a circle of cobblestones, an official Freedom 
Trail site which commemorates the Massacre. You are urged 
to skirt this marker in reaching the Old State House. And 
watch the traffic. 

Before you go in, give a glance to the balcony, where the 
Declaration of Independence was first read to the people of 
Boston on July 18, 1776 (it's still read from there every July 
4th). The lion and unicorn statues higher up are symbols of 
the British crown. These are copies— the patriots burned the 
originals. You may also notice the arcades on the ground floor. 
When the Old State House was built in 1713, the architects 
retained the medieval characteristic of open arcades "for the 
coimtry people that come with theire provisions ... to sitt 
dry in and warme both in colde raine and durty weather." 
Today the portico, as a subway station, still shelters people 
from "durty" Boston weather. 

Once inside the Old State House, follow the spiral staircase 
up to the second-floor Council Chamber, where patriot James 
Otis argued in 1761 against the Writs of Assistance, general 
search warrants used by the British to track down smuggled 
goods. The normally phlegmatic John Adams was present when 
Otis made his case against the Writs, and years later he wrote: 

Every man of a crowded audience appeared to me to go 
away, as I did, ready to take arms against writs of assistance. 
Then and there was the first scene of the first act of opposi- 
tion to the arbitrary claims of Great Britain. Then and fliere 
the child Independence was bom. 



121 



Now resume the trail by going down Devonshire Street, 
formerly known as "Puddhig Lane,** "Crooked Lane," and 
**Wilson s Lane." "Wilson's Lane" is probably the oldest name, 
"Wilson" being the Reverend John Wilson, the first pastor of 
the Puritans' church. According to the secretary of the colony, 
he "came hither to avoid persecution and to have freedom to 
think and speak as he chose. He left his wife in England." 
Another former resident of the street was Elizabeth Vergoose, 
or Mother Goose, who came to Kve here with her daughter 
and son-in-law after her husband died. Her son-in-law, Thomas 
Fleet, was the first one to gadier and publish the songs she 
sang to her grandchildren. 

On your way down Devonshire you can explore two old 
lanes that run off the street: Quaker Lane, the branching path 
through a Quaker cemetery that was once here, and Spring 
Lane, the place where the Puritans drew water from the so- 
called "Great Spring.** 

Now proceed to the intersection of Milk and Devonshire 
where a plaque on the Post Office marks the stopping point 
of the fire of 1872. The fire began at the intersection of Sum- 
mer and Kingston Sts. and burned out 65 acres in the heart of 
the city. In recognition of its magnitude Bostonians dubbed 
it the "Great Fire of 1872"— thus giving it equal honors with 
the "Great Fires" of 1711, 1747, 1761, 1787, and 1794. The 
tradition of fires in this section of the city began with the 
Puritans. Their first houses binned down because they built 
their chimneys out of wood. 

Now take a right on Milk St. and quicken your pace to the 
end of the street. High up on the building at 17 Milk youH 
see a bust of Franklin and the words ''Birthplace of Franklin" 
carved in relief. Turn right on Washington St. to the next 
official Freedom Trail site, the Old South Meetinj; House. 
Inside the Meeting House are exhibits about colonial and 
Revolutionary Boston, including a copy of Geerge Washing- 
ton's will 

On December 16, 1773, 5000 citizens of Boston met in the 
Old South Meeting House to decide what they would do with 
the three tea ships at Griffin's Wharf. Although the British 
government had repealed all import taxes except the one on 
tea, the patriots felt that this single remaining tax supported 
the principle of British power to tax the colonies. They were 
determined that the tea would not be unloaded from the ships, 



122 



but their problem was time. Since the ships had docked, the 
patriots had managed to "persuade" the shipowners not to 
unload the tea; but, according to law, after twenty days Cus- 
toms oflBcials could confiscate unloaded cargoes and land it 
themselves. The twenty-day limit was to expire at midnight 
that night, and the next day the British Customs oflBcials 
would certainly land the tea. At first the meeting sent a mes- 
sage to the Royal Governor and demanded he give the ships 
special permission to leave Boston harbor and return to Eng- 
land. When the Governor refused to do this, Samuel Adams 
stood up and said in a tone of defeat, "This meeting can do 
nothing more to save the coimtry." Rather than admitting de- 
feat, however, Adams was signalling certain men in the hall to 
slip away and put a pre-planned operation into eflFect. Soon 
afterwards the audience noticed at the doorway a small group 
of men with blackened faces, blankets, and tomahawks. The 
"Indians" gave a few whoops and then ran down Milk St. to 
GriflBn's Wharf. With cries of "Boston harbor a teapot to- 
nightl" the people in the Meeting House raced after them. 

At GriflBn's Wharf about 100 "Indians" had gathered and 
were methodically cracking open chests of tea and spilling 
them into the harbor. When they were finished, they lined up 
at the dock and shook out their clothes and shoes to show 
they had stolen no tea. Then, with commendable military 
precision, the "Indians" arranged themselves in rank and file, 
shouldered their tomahawks, and marched up the wharf to 
the music of a fife. ("Depend on it," John Adams said later, 
"they were no ordinary Mohawks.") At the end of the wharf 
was a house where the British admiral was staying. As the 
procession passed by, he raised a window and called, "Well, 
boys, youVe had a fine pleasant evening for your Indian caper, 
haven't you? But mind you have got to pay the fiddler yetl" 
Their replies will not be recorded here. But afterwards they 
did pay the fiddler when the British retaliated by closing the 
port of Boston— an act which further united the colonies and 
brought them one step closer to war. 

You can take the Tea Party Path from Old South yourself 
(the walk takes 10 to 15 minutes). Turn left onto Milk St., 
continue to Post OflBce Square, and then turn right down 
Congress St. From Congress St. you should be able to see the 
Boston Tea Party Ship, a full-size working facsimile of one 
of the original tea ships. The Boston Tea Party Ship and Mu- 



123 



seum have documents and exhibits about the Tea Party, in- 
cluding one of the 340 chests purportedly thrown overboard 
that night. (See p. 224 for hours and admission.) On your 
way back to pick up the trail at Old South, you can stop off 
at 185 Franklin St., where New England Telephone has re- 
stored the room in which Alexander Graham Bell heard the 
first telephone sound. 

If you like you can take another side-trip from Old South 
down Washington St, the heart of Boston's shopping dis- 
trict, and learn a little about Boston topography at the same 
time. You can follow the loop on the map and rest your 
feet along the way at the new Lincoln Filene Park on Frank- 
lin St. next to Filene's. (If you want information on Wash- 
ington St. stores, see p. 245). In the 17th and 18th centuries 
Boston was still a peninsula and Washington St. was the road 
that began near Dock Square, ran the length of the peninsula 
and crossed Boston Neck to the mainland. Starting near the 
Old State House, you'll see the street takes its first curve near 
Spring Lane to avoid the Great Spring and Governor Win- 
throp's estate, makes another bend aroimd Franklin St. to skirt 
a swamp, and then takes another curve near Bedford St. to 
round a pond. From Essex St. it follows the path over the 
Boston Neck, a strip of land that connected the peninsula to 
the mainland. Youll understand just how narrow that strip 
was if you reaUze that Bay Village, about two blocks west of 
Washington St, and Chinatown, about one block east, were 
both shore commimities on opposite sides of the Neck. (For 
more on Chinatown, see p. 224.) 

Back at Old South Meeting House, cross the street to the 
next Freedom Trail site, the Old Comer Bookstore at School 
and Washington Sts. The Bookstore is located on the site of 
the home of Anne Hutchinson, the woman banished from Bos- 
ton in 1638 because her beliefs conflicted with Puritan 
orthodoxy. According to John Winthrop, "she was a woman 
of haughty and fierce carriage, a nimble wit and active spirit, 
a very voluble tongue, more bold than a man, though in un- 
derstanding and judgment inferior to many women." (In 1915 
Boston changed its mind about Anne Hutchinson and placed 
a statue of her on the State House lawn. The city waited until 
1945, however, before it revoked the edict of banishment 
against her.) 



124 



The building you see now was constructed in 1711 as the 
home of apothecary Thomas Crease and converted from private 
residence to bookstore in 1828. In mid-19th century the Old 
Comer became famous as a gathering place for Longfellow, 
Emerson, Hawthorne, Holmes, Whittier, Julia Ward Howe, 
and Harriet Beecher Stowe. If you walk into the Old Comer, 
you can see some first editions of their books and Oliver 
Wendell Holmes's desk. 

From here continue up School St. (with a backward glance 
to Old South) and proceed to the Old City Hall, a famous 
Victorian building which has been "recycled" to house some 
private oflBces and a chic French restamant. The two statues 
in front of Old City Hall are Benjamin Franklin and Josiah 
Quincy. The artist who sculpted the Franklin statue said 
that if you look at Frankhn s left profile he wears the appro- 
priately serious expression of a statesman, and if you look at 
his right profile he wears the whimsical expression of the 
writer of Foor Richard's Almanac. You'll have to judge for 
yourself. 

Both Franklin and Quincy went to the Boston Latin School, 
whose original site near here makes this spot part of the oflS- 
cial Freedom Trail. In 1634 the town decided that "Philemon 
Pormont be intreated to become a schoolmaster for the teach- 
ing and nourtering of the children with us," "children" re- 
ferring exclusively to boys. The Latin School was the first 
public school in the United States and in colonial days its 
alumni included John Hancock, Robert Treat Paine and Samuel 
Adams. 

Proceed to the end of School St., past the famous Parker 
House at 60 School, where Parker House rolls originated. Both 
Ho Chi Minh and Malcolm X worked here as waiters (though 
not at the same timel ) Then tum left on Tremont. At this point 
you're about halfway through the trail, and if you like you can 
continue all the way down Tremont to the Common and take 
a break before you finish the rest of the trail. Otherwise stop 
oflF at the next Freedom Trail site, the Granary Burying Ground 
on Tremont. 

The Granary takes its name from a bam-like structure which 
used to stand near here and which was supposed to store grain 
for poor people in times of shortages. In the words of the old 
records, however, "the weevils have taken the wheet, and mice 



125 



annoy the com much, being very numerous." The mice an- 
noyed the com so much that town ofiBcials gave up their 
idealistic project and tore down the granary at the beginning 
of the 19th century. Its name, nevertheless, lingers on with 
the cemetery. 

If you read the plaques oa the outside gates youH see that 
the Granary, dating back to 1660, is the burying ground for 
patriots. Take a right after entering the cemetery until you 
come to the grave of the Boston Massacre victims, and next 
to it, the grave of Samuel Adams. Not far from here Samuel 
Adams was strolling one day with his cousin John (later the 
second U.S. President) when he pointed to John Hancock's 
house overlooking the Common and said, "I have done a very 
good thing for our cause, in the course of the past week, by 
enlisting the master of that house into it He is well-disposed, 
and has great riches, and we can give him consequence to 
enjoy them." (You can see Hancock's marker from Adams's 
grave. It's the white pillar near the church wall) 

Adams and Hancock rose together as political leaders in the 
Revolution; people used to say that Hancock paid the postage 
while Adams did the writing. They both signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence and they shared the distinction (at least 
in Adams's eyes) of being the only patriots outlawed by King 
George III. After the war Hancock served as first govemor of 
Massachusetts, and when he died before completing the last 
of several terms, Adams, the lieutenant govemor, succeeded 
him and then served a couple of terms of his own as govemor. 
Despite his high position, Samuel Adams never lost his distrust 
of a strong government: in the words of a contemporary, 'Tie 
will have no capitulation with abuses; he fears as much the 
despotism of virtue and talents as the despotism of vice." 

Now if you follow the brick wall from Adams's grave youll 
come to the tomb of Robert Treat Paine, the third signer of 
the Declaration of Independence buried in the Granary. From 
here continue on the path to the memorial for Franklin's par- 
ents, the pyramid near the center of the graveyard. After read- 
ing the epitaph (he "a pious and pmdent man", she "a discreet 
and virtuous woman"), continue left along the path and look 
three rows inside for the gravestone of Elisha Brown. When 
the British occupied Boston in 1769, Brown refused to quarter 
soldiers in his house, barred all the doors and windows, and 



126 



proceeded to survive on several montlis' food he had stored 
there. The soldiers laid siege all around the house, but after 
seventeen days they gave up and occupied Faneuil Hall in- 
stead. Thus the stone states that Brown **bravely and success- 
fully opposed a whole British regt. in their violent attempt to 
FORCE him from his legal Habitation," Once you've de- 
ciphered the whole epitaph for yourself, take a right on the 
path to the marker for John Hancock's tomb. 

Farther up the path from Hancock's tomb are two stones 
with epitaphs you ought to read. Start with the stone of Cap- 
tain John DeCoster, which begins compellingly, "Stop here 
my Friend," and then move on to the more introverted epitaph 
for Edward Carter which says, "Farewell Vain World I have 
Enough of the(e)." 

From here walk up the path (past the stone of James Bow- 
doin, another Massachusetts governor and life-long friend of 
Benjamin Franklin) to the tombs of the three Faneuils. Peo- 
ple used to snicker that the Faneuils were much closer in 
death than they ever were in life. Andrew Faneuil, the one 
who first accumulated the family fortune, disinherited his elder 
nephew Benjamin for marrying without his consent, and except 
for the "five shillings and no more" which he gave Benjamin, 
he left all his money to his yoimger and more dutiful nephew, 
Peter. Peter was the one who built Faneuil Hall and gave it to 
the city. Only eight years after his inheritance, however, Peter 
died and wiDed his money to his brother; so Benjanun enjoyed 
his uncle's fortime after aU. 

Now return to the main path and follow it to the grave of 
that midnight rider, Paul Revere. The fancy white monument 
was erected by the city; Revere's original and unpretentious 
stone is in front of it. When not on a horse Revere worked in 
metals, edited a newspaper, pulled teeth, and manufactured 
gunpowder. He also engraved the plates for and printed the 
first U.S. paper currency. 

From here turn down the center path and keep an eye on 
the left side, until you come to the place where the Fleets are 
buried. (It's near the Franklin monument, underneath a tree.) 
Next to Thomas Fleet's stone is a marker for "Mary Goose." 
Unfortunately this is not Mother Goose, but her husband's first 
wife, Mary. If you find a stone around here for Elizabeth 
Foster Goose (or Vergoose), then you've found the real Mother 
Goose. 



127 



Once back at the front gate, take a right to the grave of 
James Otis. Eight years after his brilliant case against the Writs 
of Assistance, Otis was "assaulted" in a tavern by a British offi- 
cial (so the story goes) and he became slowly insane from the 
head injury he sufiEered He ceased to be an active figure in 
the Revolution long before the outbreak of war. In 1783, while 
watching a storm from the doorway of a friend's house, Otis 
was struck by Hghtning and killed instantaneously: his friends 
said it was the way he woiild have wanted to die. 

From the Granary continue on Tremont and turn up Park 
St (Farther down Tremont is the Visitor Information Center 
bordering the Common.) For years Park Street was the di- 
viding line between business and residential Boston, or, as 
the saying went, "No gentleman takes a drink before three 
o'clock or east of Park Street." Here you can visit the next 
official site on the Freedom Trail, the Park Street Church, 
where William Lloyd Garrison gave his first public anti-slavery 
speech in 1829. The site of the church was once called Brim- 
stone Comer, because brimstone for gunpowder was stored in 
a cellar here during the War of 1812. 

After you've seen the church, proceed up Park St You can 
now visit another important Freedom Trail site, the Massa- 
chusetts State House, whose Archives Museimi has on display 
documents dating back to the Pilgrims. (See Beacon Hill trail, 
p. 163). Otherwise take a right on Beacon St. and make a 
loop back to the next official site, King's Chapel and its ad- 
jacent burying grounds. First mention of the bmrying grounds 
occurred in 1631, when Puritan Isaac Johnson died and was 
buried in a comer of his garden as he wished. As the years 
passed other members of the colony asked to be buried next to 
him (Johnson had been a likable fellow) and the plot began 
to fill up. Eventually the town decided to set aside the area 
as a burial ground; as the records noted, "Brother Johnson's 
garden is getting to be a poor place for vegetables." 

Now go into King's Chapel, the seat of the Church of Eng- 
land and of royaUsm before the Revolution. In 1688 Govemor 
Andros appropriated part of the cemetery to build an Anglican 
chapel, because no Piuitan would sell him land for that pur- 
pose. (It was "a haxe-fsiced squat,'' in the words of historian 
N. I. Bowditch.) This wooden chapel stood until 1753, when 
the present stone chapel was built to enclose it so that con- 
stmction would not intermpt services. Once the new stmcture 



128 



was completed, workmen took apart the old wooden chapel 
and threw the pieces out the doors and windows. Inside the 
Chapel are high enclosed pews, so designed to keep their 
occupants warm during lengthy services in the winter. It was 
once the custom for families to rent or buy their own pews: 
numbers 31 and 32 belonged to the Governor, number 102 to 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. To the right of the main entrance is 
a special pew where condemned prisoners heard their last 
sermon before being hanged on the Common. ^ 

Now walk outside to the adjacent burying ground, the first 
cemetery of the Puritans. If you go down the leftward path, 
you'll come to the tomb of John Winthrop, the first Puritan 
governor. (It's a brown slab on curved posts.) Behind Win- 
throp's tomb is a stone for four early Puritan pastors, John 
Cotton, John Davenport, John Oxenbridge, and Thomas Bridge. 

You can also take the path which runs to the center of the 
graveyard. Here you'll find the tomb of Mary Chilton, by 
legend the first Pilgrim to step on Plymouth Rock; she's buried 
with her husband, John Winslow. Almost opposite from the 
Winslows is the tomb of William Dawes, who made a midnight 
ride like Paul Revere but whose name was less euphonious to 
Longfellow's ears. 

Continue to follow the paths and look for the tomb of 
Hezekiah Usher, the first bookseller in New England. During 
the witch scare of the late 1600s, one of Usher's neighbors 
accused him of being a witch (she said he stuck pins in her), 
but Hezekiah's brother was a town official and refused to 
prosecute him. Less fortunate was John Alden, the son of 
Pilgrims John and Priscilla (he's buried here— look for his 
stone). When he was accused of being a witch, Alden had to 
take refuge in the houses of friends for two years, until the 
witch scare died down. As you come up to the end of the path 
on the chapel side you might pause by the stone of Elizabeth 
Pain, a young Puritan woman branded with an "A" for adultery 
because she bore a child by her minister. Two hundred years 
later Nathaniel Hawthorne retold her story in The Scarlet 
Letter. 

You won't find a stone for him, but Captain Kidd is sup- 
posed to be buried in this cemetery. In the 1690s Kidd was 
sent by the Royal Governor at Boston to capture pirates off 
the coast, but rather than capture pirates Kidd reportedly be- 
came one. When he himself was finally taken, he was sent to 



129 



England and there tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. 
"My Lord, it is a very hard sentence," Kidd said to his judges. 
"For my part, I am the most innocent person of them all, only 
I have been sworn against by perjured persons." His accusers 
were unimpressed; they led him outside, bound him in chains, 
and hanged him. According to legend, if you knock on the 
stones of King's Chapel three times and whisper, "Captain 
Kidd, for what were you hanged?". Captain Kidd will answer 
. . . nothing. 

Return to the front gate and turn right on Tremont St. This 
will take you back to Government Center, your starting point 
on the trail. 



FREEDOM TRAIL: THE NORTH END 

(Map, pp. 134-135) 

The North End is Boston's tribute to Europe. Its historic 
architecture and foreign flavor make it unique in the city. As 
one of the oldest parts of the original Shawmut peninsula 
settlement, its history goes back to the Puritans and spirals 
down through Cotton Mather, Paul Revere, Eben Jordan of 
Jordan Marsh, the Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, and Sacco 
and Vanzetti. The North End Loop of the Freedom Trail 
encompasses all of these and begins at Faneuil Hall. To get 
there take the Green line of the MBTA to the Haymarket 
station and walk up Congress St., or exit at Government Cen- 
ter and use the slightly longer route across the brick plaza to 
Dock Square. 

From the statue of Samuel Adams in front of Faneuil Hall 
follow the map to Union St. The section from Union St. to 
the Expressway is the Blackstone Block, Boston s oldest com- 
mercial area and the only district of the city that retains the 
original 17th-century street patterns and alleyways. The streets 
twist and wind— not because of wayward cows, but because 
the earliest settlers established their shops wherever they 
wanted them to be. 



132 



The brick buildings along Union St. date mainly from the 
early 19th century and were constructed as combination shops 
and residences. At 41 Union St. is the Capen House, which 
was built between 1713 and 1717 and served as a dress shop 
for Hopestill Capen. Louis PhiUppe, who was later to become 
king of the French, taught French here to Boston merchants 
when he was hard-pressed for money and was awaiting relief 
from Europe. Since 1826, the building has served as the Union 
Oyster House, generally considered the oldest restaurant in 
Boston. 

A block away from here at Union St. and Hanover, where 
the Bell 'N Hand Restaurant is now, is the site of the boy- 
hood home of Benjamin FrankHn. His father owned a candle- 
works here in which the younger Franklin worked as a boy. 
Frankhn's primary responsibility was to dump the factory rub- 
bish into nearby Mill Pond, an inlet of the Charles River, 

Bear right at the Capen House and follow the red brick 
path to Creek Square, the heart of the district. At 10 Marshall 
St. is the Ebenezer Hancock House, which dates from 1760. 
John Hancock owned it from 1764 to 1785, during which time 
it was occupied by his brother Ebenezer, paymaster of the 
Continental Army. 

Across from the Hancock House, the building housing the 
gift shop has embedded in its side the Boston Stone, which 
is the official centerpoint of the city. All distances to and from 
Boston are measured from this point. 

Around the corner is Blackstone St., which has been the 
home of three centuries of Boston butchers. Originally this 
street was a creek connecting Mill Pond and Town Creek, and 
was the only place in the town where butchers could dispose 
of animal entrails legally. The trail leads from this point across 
Blackstone St. and through the pedestrian tunnel under the 
Expressway. A detour up Blackstone St. will lead you to Hay- 
market, Boston's open-air market. Here on Fridays and Satur- 
days you can find fresh produce among the carts and stands 
of street vendors. 

You are now entering the North End proper. Don't look for 
serenity. This part of Boston is old, crowded and in many 
places not as clean as it could be. It has great vitality and 
charm, however, and reputedly the safest streets in the city, 
thanks to neighborhood cohesiveness. The North End has been 



133 



the port of entry for every major ethnic group that has ever 
lived in Boston. The Yankees and the blacks lived there first 
in the original Puritan settlements. With the expansion of the 
city through landfill, these groups moved to new quarters in 
Beacon Hill and later Back Bay. Next it was the Irish who 
dominated the neighborhood. The Dearos , an organization 
founded by "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, is dedicated to remem- 
bering the "Dear Old" North End. Eastern European Jews 
migrated to this section of town and called it their own for a 
time, and now the area is a very close-knit Italian-American 
community. 

As you emerge from the pedestrian tunnel, turn right on 
Cross St. and walk one block over to Hanover St. The draw- 
bridge to the rest of the Shawmut peninsula made this, with 
North St., one of the two main streets of the old North End. 
Before the Revolution, the street was lined with the mansions 
of Boston's aristocrats. With the defeat of the British, those 
who had been Loyalists fled to Canada, and their houses were 
appropriated by merchants who converted them into shops. 
One of these new shopkeepers was Eben Jordan, who started 
a dry goods store at 168 Hanover St. It later merged with 
Mr. Marsh's business and moved downtown to become Jordan 
Marsh. 

A right turn onto Richmond St. away from Hanover will 
bring you to North St. and in sight of the oldest sign in Bos- 
ton (1694). The Red Lyon Inn once stood at the comer of 
North and Richmond Sts. and was owned by Nicholas Upsall, 
who was persecuted and imprisoned for aiding Quakers. The 
sign is on the upper side of the building that now occupies 
the site, and bears the initials of Upsall's granddaughter and 
her husband, "T.W.** and "S.W." 

In colonial Boston, North St. was named Ann St. and was 
the site of several taverns where revolutionaries brewed their 
political plans. By the early 19th century it had degenerated 
into a rough waterfront area of brothels, saloons and gambling 
houses. The "nymphs of Ann Street" were notorious until 
1854 when the area was cleaned up and the name changed 
to the present one. The neighborhood is now primarily a 
Sicilian-American community. A left Uirn onto North St. will 
bring you to the junction of Sun Court, Moon St. and Garden 
Court which forms North Square. Rachel Revere Park, the 



136 



enclosed area on your right, was once the site of a colonial 
marketplace and is now a community play area and meeting 
place. 

At 29 North Square is the Moses Pierce-Hichbom House. 
Nathaniel Hichbom was Paul Revere's cousin and a ship- 
builder. His three-story home is one of the two 18th-century 
buildings still standing in this section of Boston. It has been 
completely restored and gives a clear sense of early 19th- 
century town Kfe. Notice that the huge wooden beams are 
held together by giant pegs rather than nails. 

Next door is the Paul Revere House, the oldest wood build- 
ing in Boston proper and an official Freedom Trail site. The 
first home on this land was that of a Captain Kemble who 
was condemned by the Puritans to suffer for two hours in the 
stocks for "lewd and viscious behaviour." In returning from 
a three-year absence at sea, he had kissed his wife on the 
front steps of their home on a Sunday. Ownership of the house 
then passed to the Mathers, Old Boston's most famous family. 
It was a convenient location for them, as both Increase and 
Cotton ser^'ed as ministers of the Church at North Square. 
The Mather home was destroyed by fire in 1676, and the land 
was bought by a John Jeff who constructed the present house. 

Paul Revere purchased the building in 1770 and moved in 
with his wife, mother, and five children. Two more daughters 
were bom before the first Mrs. Revere died in 1773. Paul's 
second wife, whom he married that same year, bore seven 
more children between 1774 and 1785. The unusual size of 
the Revere family made this house the only one in North 
Square that did not have to quarter British soldiers during 
the Revolution. 

On March 5, 1771, the first anniversar)^ of the Boston 
Massacre, at the urging of Samuel Adams and the Sons of 
Liberty, Revere staged a re-enactment of the event on oiled 
paper stretched across his North Square windows. The shadow- 
figure drama depicted the whole bloody sequence, from the 
line-up of British soldiers on King St. to the appearance of 
the ghosts of the \ictims of the Massacre, complete with a 
warning: "Sneider's pale Ghost fresh bleeding stands/And 
\engeance for his Death demands." 

At 11 North Square is the Mariner's Home (1838), an all- 
purpose lodging house and refuge for seamen and a reminder 



137 



of the area's maritime importance. A short walk up Garden 
Court to Prince St. will bring you to the site where Thomas 
Hutchinson built his mansion in 1710. His son. Governor 
"Stingy Tommy" Hutchinson, lived there, and after the Stamp 
Act of 1765 the house was sacked by an angry mob. 

Nearby was the Clark mansion, built in 1711. In 1756 it 
became the property of Sir Charles Henry Frankland, who 
scandalized Boston society when he brought his Marblehead 
mistress Agnes Surriage to his home in order to "supervise her 
education." He was tutoring her in Lisbon during that city's 
massive 18th-century earthquake. She saved his life and be- 
came Lady Frankland in return. The Clark/Frankland home 
was razed in 1833. 

Across the street from the site of the Hutchinson home, at 
4 Garden Court, is the brick tenement building in which Rose 
Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in 1890. With the flight of the 
wealthy after the Revolution, cramped tenement buildings like 
this began to fill in the old gardens and open spaces of the 
North End. The successive waves of famine, especially the 
potato-crop failures of 1824 and 1847, brought thousands of 
Irish immigrants who filled the crowded new buildings and 
inherited the old mansions usually on the scale of one family 
per room. John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, Rose's father and a 
mayor of Boston, was the son of one such family, and was 
born in the vicinity of North Square. 

Leave the North Square area by way of Prince St. and walk 
over one block left to Hanover. A walk up Hanover St. quickly 
imparts the Mediterranean character of the neighborhood. 
From the store front signs to the street-corner philosophers, the 
language is most likely to be Italian. Espresso cafes and pastry 
shops seem to be on every comer— try a taste of some tradi- 
tional Italian sweets. Hanover St. is also home to a number of 
restaurants which serve only home-cooked meals. 

In the summertime, Hanover St. and the neighboring side 
streets open up with the traditional European religious fes- 
tas. These are lively block festivals commemorating various 
saints' days and are carried on by local civic groups almost 
every summer weekend. For a list, see the Festival American 
Calendar. 

On your right at the comer of Hanover and Clark is the 
very beautiful brick St. Stephen's Roman Catholic Church. 



138 



It was originally the "New North Meeting House" and included 
Paul Revere among its members. Charles Bulfinch designed 
the building in 1804. Ten years later it was taken over by 
the Unitarians. Soon after, however, all of the old Yankee 
families moved out to the South End or Back Bay and con- 
sidered attending services in the then-Irish North End "un- 
genteel." In 1862 the church became Roman Catholic and was 
renamed. It has served successive Irish, Portuguese, and Italian 
communities. In 1965 it was renovated and restored by Richard 
Cardinal Cushing. 

The Paul Revere Mall or Prado connects St. Stephen's 
Church with Christ Church. It was constructed by the city in 
1933 and "dedicated to the memory of those men and women 
who helped make Boston the pride of later generations." Like 
its European counterparts and every other sizeable open space 
in the North End, the Prado is a natural gathering place, a 
neighborhood park used by residents all year round. 

The side walls of the Prado are laid with bronze plaques 
that are worth reading for an over-view of Boston's history. 
One is dedicated to the Salutation Tavern which stood on the 
far side of St. Stephen's at the foot of Salutation St. In 18th- 
century Boston it was the site of many of the meetings of 
local patriots. As the North End was the maritime center of 
Boston, a large number of these men were ship's caulkers, 
those who filled in the seams of the ship to make it sea- 
worthy. To summon them to meetings messengers would run 
through the narrow streets of the North End crying "Caulk- 
ers! Caulkersl" With repeated use this soon degenerated into 
"Caucus! Caucus!", thereby adding a new political term to 
the American lexicon. 

As you exit from the rear of the Mall you will cross Unity 
St. Around the corner on Unity Court, where there is most 
likely to be a street hockey game going on, lived John Fitz- 
gerald, Rose Kennedy's father. At 21 Unity St. is the Clough 
House, the second of the North End's two remaining eight- 
eenth-century homes. Erected in 1715, it was one of a row 
of six identical houses, including one owned by Benjamin 
Franklin and inhabited by his sister. That house was razed at 
the time of the constniction of the Mall. The Clough House 
was formerly the home of Ebenezer Clough, a member of the 
Sons of Liberty and one of the warpainted participants in the 



139 



Boston Tea Party. The building, which is not open to the pub- 
lic, has been restored and is used by Christ Church. 

A short walk past the Clougb House, through the tiny court- 
yard and up the stairs will bring you to the front of Christ 
Church, popularly known as "Old North." The name "Old 
North" is one that has been applied to several of the city's 
churches, but thanks to Paul Revere and Longfellow, Christ 
Church is by far the most famous. As the oldest church build- 
ing in Boston, it is an official Freedom Trail site. It was built in 
1723 as the second Anglican parish in the city. The pews are 
all numbered and labeled with the names of the original own- 
ers. Don't forget to notice the wine glass-shaped pulpit or the 
cherubim around the organ in the rear balcony. The latter 
were the gifts of Captain Thomas Gruchy, whose notoriety you 
will read about later. 

"Old North" achieved its fame on the 18th of April in 
1775 when its sexton Robert Newman hung two lanterns in 
its steeple as a signal that the British were advancing by sea 
toward Concord to seize arms stored there. Meanwhile, Paul 
Revere made his way with muffled oars under British gunboats 
across the Charles and began his famous ride. The lantern- 
hanging is re-enacted every year on the eve of Patriots Day. 

Christ Church is surrounded by several little gardens that 
are quiet resting places. The Washington Memorial Garden is 
the best of these. The most curious of its many plaques is the 
one to the left of the entrance gate which commemorates the 
flight of John Childs from the steeple of the Church. It took 
place in 1757 in a bird-like contraption, and was authentic 
enough that the Colonial Dames donated the plaque at the 
time of the first transatlantic airplane crossing. 

Leave the Old North Church area by way of Hull St., which 
begins at the front entrance of the Church. At 44 Hull St. is 
a building reported to be the narrowest house in Boston. It's 
two hundred years old and has been the victim of several 
street widenings. Across the street is the entrance to the Copp's 
Hill Burying Ground, Boston's second oldest cemetery and an 
official Freedom Trail site. It was appropriated in 1660 when 
King's Chapel Burying Ground became too crowded. The 
Mathers, Robert Newman, Thomas Hutchinson, Sr., and others 
are all buried here. Stop and wander among the gravestones 
and pick out other notables. 



140 



The Snowhill St. side of the cemetery was originally reserved 
for slaves and freedmen, of v^hom over 1,000 are buried here. 
Prince Hall, founder of the African (Masonic) Grand Lodge 
of Massachusetts, is one of these and has a marker to the right 
of the Snowhill St. side pathway. The Mathers— Cotton, In- 
crease, and Samuel— occupy a huge tomb near the Charter St. 
side and are surrounded by an iron railing. Cotton and In- 
crease were the foremost ministers in the town, while Samuel 
was the man who negotiated the first provincial charter. One 
of Cotton Mather's most famous sermons at the Old North 
Church concerned "divine delights" and was delivered in 
1686, two weeks after he had married Abigail Phillips. His 
most "divine delight", the young bridegroom confessed, was 
reading the Bible. In later years, Cotton Mather was to achieve 
his greatest prominence in the Massachusetts Bay Colony as 
its most persistent witch-hunter. He did, however, encourage 
inoculation against smallpox, even though he believed that 
"sickness is the whip of God for the sins of man." 

Copp's Hill is best for epitaph-reading. One of the better 
ones is that of Peter Oilman: 

Stop here my friend, and in a mirroir see, 
What you though e'er so healthy soon must be 
Beauty with all her rosebuds paints each face; 
Approaching death will soon strip you of each grace. 

There are numerous others equally as cheerful. 

Leave the Bur\dng Ground through the Hull St. gate. At the 
corner of Hull and Snowhill Streets, if you glance downtown, 
you can see Government Center, the Hancock, and the Pruden- 
tial Center. Follow the trail around the tiny side street and 
back to Snowhill. At 53 Snowhill Street are the former studios 
of Robert Chase, designer of the Prado plaques. 

A right turn at the top of the hill will bring you to Charter 
Street. It was here that the original charter for the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony was hidden after the British attempted 
to revoke it because it gave the settlement virtual autonomy. 
As you walk along Charter Street you are at the summit of 
Copp's Hill, the North End's highest point. During the Battle 
of Bunker Hill, the homes along Charter Street served as an 
excellent vantage point for spectators. Afterwards, the street 
was converted into a makeshift hospital for the wounded of 
both sides. 



141 



The Charter St. Playground on Copp's Hill Terrace on your 
left is a good place to rest before continuing your walk past 
the Burying Ground. Across the harbor from left to right you 
can see Charlestown, Chelsea, and East Boston. The gray obe- 
lisk off to the far left is the Bunker Hill monument. You are 
at the point where the British stationed their batteries and 
fired on Charlestown. At the foot of the hill, over to the left, 
is the site of Boston's first black settlement, "New Guinea." 

A short walk up Charter Street to the comer of Salem will 
bring you to the site of the colonial mansion of William Phips, 
the first provincial governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
In 1745 Thomas Gruchy arrived in Boston from the Isle of 
Jersey and purchased the old Phips home. In its basement he 
constructed a 14-foot wide tunnel leading under Charter and 
Henchman Streets to the waterfront. At night mysterious ships 
would anchor in the harbor and there would be a bustle at 
the mouth of Gruchy's tunnel. In the morning, the ships would 
disappear. Captain Gruchy was a church deacon and a smug- 
gler, using his secret tunnel to bring in plunder from Spanish 
galleons, thereby avoiding taxation. When it appeared that he 
might be caught, he threw a lavish party for all his friends. 
In the course of the evening Gruchy made a short speech and 
excused himself. Boston never saw him again. 

Take a right turn onto Salem Street. At number 190 is the 
Dodd House, which was built in 1805 on a part of the old 
governor's estate. The Dodds were the last of the North End's 
old families and were deeply entrenched in the past, so much 
so that theirs was the last home in Boston to continue using 
its fireplace for cooking— well after stoves had come into com- 
mon use. 

Salem Street used to be the center of the clothing and 
millinery industries. In the 19th century it was an area of 
Jewish merchants and street peddlers, mostly Eastern Euro- 
pean immigrants who first arrived in the 1850s. With each 
new set of arrivals, Salem Street was Uned with wagons 
crammed with immigrants identifiable to their American rela- 
tives only by their name tags. For the next fifty years, the 
North End was the social and religious center of Greater Bos- 
ton's Jewish community. The influx continued until the 1920s 
when the colony began to filter out to the suburbs. By 1950 
the Jewish population of the area was negligible. 

Salem St. today is distinctly Italo-American. This walk down 



142 



from Copp's Hill is the final stretch of the North End Trail 
and should be taken leisurely. It is along here that you can 
get a sense of the area as a Hving community. In addition, the 
aroma of freshly-baked bread and pastry make a walk down 
Salem Street irresistible. At North Bennet St. is the Industrial 
School, while further up that street is the area where the first 
Italians— Genoese— settled in 1860. The butcher shops along 
Salem St. display their products in the open air. At Easter 
time whole lambs and goats hang in the windows. If you 
would like to get more of a feel for the area you might take 
a right on to Cooper St. and wander along the narrow side 
streets. 

Continuing along Salem St., around the corner of Parmenter 
St. is the North End Branch Library. It was designed after 
a Roman villa with an open-air atrium, and houses a model of 
the Ducal Palace of Venice. In the summertime there are 
Italian-style puppet shows there. Behind the hbrar)^' is the 
home of DeFerrari, the street peddler who invested in the 
stock market and became a millionaire. He left a million dol- 
lars to the Boston Public Library and helped finance the addi- 
tion to it. Across from the library is the North End Union 
where you can rest awhile and see an exhibit about the histor\ 
of the North End. 

At 99 Salem St. is the site of the oldest bakery in America, 
where bread was baked for the Continental Army. The foot 
of Salem St. today is a shoppers' mall and an open-air market 
similar to Haymarket. It's an appropriate place to conclude a 
walking tour of the North End. The mall will lead you to the 
pedestrian tunnel and back to Faneuil Hall. 



CHARLESTOWN TRAIL 

( Map, pp. 144-145) 

Charlestown is older than Boston. It was founded in 1629 
by a handful of settlers sent by the Massachusetts Bay Com- 
pany to inhabit the company's holdings in New England. The 
group consisted of ten men, their families and their servants; 
they were joined one year later by John Winthrop, the first 
governor of the colony, and his shipload of Puritans. Their 



143 



first years were dogged by epidemics, fear of Indians, and a 
water supply so foul that it drove Winthrop to pack up half 
the colony and move across the Charles to a purer spring. Thus 
it was Charles town's bad water that brought on the founding 
of Boston. 

But the others remained 'loyal to their original site, and 
Charlestown grew. By the end of the 17th century it had 
formed a democratic town meeting, founded a church, a school 
and a mill, and even hanged Massachusetts's first witch. As 
colonial resentment of British authority deepened, Charles- 
town's sentiments kept pace with Boston's, and when the 
Revolution finally came, Charlestown was the site of its first 
major battle. Its citizens paid for Bunker Hill by seeing their 
town burned to the ground. 

Rebuilding began the moment the war ended, and most of 
the fine 18th-century buildings on the trail are the product of 
new-born national enthusiasm. In 1786 a bridge between 
Charlestown and Boston opened amid shouts of, "You Charles- 
town Pigs, Put on your wigs, And come over to Boston town." 
By 1830, rudimentary public transit made it possible to com- 
mute, and the resultant boom created most of the buildings 
on Main St. An influx of Irish immigrants doubled Charles- 
town's population in the 1850s, and caused the introduction 
of multi-family and row houses. 

The Navy Yard was built early in the 19th century, and 
soon became the town's chief employer, building 35 warships 
between 1825 and 1868. Shipbuilding flagged after the Civil 
War, although the Yard continued to supply the Navy with 
rope and anchor chain. But during World War II the Yard 
and Charlestown experienced a renaissance: between Pearl 
Harbor and 1945, 141 ships were built and 5000 were serviced. 

Except for the wartime boom, the first half of the 20th 
century was a dark period for Charlestown. The Depression 
struck hard: businesses failed, employment slacked off, shops 
and houses were left to decay. But since the sixties an enthu- 
siastic population and an active urban renewal program have 
wrought drastic changes. Private citizens have restored most 
of the 18th-century houses for their own use. The town's big- 
gest triumph was the "Second Battle of Bunker Hill" over the 
future of the U.S.S. Constitution and the Navy Yard. Thanks 
to citizen action and proposals by the Boston Redevelopment 
Authority, the National Park Service has now decided to main- 



146 



tain the most historic portions of the Navy Yard as a park 
dedicated to "Old Ironsides." 

From the new Community College station on the MBTA 
Orange Line, follow the map up Washington and Union Sts. to 
Thompson Square where the trail begins. The elaborate Vic- 
torian style of the old elevated station at Thompson Square is 
mirrored by the 120-year-old Charlestown Savings Bank across 
the street. You are opposite the Thompson Square Triangle, 
a triangular slice of land between Warren and Main that was 
long known as Craft's Corner, because Elias Craft kept an 
apothecary shop here until 1869. In that year, the City Council 
ordered the enlargement of the public square area, and it was 
renamed Thompson Square in honor of a prominent Charles- 
town family which had lived for years in the neighborhood. 
James Thompson had arrived with Winthrop in 1630, and 
Timothy fought at Bunker Hill. 

The first building of note you pass is 125-27 Main, the 
Armstrong House. Samuel T. Armstrong started a printing shop 
on the street floor here in 1810. Among his customers were 
the members of the Universalist Society (forerunners of the 
Unitarians) who met upstairs in Edmands Hall, while the rest 
of Charlestown looked on in horror at their sinful doings. 

Across the street from you is 118-22 Main St., now a vacant 
lot on the corner of Union. Pause in memory of Jacob Forster, 
who in 1793 built a house here and thatched the roof with 
cowhides, thinking they would keep him as dry as they had 
kept the cows. Unfortunately, he forgot the action of the sun, 
and on the first warm day the smell of Jacob's roof forced him 
and his irate neighbors to leave the area. 

The Timothy Thompson House at 119 Main St. was built 
in 1794 by the Bunker Hill Timothy, who set up his carpentry 
shop here when he came home from the Revolution. Next door 
on the corner of Main and Pleasant is the old Warren Tavern. 
Built soon after the burning of the town, it belonged in 1780 
to Eliphalet Newell, the baker. Before long it became the Cen- 
eral Warren Tavern (named in honor of the hero of Bunker 
Hill), and was headquarters for King Solomon's Lodge, founded 
by the general's brother John, with Paul Revere as a charter 
member. It has been restored to resemble a 1790s tavern and 
is a good spot for lunch or a beer. See p. 273 for hours and 
prices. Before you leave Main St., go around the corner and 



147 



up Pleasant for a glance at another of Timothy's homes, the 
beige Thompson-Sawyer House. 

Now retrace your steps to the intersection of Main, Devens, 
Prescott and Harvard Sts. In 1630, Devens St. contained a 
group of huts and tents erected by the three Sprague brothers 
and their fellow colonists. Called Crooked Lane at that time, 
it later became Bow St., and contained fashionable brick houses 
with gardens and bathing piers on the river. The odd little 
stone house at the corner of Harvard and Main (92 Main) 
was built in 1822 by General Nathaniel Austin, a sheriff of 
Middlesex County who carried out the execution of "Mike 
Martin alias Captain Lightfoot," the last of the highwaymen. 
Turn up Harvard St. to Harvard Place, a cobblestone court- 
yard dating from before the Revolution, that takes off to your 
right. 

Just beyond Harvard Place is the Edward Everett House, 
16 Harvard St. Unquestionably the finest of the Federal houses 
in Charlestown, it was built by the merchant Matthew Bridge 
for his daughter in 1812 and purchased by statesman Edward 
Everett in 1830. A famous orator during the Civil War, Everett 
is best known today for his bad luck: he gave the two-hour 
speech that preceded Lincoln's Gettysburg Address! 

Harvard St. now brings you down into City Square, which 
was the heart of colonial Charlestown and is still the major 
crossroads for traffic and pigeons. It began as the Market Place, 
the open area in front of the governor's mansion, which stood 
where Harvard Mall is now. This entire area is still collectively 
known as Town Hill, and is the site of the first permanent 
Charlestown settlement. 

Harvard Mall is one block to your left as you enter the 
square from Harvard St. This is the spot where the colonists 
built a fort in 1629 for protection against the Indians. Later, 
deciding that no protection was necessary, they replaced the 
fort with a frame house for Governor Winthrop. The governor, 
however, took the house away with him when he accepted 
Blackstone's invitation to move across the Charles and found 
Boston. Undaunted, the remaining settlers built another man- 
sion, the Great House, which became the legal, administrative 
and religious center of the infant colony. It housed the Court 
of Assistants (established in 1630; you pass a commemorative 
plaque on the police station en route to the Mall), the First 
Church (1632) and William Witherell's first school (1636). 



148 



By 1775, City Square was a bustling commercial center. It 
was from here that Paul Revere began his ride on the night 
of April 18, 1775. His journal reads, "When I got into (Charles- 
town), I met Colonel Conant and several others; they said 
they had seen our signals. I told them what was acting and 
went to get me a horse; I got a horse of Deacon Larkin." 

The land for Harvard Mall was the gift of a Harvard alum- 
nus to commemorate John Harvard, an early Charlestown in- 
habitant. Harvard settled on Town Hill in 1637, and "was 
sometime minister of God's word" in Charlestown. He died of 
consumption only a year after his arrival, at the age of 27, but 
gained immortality by bequeathing his library (320 books) 
and half his estate to the struggling college in Cambridge. 

Turn right when you reach the John Harvard memorial, and 
leave the Mall through the gap in the wall between the two 
plaques. Facing you is 27 Harvard Square, another diminutive 
split-stone house which served for years as the town dispensary. 

Continue down Henley St. and turn left on Main St., one 
of the oldest streets in town. In the early part of the 19th 
century. Main St. residents were often awakened by the horns 
of fox hunters galloping past. Later the part of Main nearest 
the bridge became a leather district, selling morocco goods from 
nearby factories. Most of the buildings you are passing are 
19th-century, built to house shops and oflBces on the street 
level and families on the floors above. 55-61 Main, the newly 
painted white house on your right, is the post-Revolutionary 
Deacon Larkin House (built 1795), home of the man who 
loaned Paul Revere a horse. (Revere was captured by the 
British during the ride, and although they let him go, they 
made him trade horses with a British officer whose mount was 
tired. So Larkin never got the animal back.) The John Hurd 
House next door at 65-71 Main is of the same period. Both 
houses have lost some 18th-century detail with restoration. 

Now turn right up 19th-century Monument Ave., and climb 
the hill where the patriots first met the British in a major 
battle. The Battle of Bunker Hill began on the morning of 
June 17, 1775, when the sailors on board the British man-of- 
war Lively awoke to see a group of colonials busily fortifying 
the nearer of the two hills above Charlestown. They were act- 
ing specifically to draw British fire, since the American gen- 
erals had learned that the British planned to attack Dorchester 
Heights and the hills above Charlestown on the following day. 



149 



with the help of guns on Castle Island and the Neck. The 
success of such a maneuver would trap the colonial forces in 
Cambridge and insure British control of Boston. 

The colonial ploy worked. General Howe advanced up the 
hill in textbook style with a force of about 3000 redcoats. The 
colonials, whose ammunition was low, obeyed Colonel Pres- 
cott's famous order not to fire "until you see the whites of 
their eyes." The volley which met the redcoats when they 
finally reached that range, fired by farmers who took pride in 
their marksmanship, is said to have mown down one-third of 
the advancing men. A second attack by Howe met with the 
same fate. 

Howe then sent instructions to General Burgoyne to set fire 
to Charlestown, whose citizens had been sniping at him during 
the attack. While the town burned, Howe assaulted the hill 
again— this time successfully, thanks to the Americans' lack of 
powder. The colonials sustained most of their losses, including 
that of General Joseph Warren, during the ensuing retreat. 

Although technically a British victory, the battle had deci- 
mated the British troops and left the remaining force stale- 
mated in Boston harbor. American losses had been small, and 
the experience destroyed the patriots' awe of Britain's world- 
famous army. "I wish," said General Nathanael Greene, "that 
I could sell them another hill at the same price." 

The hill where Ebenezer Breed pastured tame antelope has 
thus become a symbol of American initiative. Plans for a per- 
manent monument and a public square got under way in 1822, 
and the obelisk that now stands on the site of the fortificatioii 
was designed by Solomon Willard. You can climb to the top 
for the view of Boston. 

Leave Monument Square via Winthrop Street and go down- 
hill to Winthrop Square. This lovely spot, where late 18th and 
late 19th-century houses coexist peacefully, was for a century 
the Training Field used to teach Charlestown boys the art of 
war. From here, soldiers went on to fight in the Revolution, 
the War of 1812 and the Civil War. As you go around the 
square you'll pass the old Salem Turnpike Hotel at 16 Com- 
mon St. and the yellow Arnold House at 14 Common St., both 
attractive Federal buildings dating from the early 1800s. The 
Old Training Field School (1827) on the west border of the 
square has been beautifully restored as a private residence. 



150 



From Winthrop Square you can follow the trail to the Navy 
Yard and "Old Ironsides" ( see p. 236 ) . If you'd rather visit 
the Navy Yard separately, continue down Winthrop St. and 
turn right on Warren past the site of the thatched hut of 
Thomas Walford, the smith who was Charlestown's first set- 
tler. He and his wife lived here alone in harmony with the 
Indians, but the Puritans threw him out of town by a court 
order two years after they arrived. The Walfords moved north 
to Piscataqua (now Portsmouth), where the smith became a 
wealthy and respected citizen. 81 Warren St. is a striking 
Federal house built in the 1790s. The house at the back of the 
court, 81 1/2 Warren, was built 75 years later, and the en- 
semble of houses and court has been restored to look as it 
did in the last century. Turn right at Pleasant St. to get a 
glimpse behind the chain- link fence of 8 IB Warren, a charm- 
ing little brown-shingled Georgian house with a gambrel roof. 

Then come back to Warren and continue to Cordis St. Laid 
out by Captain Joseph Cordis in 1799, it reflects the post- 
Revolutionary building fervor that raised Charlestown from 
the ashes. On your left you pass 16 Cordis, a small, dark 
brown Federal house built about 1799— probably the oldest 
on the street. 21 Cordis, a Federal house dating from 1802, 
is made particularly lovely by fine brickwork and an adjoining 
tulip tree. 

Turn left on High St. The block was part of the estate of 
Samuel Dexter, Secretary of the Treasury and of War under 
John Adams. (The President said of Dexter, "He was the ablest 
friend I had on earth.") As you turn left down Green St. to 
go back down the hill to Main, youll pass the once-elegant 
Dexter Mansion at 14 Green, now in need of restoration. 

At the bottom of the hill proceed down Main, take a left 
at Miller St. and continue to the Phipps Street Burying Ground. 
One of the three oldest cemeteries in Boston, this fascinating 
knoll provides the best historical record of pre-Revolutionary 
Charlestown. The reason is its unique layout: families were 
buried in rectangular plots, and the plots were ananged to 
correspond to the location of each family's house on Town 
Hill. Since the colonial town was burned, the graveyard has 
provided historians with the only surviving house-by-house 
map of its layout. 

The oldest remaining tombstone, dating from 1652, is to your 



151 



left as you approach the monument. Over 100 other stones 
from the 17th century survive: look for their simple Puritan 
style, showing only the name and date of death. The early 
18th-centiuy stones feature death's heads and angels, while the 
Federalists were partial to classical urns and willow designs. 

Phipps Street Burying Ground is the last site on the trail. 
From here you can retrace your steps along Main St. to Thomp- 
son Square and catch the MBTA back to Boston. 



WATERFRONT TRAIL 

(Map, p. 153) 

Boston was a born port. From Captain John Smith on, 
early visitors to the Bay praised the fine depth of the harbor, 
the natural breakwater provided by islands, and the beauty 
and protection of the surrounding hills. It took only a few 
years for early settlers to develop the town's possibilities: John 
Josselyn, a visitor in 1663, reported Boston houses as *'for the 
most part raised on the Sea-banks and wharfed out with great 
industry and cost. . . "Wharfing-out" has gone on without 
pause ever since, including four major land fills which turned 
sea into city each time the port's business outgrew its berths. 

The waterfront area survived the mid- 19th-century change- 
over from sail to steam, but decHne of foreign markets, the 
rise of the railroads and the growth of New York seriously 
undercut Boston trade. By the early 1920s many of the great 
wharves were in use only as fish piers and dwellings for the 
Bohemian "Wharf Rats." Waterfront buildings decayed grad- 
ually until the fifties, when an urban renewal program and 
resident action began to reverse the trend. 

Start the trail at Quincy Market, where you can visit Boston 
200's Revolution exhibit before setting out. The Market was 
the product of the first of many harbor landfills. In the early 
1820s Mayor Josiah Quincy filled the part of the cove between 
Long Wharf and the Town Dock (which had existed since 
Puritan days, and still gives its name to the surrounding Dock 
Square). By the time of Quincy's adminis'tration the Town 
Dock had become a squaHd area littered with oyster shells 



152 



and dead cats, so Quincy's project was an early attempt at 
urban renewal. On the new land Alexander Parris designed a 
majestic granite market building, flanked by granite ware- 
houses. In honor of the Bicentennial the ensemble has been 
restored to much of its past ejegance. 

Follow the map from Quincy Market under the expressway 
and up Mercantile St. past the granite head of Mercantile 
Wharf. If Quincy Market represents the first of the granite 
wharf buildings, Mercantile Wharf is the last. Built in 1857, 
it shows you how business architecture had by then evolved 
a new style of commercial temple, more compatible with shop- 
keeping than the majestic market buildings. The design bor- 
rows from Renaissance palazzos, but at street level it uses 
heavy posts and lintels to create enlarged doorways where shop- 
keepers could display their wares. The original tenants of Mer- 
cantile Wharf were ships* chandlers, sail makers (who used the 
high roof and vast bays to stretch their sails) and riggers, who 
took advantage of the damp basement to store their ropes and 
thus increase their weight and price! 

Turn left at Richmond St. and cross Commercial St. which 
parallels Mercantile St. Pause to look up and down Commer- 
cial, which in the 1830s and 40s ran along the very edge of 
Town Cove, and has been preserved intact as an outstanding 
example of early commercial architecture. 

Continue to the end of Richmond and turn right on Fulton 
St. The oldest buildings on Fulton and Commercial are of 
brick, and combine earlier Federal upper stories wdth post-and- 
lintel shop fronts on the street floor. 120 Fulton is the Mc- 
Lauthlin Building, the earliest building in Boston with a com- 
plete cast-iron facade. This proto-skyscraper was built in 1863, 
during a period when iron first began to be used by builders 
who thought it was a fire-proof material. Other structures soon 
proved them wrong, but the McLauthlin Building never 
burned, and still houses the elevator company which originally 
owned it. 

Turn right at the head of Fulton St. and pass the Prince 
Building, formerly the home of Prince Spaghetti and now a 
modern apartment house. Then head up Commercial toward 
the water, and cross busy Atlantic Ave., which represents an- 
other drastic change in the Waterfront area. The avenue was 
built in the 1860s to provide a roadbed for a railroad line 



154 



between North and South Stations. In the process, it sliced 
through many of the great wharf buildings, cutting off their 
heads from the sea. The railroad was a sign that the city was 
beginning to face inland, turning from the sea towards the 
rest of the countr\ . 

Now come out to the end of Lewis Wharf for your first full 
view of the harbor. This was the site of Thomas Clarke's 
wharf, one of the first wharves to be built and used for for- 
eign trade during the British Civil War. Ships sailed from 
here to Africa with rum from the New England distilleries, 
exchanged it for slaves who were carried to W'est Indian planta- 
tions, then brought molasses north from the islands to be 
turned into more rum. Besides rum and slaves, Boston mer- 
chants traded other commodities with the islands, the southern 
colonies and Europe, usually in express defiance of English law, 
which sought to limit New England's export market to the 
mother country, or at least collect a share of the take from 
Boston's foreign trade. The colonials contested Britain's claims, 
declaring that "they were as much Englishmen as those in 
England, and had a right, therefore, to all the privileges which 
the people of England enjoyed." The battle began officially 
with the Navigation Acts in 1660, and continued unabated 
throughout the next 100 years. 

Bostonians were brazen smugglers all during this period, but 
nobody was more brazen than John Hancock, who owned 
Clarke's Wharf by the 1760s. In June, 1768, one of Hancock's 
ships arrived from Madeira with a cargo of wine. W^hen a 
customs officer came on board, Hancock's captain imprisoned 
him in the hold until the wine had been unloaded. The next 
morning the captain appeared at the Customs House with a 
few barrels, and vowed that it was his entire cargo. When 
officials tried to seize the ship, they were beaten almost sense- 
less by a mob. As a result, a British regiment landed in Boston 
seven years before the battles of Lexington and Concord to 
restore order. 

Lewis Wharf was built in the 1830s to match Commercial 
Wharf, and became a center of the clipper trade with China, 
Europe, Australia and Hawaii. Boston took up cHpper building 
in 1850, when the outcry for rapid passage to California's gold 
fields, added to the quickening pace of the China tea trade, 
suddenly made it profitable to crew these complicated vessels. 



Long, low and streamlined, clippers boasted a veritable forest 
of sails, which were manned by sailors who "worked like 
horses at sea and behaved like asses ashore." Boston s master- 
builder Donald McKay populated American ports with clippers 
for nearly thirty years, and ^very ship he built taught him 
lessons that made the next one better. "I am in love with the 
ship, a better sea boat or working ship or drier I never sailed 
in," wrote the master of McKay's first clipper, the Staghound. 
Even landlubbers agreed, and proved their devotion by placing 
huge wagers on the chances of McKay's ships beating all com- 
petitors in the runs to California, Liverpool or China. This they 
invariably did. 

From Lewis Wharf you can look north to Sargent's Wharf 
with its massive Quincy Cold Storage building, a former re- 
frigerator-warehouse whose fate is now in question. The attrac- 
tive smaller brick building in the foreground is the Pilot House, 
built around 1863 and probably used as a land-sea transfer 
station for cargo traveling by rail. In 1972, renovators discov- 
ered a false floor in the building with storage space under- 
neath, leading them to speculate that the building may also 
have been used by opium smugglers. 

Commercial Wharf is the next wharf you come to as you 
continue down Atlantic Ave. Built in 1834, this was the first 
of the Greek revival wharf buildings. Isaiah Rogers designed 
the north side of "the best Charlestown brick" and the south 
side of Quincy granite. As Colonel Forbes remarks in The Old 
Wharves of Boston, "It was a hightoned wharf in those days 
and if a fishing smack or a lobster boat stuck its nose into the 
dock it would have been turned out instanter." However, by 
the 1870s the tone of the wharf had been lowered, and fishing 
vessels crowded the dock. Today the portion of the wharf that 
still fronts on the water contains ofiices and apartments. 

As you walk from Commercial to Long Wharf look inland 
towards the granite Mercantile Wharf building and Commer- 
cial Block. The open area between these buildings and At- 
lantic Ave. closely approximates the line of the 19th-century 
Great Cove, and plans are under way for a waterfront park 
in this space. Between Commercial and Long Wharf was 
T Wharf, which extended parallel with the shore from Long 
Wharf with a crossbar running out into the harbor. T Wharf 
did a thriving business in fish and packet cargos until the early 
decades of this century. In 1909, old-timers claim, it was still 



156 



possible to walk from Long Wharf to T Wharf to Commercial 
Wharf on the decks of the vessels moored there. 

Now walk out to the end of Long Wharf, which in colonial 
times was part of a road from the Old State House straight 
into the deepest part of the harbor. It was built in 1710 by 
Captain Oliver Noyes and lined with elegant brick warehouses 
in the same style as the Chart House Restaurant (the Gardiner 
Building), which is the only building that still survives from 
the late 18th century. At the head of the wharf was the Bunch 
of Grapes Tavern, once, in John Adams' words, a "breeding 
ground for bastards and legislators." To give you an idea of 
how long Long Wharf really was, the site of the tavern is now 
far inland on State Street (you saw it on the Freedom Trail). 

John Hancock headed the Long Wharf Company in Revo- 
lutionary times, and may have had his office in the Gardiner 
Building. John Singleton Copley, the famous American portrait- 
ist, grew up on the wharf, where his mother kept a tobacco 
shop. 

Long Wharf stayed busy throughout the 19th century, both 
as a merchant wharf and as the headquarters of the customs 
officials for Boston harbor. The granite Customs House Block, 
now used for shops and apartments, was built here in 1845 by 
Isaiah Rogers. Nathaniel Hawthorne served there as an inspec- 
tor, and used to deal so mercilessly with sea captains that one 
of them, according to a contemporary account, "fled up the 
wharf . . . inquiring, with a sailor's emotions and a sailor's 
tongue, 'What, in God's name, have you sent on board my 
ship as an inspector?' " Hawthorne may have been impatient 
to get back to his writing— he was working on Twice Told 
Tales at the time. 

Other milestones in Long Wharf history include the depar- 
ture of the first missionaries to Hawaii in 1819 (described in 
James Michener's book), the arrival of the first bananas in 
New England in 1871, and the embarkation of Joshua Slocum 
in 1895 on a one-man voyage round the world in the Spray. 
The wharf also participated in the boom created in Boston by 
the California Gold Rush in the 1850s, when hundreds of 
cowboy-hatted New Englanders, drunk on whiskey and high 
hopes, departed for San Francisco. Donald McKay's Flying 
Cloud, the fastest ship ever built, was moored here briefly be- 
fore being taken to New York by the company that owned it. 

From the end of Long Wharf you can see the Greek temple 



157 



design at the end of Commercial Wharf. You can also take 
boats from here to Provincetown or the harbor islands, many 
of which have stories of their own. George's Island was used as 
a fort and a prison, and acquired a ghost during the Civil 
War. A woman was caught ' trying to help her Confederate 
husband escape from the prison, and he was executed. She 
was hanged soon after in widow's weeds, and her black-clad 
ghost is said to have haunted the island ever since. Another 
smaller harbor island is now known as Nix's Mate in honor of 
a pirate who was hanged there, and predicted that the island 
would disappear as proof of his innocence. Sure enough, it is 
now submerged at high tide. 

Central Wharf, your next stop, now houses the excellent 
New England Aquarium (see p. 234). Stop to admire (but 
not feed) the seals and, if you like, visit the huge saltwater 
tank and the new mammal barge. During the Bicentennial the 
Aquarium will show a film called "Boston and the Sea," which 
was produced by the Museum of American China Trade— see 
it if you can. Central Wharf, which was completed in 1817, 
had its peak during the 19th-century cotton and fruit trade. 
It was part of an elaborate development financed by Uriah 
Cotting and designed by Charles Bulfinch, whose magnificent 
India Wharf building was destroyed in the 1960s to make way 
for the Harbor Towers (the two skyscrapers just south of you). 

If you wish, you can continue along Atlantic Avenue to 
Rowe's Wharf, where boats leave for Nantasket Beach, George's 
Island, Hull and tours of the harbor. Following Atlantic Avenue 
further (see the map) will bring you to the Boston Tea Party 
Ship and Museum (see p. 224). Otherwise, follow the mark- 
ers back under the expressway to Broad St. and the old finan- 
cial district. Laid out to feed into India Wharf, the street has 
attractive early 19th-century brick buildings on the water side, 
and monumental granite ones on the land side. Turn left on 
Half Moon Lane to see a lead shot tower, once used by the 
Chadwick Lead works. Molten lead was dropped off the top 
of the tower, and on the way down it formed little balls of 
shot, which were hard by the time they reached the ground. 

Continue up Broad to Milk St., and turn right to reach the 
Grain Exchange, a High Victorian fruitcake of a building by 
the firm of Shepley-Bulfinch. Across the street from it is the 
very old brick Jenney Building, once the head of Central 



158 



Wharf. Beyond is the Boston Custom House, the last granite 
shrine to commerce on your tour. Completed in 1847, it gained 
its tower in 1915 and became for a while the tallest building 
in Boston. If you arrive between Sam and 5pm on a weekday, 
take the elevator up to the observation floor for a last view 
of what Oliver Wendell Holmes called "the rebel bay." 



BEACON HILL TRAIL 

{Map, pp. 160-161 ) 

Beacon Hill, the residential district for very proper Boston- 
ians, was founded by a less than proper Anglican clergyman 
named William Blackstone. Blackstone came to Massachusetts 
in 1622, as pastor to a shipload of London ruffians under 
royal grant to colonize Shawmut peninsula. After a couple of 
years they returned to England, but Blackstone stayed, built 
a fine frame house for himself, planted an apple orchard, and 
led an uneventful existence until the Puritans arrived. "Shaw- 
mut's pioneer" liked strong drink and Indians, whereas the 
Puritans, who had settled on the opposite side of the river, 
liked neither. He further annoyed his strait-laced neighbors 
by riding his tame white bull up and down the beach at night. 
At the low point in their relationship, an outraged Puritan 
described Blackstone as a clergyman only in that he still had 
his clergyman's coat. The antipathy was mutual. But when the 
Puritans began to die from their foul water sources, Black- 
stone rode over to the Puritan colony and offered his spring 
and his territory. Governor Winthrop moved his colony to 
Blackstone's side of the river and Blackstone left Massachu- 
setts for the more liberal atmosphere of Rhode Island. 

The colony thrived. In 1634 the General Court ordered, 
"There shalbe forthwith a beacon sett on the sentry hill att 
Boston, to give notice to the country of any danger," and 
the area eventually took on the name of its principal land- 
mark. The beacons of Beacon Hill have had a long if not 
entirely happy history. The Puritans' beacon, set up to warn 



159 



the colony of Indians and foreign invaders, was torn down 
once the settlement was adequately fortified. In 1768 the Sons 
of Liberty built a new beacon to warn the town of British 
hostilities (and to irritate the British), but after the Revolu- 
tion it was blown down by Ihe wind. At this point the city 
commissioned Charles Bulfinch, Boston*s foremost architect, to 
design a monument for the site. This monument barely lasted 
twenty years. In 1807 John Hancock's heirs claimed part of 
the hill as their property and quarried gravel from it to sell 
for land fills. The monument literally had the ground carted 
away from under it. After it had been pulled down, the 
plaques and eagle were stored in the State House and then 
incorporated into the present monument, a copy of the Bul- 
finch original, which now stands in the State House parking lot. 

Most of the building on Beacon Hill occurred in the first 
quarter of the 18th century and necessitated leveling the three 
hills of the area: Mount Vernon (north of Louisburg Sq.); 
Pemberton Hill (now the Pemberton Sq. area); and Beacon, 
or Sentry, Hill (now the State House parking lot). About 
sixty feet was sheared from each summit, and Beacon Hill 
as we know it today came into existence. 

Residents of the Hill today take pride in living in the only 
downtown area of a large American city that has been resi- 
dential since its founding. Of all the neighborhoods in tradi- 
tional Boston, this is the most unswervingly traditional. Gas 
streetlights burn day and night, and the brick sidewalks were 
saved from destruction in 1947 by the ferocious ladies of West 
Cedar St., who sat upon them to prevent their removal. Con- 
servatism is now law: the Beacon Hill Architectural Commis- 
sion prevents any outward change, even a flashily painted 
door, if it offends the Hill's good taste. 

You will, however, notice a difference in ambience from 
block to block. Mount Vernon, Chestnut and other south slope 
streets house well-to-do families and rising professionals: mani- 
cured gardens and small children abound. The north slope runs 
more to students and prosperous hippies, and the evidence of 
dogs— present everywhere— becomes alarmingly frequent. But 
the one emotion that unites Hill residents is a fierce love of 
privacy. Streets are narrow and one-way and restrooms are 
absent (except in the State House and Charles Street Meeting 
House) specifically because the Hill does not mean to make 



162 



exploration easy. Remember as you walk that all the houses 
are private except the ones we note as museums. 

Begin your tour from the MBTA station at Park St., the 
first subway station in the country and now a National His- 
toric Landmark. From here enter the Boston Common and 
walk up to the gold-domed Massachusetts State House. 

Set aside by the Puritans in 1634, the Boston Common 
served as cow pasture, militia training ground and public park 
for over two hundred years. By the early 19th century, how- 
ever, it became apparent that the cows, soldiers and ordinary 
citizens were incompatible. The militia accidently shot some 
cows while practicing for the War of 1812 and the cows in 
their turn (so complained Mayor Josiah Quincy) were not 
polite to the ladies. Eventually the cows and soldiers went else- 
where, but the people who just wanted a place to sit or stroll 
remained— and so it is today. 

Exit from the Common in front of the State House. The 
building was designed in 1795 by Charles Bulfinch, but the 
distinctive gold-leaf on the dome was not added until 1861. 
You can enter the State House by the side-door in the right 
wing (the big double doors at the front entrance are opened 
only for important ceremonial occasions) and then head for 
Doric Hall, where you can ask questions and pick up pam- 
phlets. In the House Chamber hangs the much-celebrated 
wooden codfish, "a memorial of the importance of the Cod 
Fishery to the welfare of this Commonwealth.'' After his visit 
to Boston, Davy Crockett commented that the codfish was a 
natural symbolic gesture for the people of Massachusetts to 
make, and that he kept bearpaws and a pair of antlers in his 
own house. The Archives Museum, which you reach by a 
convoluted path through the basement, houses some of the 
oldest and most important documents of American history. 
The Museum collection includes the Massachusetts Constitu- 
tion, the oldest written constitution in the world still in eff^ect, 
as well as Governor Bradford's Of Plimoth Plantation, a chron- 
icle of the Pilgrims from their gathering in England through 
their first years in the New World. Americans thought they 
had lost the precious Bradford manuscript during the Revolu- 
tion, but over a hundred years later it turned up in the library 
of the Bishop of London. (Nobody knows how it got there.) 



163 



After considerable haggling the document was returned to 
Boston. When youVe finished with the sights inside the State 
House, exit by the Mount Vernon St. doors. 

Henry James called Mount Vernon "the only respectable 
street in America." Stroll down it at an easy pace and pretend 
you're in the 19th century. 32 was once the home of Julia 
Ward Howe, who wrote "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." 
The Howes gave some of the best parties in Boston (among 
them a reception for General Grant and a breakfast for Bret 
Harte), at the end of which Julia sang "The Battle Hymn" 
if requested by her guests. 55 Mount Vernon, now open to the 
public (Wed and Sat, 1pm to 5pm, $1 admission), was once 
the home of Rose Nichols, a writer and landscape architect. 

After you tour the delightful Nichols house, continue a 
short way down the street to 57 Mt. Vernon. This house was 
the residence of Daniel Webster for a short time, and after- 
wards the home of Charles Francis Adams. Adams was am- 
bassador to England during the Civil War and did much to 
prevent an alliance between that country and the Confederacy. 
You may know him, however, as the father of writer Henry 
Adams. Henry Adams spent his boyhood in this house, whose 
location in the heart of Beacon Hill made it an excellent ob- 
servation post for proper Boston. Apparently Henry observed 
very well. He once turned down a teaching job at Harvard 
because, he said, he knew "nothing of history, less about teach- 
ing, and too much about Harvard." As for Beacon Hill, it 
"lowered the pulsations of his heart." 

At the intersection of Mount Vernon and Walnut Sts. is 
14 Wahiut St., built in 1802 for John Callendar. Dr. John Joy 
(after whom Joy St. is named) sold a corner of his garden to 
Callendar and later mentioned to a friend that Callendar 
wished to build "a small house finished for little money"-a 
phrase by which the house has been known ever since. 

Continue down Mount Vernon. Pause for a second at 85 
Mount Vernon, the second of Harrison Gray Otis's three Beacon 
Hill homes. After only six years Otis moved* from here to the 
more prestigious neighborhood overlooking the Common. More 
recently, this house attained fame as the abode of film heroes 
-in The Thomas Crown Affair and in television s "Banacek." 

Now take a left down Willow St. until you come to a stone- 
lined trench. This is Acorn St., one of the few old cobblestone 



164 



streets left on Beacon Hill. Coachmen for nearby mansions 
used to live here, but now a more elite class fights for a chance 
to occupy these charming houses. 

Once back on Willow continue to Chestnut and stop at 50 
Chestnut, the former home of historian Francis Parkman. Then 
go up West Cedar and turn right on Mount Vernon until you 
come to renowned Louisburg Square. (Pronounce the s in 
Louisburg. ) The Square is one of the most popular sights in 
the city, and photographs of it turn up everywhere, including 
the cover of the Boston telephone directory. As you walk 
through, keep an eye open for 10 (the former home of Louisa 
May Alcott) and 20 (the place where Jenny Lind married her 
accompanist Otto Goldschmidt). The park itself is private; 
only the house owners have keys. 

You are almost halfway through the south loop of the trail. 
If you want to do only the south loop today, continue with 
the text below. But if you plan to complete both the north 
and south loops in one day, start the north loop now from 
Louisburg Square by following the map to 62 Pinckney St., 
the Hillard house. Turn to p. 167 for the text of the north 
slope loop. 

Turn left down Pinckney and left on Charles St. until you 
come to the Meeting House at 70 Charles. Back in the days 
when the waterline was closer ( and the river was cleaner ) the 
building housed the Third Baptist Church and baptisms took 
place in the Charles. But the Meeting House is best known 
as the forum for many anti-slavery speakers. William Llo\d 
Garrison spoke here, as did Wendell Phillips, Frederick Doug- 
las, Harriet Tubman, and Sojourner Truth. Nowadays the 
building is still dedicated to radical causes (as you'll discover 
by the posters in the basement snack bar), but the main 
hall is closed to visitors unless you can persuade somebody 
to give you a quick tour. 

Now turn onto the last leg of the trail, Beacon St. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes accurately described Beacon as "the sunny 
street for the sifted few"— the most exclusive section of Beacon 
Hill in the 19th century. 

At 63-64 Beacon you can see a few panes of the famous 
Beacon Hill purple glass. Between 1818 and 1824 some resi- 
dents of the Hill installed ordinary glass from England in 
their windows, only to see their windows gradually become a 



165 



rosy lavender color. Sunlight reacting with impurities in the 
glass caused this phenomenon. The windows created so much 
attention that the English manufacturers tried to duplicate 
their original error. When they finally succeeded, however, 
residents of the Hill without purple windows turned up their 
noses at the new batch of glass. It lacked tradition, they said, 
and tradition is the only thing that matters on Beacon Hill. 

Stop at Spruce St. According to legend, this is the site of 
William Blackstone's original settlement. The river used to run 
close by here in Blackstone's day (where Charles St. is today), 
and if you compare the site with the river's present location, 
you'll get some idea of how much land has been filled in since 
the 17th century. 

The Puritans moved to this side of the river for Blackstone's 
excellent spring, whose location historians speculated about 
for years. Most of them thought it was near Louisburg Square, 
even though that would have meant a long daily hike for Black- 
stone. But many years ago a spring broke through the cellar 
of a house near Chestnut and Spruce Sts. (that would be the 
second intersection from where you stand) and they asked: 
Is this Blackstone's spring resurfacing? The owner of the house 
was less impressed by the historical significance of the event. 
He had to pump out his cellar at considerable cost and (it is 
reported) his wife had to give up a new bonnet. 

Now walk to 45 Beacon St., known as the third Harrison 
Gray Otis house (built in 1806 by Bulfinch). Otis was a rich 
landholder-merchant of the early 19th century, whose lavish 
parties and gold-trimmed clothes were the talk of the town. 
Every day his servants filled a Lowestoft punchbowl near the 
stairway with ten gallons of punch, so that his guests had 
something to sustain them on their way up to the second floor 
drawing room. Otis himself breakfasted on pate de foie gras, 
followed by lunch at noon, dinner around three, and supper 
at eight or nine. Although this high style of living appears 
not to have shortened his Ufe— he lived to be eighty— Otis spent 
his last forty years suffering from gout. 

From the Otis house continue up Beacon St. (past 42-43, 
the site of portraitist John Singleton Copley's house) to 39-40, 
the Appleton-Parker houses, now the Women's City Club ( open 
Mon, Wed, and Fri, from 10am to 4pm, admission $1.50). 
You can tour the Appleton-Parker houses (and see the room 



166 



where Longfellow married Fanny Appleton), but keep in mind 
that the house has not been restored to reflect the style of the 
19th century. 

Approaching the State House you'll pass double gates with 
plaques that mark the site of John Hancock's house. During 
the Revolution Mrs. Hancock, the formidable Dorothy Quincy, 
wrote a letter to British authorities and complained that the 
British soldiers training on the Common were disturbing her 
with all their noise. History does not record the British Army's 
reply. 

Now that you've seen where the aristocrats lived, move on 
to the north slopes, historically the wrong side of the tracks. 
Not that all the residents of the north slopes were disreputable. 
Many well-to-do families lived on the eastern end of Cam- 
bridge St. (Harrison Gray Otis's first house is here) and black 
servants and artisans occupied the neighborhoods off Joy St. 
It was the area north of Louisburg Square which lacked 
respectability. Until 1823 it was the red-light district of Bos- 
ton, unflinchingly called Mount Whoredom (sometimes spelled 
"Hoardam" on maps to spare the sensitive). In 1775 a visiting 
British officer commented about the city: "No such thing as a 
play house, they were too puritanical a set to admit of such 
lewd Diversions, tho* ther's perhaps no town of its size cou'd 
turn out more whores than this cou'd." 

Of course this area aroused disapproval from the natives. 
As a Boston minister thundered, "Here, week after week, whole 
nights are spent in drinking and carousing; and as the morning 
light begins to appear, when others arise from their beds, these 
close their doors." The inhabitants, he pointed out, numbered 
"three hundred females wholly devoid of modesty and shame." 
But Boston's growth as a port proved stronger than Puritan 
fulminations. Even the development of the north slopes around 
1800 failed to change the area's distinctive character. In 1823, 
however, after one-too-many sailors' brawls. Mayor Josiah 
Quincy locked up the inhabitants of Mount Whoredom in his 
new House of Correction, "cleaned up" the area, and began its 
transformation into a neighborhood for middle class and work- 
ing people. 

Begin your tour of the north slopes at Pinckney St., the 
dividing line between the two slopes of the Hill. When the 



167 



Mount Vernon Proprietors began to develop the area, they 
were careful to insulate the elite of the south slopes from the 
masses settling in the north. Thus the Pinckney St. block is 
unusually long, with only three connecting streets between 
the two slopes. 

Near the corner of Joy and Pinckney, pause at 5 Pinckney, 
one of the oldest houses on the Hill. It was built in 1795 for 
George Middleton, a black coachman, and Louis Glapion, a 
black barber. Middleton fought in the Revolution. Farther up 
the street, at 20 Pinckney, is the house Louisa May Alcott and 
her family occupied in their poorer days. Louisa's father, 
Bronson Alcott, was an idealistic philosopher who dabbled in 
Utopian schemes but who was never quite able to support his 
family. A contemporary said of Alcott and his associates: "They 
dove into the Infinite, they soared into the Illimitable. And 
they never paid cash!" Fortunately Louisa was a practical 
person, and after she made money from her books the family 
moved to the more prosperous neighborhood of Louisburg 
Square. 

Pause briefly at 62 Pinckney St., the home of the Hillard 
family in the days of the Underground Railroad. George Hil- 
lard was a U. S. commissioner whose job it was to issue war- 
rants for fugitive slaves, and his wife was an abolitionist who 
reportedly hid slaves in their house without his knowledge. 
The stories about Mrs. Hillard's activities were unconfirmed 
until repairs were made at the turn of the century, and a hid- 
den trapdoor in the ceiling fell on a workman's head. They 
found a cubbyhole under the roof large enough to hold several 
people, with two plates and two spoons on the floor. 

Now return to the intersection at Anderson St., proceed 
along Anderson and then turn left on Revere. As you go down 
Revere you'll pass small private courts lined with red brick 
houses built around 1845. You might give a glance to Goodwin 
Place, at 73; Sentry Hill Place, at 79; and Bellingham Place, 
at 85. 

From here continue to West Gedar St. and turn onto Phillips 
St. Then walk on to 66 Phillips, formerly the home of aboli- 
tionists Lewis and Harriet Hayden. The Haydens were black 
leaders of the Underground Railroad and their home was one 
of the better-known "stops" in Boston. Although authorities 
knew about the Haydens' activities, they never searched their 
house for runaway slaves. The Haydens reportedly kept a keg 



168 



of gunpowder in their basement and threatened to blow them 
all up if they ever came. 

Walk on. Take a right on Anderson and then a left on 
Revere. Stop at Rollins Place, 27 Revere, a private court with 
red brick houses and (what looks like) an elaborate white 
porticoed house at one end. The white house is just a decora- 
tive wall— there's no house there. Years ago residents con- 
structed the facade to prevent careless people from dropping 
off the 40-foot cliff behind it. After you've looked it over to 
your satisfaction, take a right at the end of Revere, and then 
a left on Myrtle. 

Turn down South Russell St. until you come to 43, the 
Ditson House, built around 1797 by a trader named Joseph 
Ditson. It's one of the oldest houses on the Hill. Now walk up 
the street and look for an arched tunnel on your left. This is 
Holmes Alley, which was once used to hide fugitive slaves. 
Retrace your steps up South Russell, continue along Myrtle, 
and then turn left on Joy St. 

The art studio at 40-42 Joy was once a pair of stables, sepa- 
rate but identical, which were built by two brothers who didn't 
want to fight over sharing one. If you go in you can see the 
original stalls and feeders, now overflowing with artistic para- 
phernalia. A little farther down the street is 46 Joy, where 
residents established the first black school in Boston around 
1830. The school closed after ten years when the children were 
integrated into other Boston schools. 

Now turn into Smith Court, one of the first settlements 
made by the blacks when they moved from the North End 
to Beacon Hill. The colonial brick building on your left, now 
the Museum of Afro-American History, was first used as a 
church and has been facetiously called "the haven from the 
loft"— the "loft" being the Old North Church, where blacks 
were allowed to sit only in the galleries. In 1832 William 
Lloyd Garrison held here the first meeting of the New England 
Anti-Slavery Society. At the conclusion of the meeting he said: 
"We have met tonight in this obscure schoolhouse; our num- 
bers are few and our influence limited, but mark my prediction, 
Faneuil Hall shall ere long echo with the principles we have 
set forth. We shall shake the nation by their mighty power." 

Once back on Joy St., continue down the street and turn 
right on Cambridge to 141 Cambridge, the first Harrison Gray 
Otis House (open Mon-Fri, 10am to 4pm, admission $1). 



169 



If you tour only one house on Beacon Hill, this should be 
it. The Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities 
has painstakingly and lovingly restored it to the style popular 
in the early 19th century. All the details of the house are 
authentic, from the frivolous xanary-yellow wallpaper to the 
mirror-panelled doors for reflecting candlelight. If you're lucky, 
your guide will demonstrate the art of pulling up 19th-century 
window curtains. 

Also open to the public is the Old West Church next door. 
The original building was razed in 1775 when the British 
thought the Americans were using its steeple to signal Con- 
tinental troops in Cambridge. In 1806 it was replaced by the 
present church, designed by Asher Benjamin. 

Those of you who are walking both the north and south 
loops in one day should now return to Louisburg Square, off 
Pinckney St., and resume the south loop of the trail. (Pick up 
the text on p. 165.) But those of you who are finished for the 
day should walk up Hancock St. back to the State House. 
From there you can head for Tremont St., have an ice cream 
cone at Brigham's or Bailey's, and congratulate yourself for 
finishing the Beacon Hill trail. 



SOUTH END— BAY VILLAGE TRAIL 

(Map, pp. 172-173) 

The South End has seen more demographic, economic, and 
even geographic changes than any other Boston district. Vari- 
ous ethnic groups have come and gone, factories have opened 
and closed, marshes have been converted into dry land. The 
South End's heyday came and went in the 19th century. After 
Beacon Hill reached full development and before Back Bay was 
rescued from its swamp, the South End enjoyed a very brief 
popularity. In the late 1840s and 50s, several handsome parks 
surrounded by townhouses— Union and Chester Parks— and a 
few honest-to-goodness mansions— the Allen and Deacon Houses 
on Washington St.— were completed. But when Back Bay 
opened, those who could aflFord the second move left and the 
South End fell to the nouveau riche, hke William Dean 



170 



Howell's hero Silas Lapham, who "bought very cheap of a 
terrified gentleman of good extraction who discovered too late 
that the South End was not the thing." After the panic of 
1873, the South End experienced a building boom, and the 
combination of these two events irretrievably transformed the 
neighborhood, opening it to industry and immigration. Many 
owners of residential property had been repossessed during the 
panic, and the banks sold their land to businessmen and di- 
vided homes into flats and boarding houses. Factories came, 
and the Irish, the Freedman, and the East European immi- 
grant followed. 

This is a tour for city-watchers, not for sight-seers. The 
South End is a grab-bag of ethnic and income groups: elderly 
people living on fixed incomes, newlyweds, and middle-aged 
millionaires share the same block. The black, Spanish-speaking, 
and Syrian and Lebanese communities are three of the most 
dynamic influences, but in a neighborhood composed of over 
forty different nationalities, no one of them can ever dominate. 
The South End has been an urban renewal project since 1965, 
which accounts not only for much of its special vitality^ but 
also for its transitional struggles. New neighborhood organiza- 
tions proliferate and continue to grope for political identity. 
Property values are rising— houses on Union Park sell foi 
$120,000— but many of the poor still live in substandard hous- 
ing. The South End hasn t decided whether to tempt the 
middle-class away from the suburbs or build low-cost apart- 
ment complexes; its future is open-ended. 

The South End's problems are those which every city faces, 
but not all neighborhoods can command the same loyalty and 
concern from the residents. Neighborhood patrols have been 
organized, families are fighting for better schools, clean-up 
campaigns and tree-planting projects abound. It is no longer 
fashionable to move out of the South End. 

Visit the South End late in the morning or early in the 
afternoon, when it's safe but Lively. Women alone will be 
verbally harassed (in a wide selection of dialects), winos may 
appear on every other street corner, and restaurants and rest- 
rooms are few and on the tawdry side. But a visit to the 
South End will give you a richer picture of urban life than 
the view from the Hancock tower ever could. It is a neighbor- 
hood with a mind of its own. Robert Woods, Boston social 



171 



worker and social critic, had the South End in mind when he 
titled one of his books The City Wilderness. To enjoy your 
tour, you must also explore the community. Watch the street 
instead of the rooftops. 

Start at the Prudential MBiJA station on the Green line. 
You should visit the Boston 200 Where's Boston exhibit at the 
Pru before you begin walking. As you cross Huntington Ave., 
the modern austerity of the Colonnade Hotel separates down- 
town from the South End. Turn left on W. Newton St., typical 
of the faded gentility which the South End evokes. The com- 
munity as a whole is coherent in design, due to the systematic 
planning and building which occurred during the mid- 19th 
century. Like modest versions of the High Victorian homes of 
Back Bay, these buildings have considerable ornamentation 
but are more conservative in plan and elevation. The homes 
have withstood the neglect they met in the past, and even 
those buildings in bad internal condition appear solid from 
the outside. You will learn to read the character of a neighbor- 
hood by the freshness of the paint on the windowsills, the 
language spoken on the corner, the flowers in the window 
boxes, the display in the local delicatessen. Many of the streets 
look alike at first glance, but each has a distinct personality. 

Farther down W. Newton, the railroad tracks cut a swath 
across the city and give a strange sense of openness to the 
densely populated South End. From this spot the city seems 
to rise around you, complete with views of the old and new 
Hancock buildings and Prudential Center. The coming of the 
railroad brought the immigrant and drove away those who 
could afford to escape the soot, noise and disease. These new- 
comers built churches whose style, form, and materials reflect 
the diversity of their religious beUefs. The Union Methodist 
Church, on the comer of W. Newton and Columbus, is such 
an example. Look to the right at Columbus for a view of the 
Common and the Park Street Church. 

At W. Newton, where Columbus and Warren branch, turn 
left onto Warren and pass the Harriet Tubman Park, a small 
triangular green named after the "Moses of the South." Tub- 
man, a runaway slave herself, organized the Underground 
Railroad, a network of abolitionists who helped thousands of 
slaves escape southern plantations. The South End was once 
dotted v^th Underground Railroad stations. Abolitionists in the 
area built secret passageways in their homes and held huge 



174 



parties to cover the escape of their temporary "guests" on 
their way to find freedom in Canada. Many of the fleeing 
slaves decided to settle in the South End and formed com- 
munities here. The massive red brick Concord Baptist Church, 
on the corner of Warren and W. Brookline, represents the 
final stage of this community's expansion. Over the past cen- 
tury the congregation was forced to move from building to 
building as their numbers increased, but the church remained 
the focal point of the neighborhood, sponsoring schools, aid 
societies, and recreation programs. Concord Baptist's density 
disguises its size— to give you a sense of it, those purple stained 
glass windows on the cupola are six feet high. 

Farther down Warren turn right at W. Canton St. and look 
at the steep stoops which rise above the basement apartments, 
flanked by lacy iron stair-railings. In this area, part of the 
Spanish-speaking community, street signs will be in Spanish as 
often as English. Turn left on Montgomery for a block and 
then left onto Dartmouth St. The signs of restoration on the 
side streets, the sounds of hammers and mounds of sawdust, 
impart a happy energetic quality to this section. Look down 
Dartmouth Place and note the even rows of projecting bay 
and oriel windows. 

Turn right on Lawrence and right onto Clarendon. This 
area, including Berkeley, Clarendon, and Dartmouth Sts., is 
known as Clarendon Park and contains houses which look like 
miniature Back Bay and Beacon Hill homes. It has been said 
that these rowhouses were built expressly for the servants of 
wealthy Boston Brahmin families. 

Across the street, facing Tremont, is the sprawling Boston 
Center for the Arts. This complex holds the Boston Philhar- 
monic, the Associated Artists Opera Company, the Boston 
Ballet Company and School, the Community Music Center, 
the Theatre Company of Boston, and other performing arts 
groups and studios (see Theater, Music, and Dance). The 
National Theatre, which was built in 1911 as the largest 
vaudeville house in New England and once hosted stars like 
Gene Autry and Mae West, is being restored as a 3000-seat 
theater for concerts, dance and opera. 

In the center of this complex, under one of largest domes 
on the continent, you will find the Cyclorama building, the 
nucleus of the BCA. The Cyclorama building was designed by 
Cummings and Sears to hold a gigantic circular painting (400 



175 



ft. by 50 ft.) of the battle of Gettysburg. After 1892, when 
the painting's novelty wore thin, the building was used for 
revivalist meetings, daredevil bicycle stunts, and sporting 
events (John L. Sullivan, one of the South End's favorite sons, 
fought here). In 1923, it was renovated into the Boston Flower 
Exchange and in 1970 it began its present function. Today, 
besides holding the central offices of the Boston Center for 
the Arts, the Cyclorama building houses the BCA Gallery, 
where the paintings displayed are less startling than the 
Cyclorama mural was, but certainly more appealing. During 
the Bicentennial, this will also be a place to rest, grab a snack, 
or untangle directions at the Boston 200 Visitor Information 
Center. 

As you leave the Cyclorama building, turn right down 
Tremont St. and left onto Union Park, the South End's 
first residential square and once one of Boston's most pres- 
tigious addresses. Union Park is the inner sanctum of the 
South End; its exclusiveness heightens the contrasts of the 
neighborhood. The area has changed little since its completion 
in 1859. Most of the original lavish architectural detail re- 
mains—ornate keystone, intricate iron grillwork, cartouches 
framing the windows. 

After strolling through Union Park, turn left on Shawmut 
for a block and watch the less genteel but more contemporary 
scene. This is the heart of the Syrian and Lebanese com- 
munity. The restaurants, bakeries, and ethnic clubs point out 
that you have stepped into a Near Eastern enclave. Turn left 
onto Waltham, then right on Ringgold St., which is dominated 
by a black and white mural overlooking a sunken basketball 
court. Continue on Bond St. and turn left onto Milford, a 
quiet residential street with flat-facaded homes on one side 
and bay and bow-fronted homes on the other. 

At the end of Milford you will again face the Boston Center 
for the Arts. Continue right on Tremont, past the Berkeley- 
Dover intersection. Dover St. used to lead to the "Neck", the 
site of the Puritans' town fortifications and gallows. You are 
now walking on land which is little more than a century old, 
for this area was filled in along wdth Back Bay. The Neck was 
originally an isthmus, forty yards wide at its narrowest point 
and flooded at high tide, which connected Boston and Rox- 
bury. 



176 



By the 19th century, Dover St. had become anything but 
pastoral. This is the area where the last remaining Boston 
tenements (now empty) still stand. Mary Astin, a Russian 
immigrant, described them in her novel, The Promised Land. 
Dover Street, she wrote, is "heavy with the evil odors of 
degradation. . . . Nothing less than a fire or flood would 
cleanse this street." Today the Castle Square renewal project 
on Tremont and Dover, which provides housing for many of 
Boston's elderly citizens, atones for the sins of the past. 

While you are standing at this intersection, glance down 
Berkeley at the Hancock building. From this angle, the tower 
looks one- dimensional, but, if you walk up the street, its 
diamond shape appears. Continue down Tremont for a few 
blocks and turn onto Arlington where the two streets part. 
Cortes St., on your left, is a short street of Victorian brick 
rowhouses which faces a multi-lane expressway. This street 
stands as a symbol of the confrontation of the 19th and 20th 
centuries which is ever-present in the South End. At the 
corner of Arlington and Columbus, visit Boston 200's The Grand 
Exposition at the First Corps of Cadets Armory. Here you can 
end your tour of the South End (the Arlington MBTA station 
is right across the street) or, if you are particularly energetic, 
begin your tour of Bay Village. 

Originally mud flats, the Bay Village area was drained in 
the early 19th century and development began concurrently 
with building on Beacon Hill. If youVe seen anything of 
Beacon Hill, you'll soon notice the resemblance between that 
part of Boston and Bay Village. The artisans who worked on 
Beacon Hill first settled here; they couldn't afford to live in 
the posh neighborhood of the Hill but they certainly knew 
how to build for themselves houses of similar quality and de- 
sign. Although the district experienced some deterioration in 
the early part of this century (during Prohibition it was filled 
with speakeasies), history-conscious individuals bought the 
houses in the 1950s and restored them to their former ele- 
gance. Today you can admire their work— as well as the brick 
sidewalks and gas lamps, a more recent restoration effort— 
and enjoy the 19th-century ambience of this neighborhood. 

After you've seen The Grand Exposition at the First Corps 
of Cadets Armory, continue on Arlington until you come to 



177 



Winchester, turn onto Winchester and then take a right when 
you come to Church St. From Church you can turn onto 
Fayette St., the oldest street in the district and a remainder 
of the rash of streets and squares so named after Lafayette's 
visit to Boston in 1824. If you take a right to the end of 
Fayette you can see Bay St., reputedly the shortest street in 
Boston. (The single house on Bay St. is supposed to be the 
smallest in the city.) Otherwise turn left on Fayette and con- 
tinue up the street. You might take a look at the cat silhouettes 
on the shutters of 28 Fayette. The decorations supposedly date 
back to the Prohibition, when this area had a lively if un- 
savory reputation. 

Slightly farther up the street is another Bay Village curi- 
osity, the "half-house", which looks as if it was cut down the 
middle from the peak of the gable to the ground (it wasn't). 
After you've looked this over to your satisfaction, proceed to 
the end of Fayette (on your way you'll pass the site of Edgar 
Allen Poe's birthplace, near Jefferson St.), round the small 
brick park, and turn onto Melrose. At the end of Melrose you 
can turn right and retrace your steps up Arlington to the 
MBTA station. 



CAMBRIDGE TRAIL 

{Map, pp. 180-181 ) 

Cambridge was settled as early as 1631 and semi-officially 
named Newtowne. Within seven years, its name and its future 
had changed. The Massachusetts Great and General Court de- 
cided to locate their recently founded college there, within the 
parish of "the holy, heavenly, sweet-affecting, soul-ravishing 
preacher," Rev. Thomas Shepard. The town was named 
Cambridge, in honor of the English university where many of 
the Puritan governors and clergy had been educated, and 
the "colledg" was named Harvard after the man who be- 
queathed half of his property and his library to the fledgling 
school. Though it is an industrial and commercial center as 
well, Cambridge's past and present are closely linked to the 



178 



universities in its midst, especially Harvard and the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Cambridge is a pedestrian's haven, where jay-walking has 
been perfected to a fine art and where the twisting roads 
which intimidate the motorist bring delights around every 
corner to those who travel by foot. Start your tour at the 
Harvard MBTA station. As you exit, sedate Harvard Yard is 
behind you and bustling Harvard Square, the domain of Cam- 
bridge natives, students, transient and religious cultists, is in 
front. Cross Massachusetts Ave. and turn right, past the carpen- 
ter Gothic First Parish Church, Unitarian, on the comer of 
Church and Mass. Ave. Next to it is the Old Burying Ground, also 
called "God's Acre,*' dating from before 1635. The first eight 
Harvard presidents, as well as many Revolutionar}' soldiers 
and early Cambridge settlers, are buried here. Note the variety 
of gravestones in the Old Burying Ground: moving from the 
matter-of-fact to the sentimental, they chronicle America's 
changing attitudes toward death. Look by the fence at the 
corner of Garden St. to see a mileage marker dating from 1794. 

Bear left onto Garden St. and visit Christ Church, the 
oldest existing church in Cambridge, completed in 1761. 
Christ Church had a congregation of Tory Anglicans who, as 
the rest of the Cambridge population let their patriotic fervor 
be known, thought it wise to seek refuge with the British 
General Gage, stationed in Boston. Little did they realize how 
useful their church would be to the patriots. During the Revo- 
lutionary War, it was used as a barracks and the organ pipes 
were melted down for much-needed ammunition. 

You may want to cross the street and tour Cambridge Com- 
mon, the focal point of the city's religious, political and social 
life for over 300 years. In 1740, during the great religious 
revival, George Whitefield chose this spot to preach to the 
Cambridge populace during his tour of America. Among his ad- 
mirers was the actor David Garrick, who once said that White- 
field could bring his audience to penitent tears just by pro- 
nouncing the word "Mesopotamia." The Common also served 
as Washington's main camp in 1775-76. A bron/e plaque and 
a scion of the Washington elm commemorate the spot where, 
according to legend, Washington took command of the 9000 
men who had independently gathered there to form the Con- 
tinental Army. The original elm died in 1923, but cuttings 



179 



were taken and nurtured at the Arnold Arboretum until one 
could withstand the gasoline fumes wafting over from Mass. 
Ave. 

Now walk across Garden St. again and enter the Radcliffe 
Yard, the location of the administrative offices of Radcliffe 
College (the women's college associated with Harvard). The 
buildings on the Yard include Fay House, an 1806 mansion, 
the Radcliffe gymnasium, built in 1898, and Agassiz House, 
a multi-purpose building, named after the first Radcliffe presi- 
dent. Founded in 1879 as the "Society for the Collegiate In- 
struction of Women," Radcliffe was to provide its students with 
a Harvard education; that is, with instruction from those Har- 
vard professors they could coax or entice into presenting 
lectures. Today the schools are essentially co-educational— in 
fact, all of the dormitories of both schools have been co- 
residential since 1970. However, Radcliffe does maintain 
several institutions of its own, particularly the Schlesinger Li- 
brary, the most extensive library of women's studies in the 
country, and the Radcliffe Institute, which annually finances 
independent research projects for about forty talented women. 

Continue down Garden and turn left on Mason St. The 
First Church, Congregational, on the corner, shares with the 
First Parish, Unitarian, the distinction of being the first 
congregation established in Combridge. Both date from the 
1630s. During the early 19th century, a feud flared up between 
the city's Unitarian and Trinitarian Congregationalists, and in 
1829 Dr. Abiel Holmes (father of Oliver Wendell), who dis- 
approved of these new-fangled Unitarian ideas, walked off with 
over half of the congregation. The rest chose a new pastor and 
built the First Parish Church, Unitarian, at the corner of Mass. 
Ave., and Church St. Finally, 35 years after Holmes' death, 
his congregation settled in this stone structure (dedicated 
in 1872) under the ministry of Rev. Alexander McKenzie. 
Look up at the church's spire for the ornamental weather- 
cock of Shem Drowne, a devout church deacon who cast 
weathervanes as a hobby. One of America's earliest folk art- 
ists, Drowne also made the grasshopper on Faneuil Hall and 
the Indian, once atop the colonial governor's mansion, now in 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Down Mason St. on your right is the sweeping white lime- 
stone library of the Episcopal Theological Seminary. As you 
turn right onto Brattle you will see the modern library juxta- 



182 



posed with the rest of the seminary buildings, which are all 
Gothic and ivy-covered, resembling a mediaeval cloister. The 
well-tended Greek revival Hastings House, next door, now 
holds apartments for the divinity students. 

During the 18th century. Brattle St. was known as Tory 
Row. The same people who attended Christ Church, many 
colonial officials and most English sympathizers, lived here in 
Georgian country estates which stretched down to the river. 
When they fled, their homes were confiscated by the rebels 
and used as barracks, hospitals and headquarters for the Con- 
tinental Army. Today, all of these 18th-century mansions 
still stand, sharing the street with more recent neighbors. 

The Longfellow National Historical Site, at 105 Brattle, is 
such an example. Originally owned by John Vassall, Jr., whose 
loyalist sentiments led him to feel more secure on the other 
side of the Atlantic, this building was Washington's headquar- 
ters during the siege of Boston. In 1791 it was purchased by 
land-speculator and developer Andrew Craigie, but his good 
fortune proved precarious and Craigie spent his last years 
closeted away in his home, afraid to step outside for fear of 
being thrown into debtor's prison. After his death, his widow 
was forced to take in boarders and in 1836, when young profes- 
sor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow came to Harvard, he rented 
rooms there. When Longfellow married the pretty, wealthy and 
socially prominent Fanny Appleton, her father gave the couple 
this house as a wedding gift. Here the poet lived imtil his 
death in 1882 and wrote such works as "Hiawatha" and 
"Evangeline," carried on his voluminous scholarly work, and 
completed his translation of Dante. 

Now cross Brattle and return toward Harvard Square for a 
closer look at more of these stately homes. Longfellow Park 
on your right, once part of the Longfellow estate, gives a hint 
of Brattle's former expansive, pastoral setting. During the 
Revolution the Henry Vassall House, on the corner of Brattle 
and Hawthorne, was used as the medical headquarters of the 
American Army under Dr. Benjamin Church, who was im- 
prisoned there after his arrest for traitorous correspondence 
with the enemy. 

At the corner of Brattle and Appian Way is the Harvard 
Graduate School of Education, founded in 1920 and dominated 
by the modernistic Gutman Library with its eye-boggling in- 
terior colors. Continue down to 54 Brattle St., the home of 



183 



Dexter Pratt, Longfellow's "village blacksmith." His smithy 
was next door, and the site of the renowned "spreading 
chestnut tree" is marked with a granite tablet. 

Pass the Design Research building and the William Brattle 
House, circa 1727, now the Cambridge Center for Adult Edu- 
cation. Brattle, a major general in the Cambridge militia, 
joined his neighbors in their flight from Tory Row, and his 
home was used by Major Thomas Mifflin, Washington's aide- 
de-camp and the Commissary General. 

Cross the intersection of Mt. Auburn and Brattle, continue 
on Mt. Auburn for a block and turn right on Boylston. Winthrop 
Square, on the corner, was the original market square of old 
Cambridge. Now it is a pleasant place to sit and watch a 
variety of Cambridge faces pass. Farther down, on the corner 
of Boylston and South St., you will see the Hicks House, a 
simple wooden-frame, gambrel-roofed dwelling built around 
1760. According to family tradition, its owner, John Hicks, 
participated in the Boston Tea Party, but he is best remem- 
bered as one of the three patriots shot in a skirmish with 
British soldiers returning from Lexington and Concord in 1775. 

Now walk down South St., turn left on Dunster and right 
onto Mt. Auburn. You will catch the back view of Holyoke 
Center, a unified block of shops, offices. Harvard's Information 
Center and the University Health Services. Designed by Jose 
Luis Sert, former Dean of the Harvard Graduate School of 
Design, the building has added new cohesion and beauty to 
the Harvard Square area, thanks to its popular open- 
air plaza and walkway. 

Farther down Mt. Auburn you'll pass Lowell House, one 
of the handsomest of the Harvard Houses. The bells in- 
side the blue-domed tower came from the Danilov Monastery 
in Russia. A rather peculiar Russian bell-tuner accompanied 
the bells to America and proceeded to tune them by filing 
notches in the rims. When President Lowell stopped him, he 
began to think he was being persecuted and, sure someone was 
trying to poison him, drank ink as an antidote. At that junc- 
ture, Lowell sent him back to Russia. The bells were finally 
hung by a Harvard maintenance man, who, understand- 
ably enough, knew nothing about tuning them. 

Cross Mt. Auburn and pass the Lampoon Building, a whim- 
sical parody of a Flemish castle and the headquarters of the 



184 



Harvard humor magazine. The Lampoon is known for its an- 
nual spoofs of national magazines and such pranks as an 
abortive scheme to "invade" Cambridge d la Hannibal. The 
staff called it off w^hen the circus informed them that the 
elephants they planned to rent might panic in a crowd. 

Turn left on Linden St. and peer into the courtyard of 
Adams House to look at Apthorp House, built in 1760 for the 
rector of Christ Church. The non-Anglican Cantabridgians 
thought it was so lavish that they nicknamed it the Bishop's 
Palace, and eventually social pressure drove poor Apthorp out 
of the city. During the American Revolution, the house was 
confiscated and used as Burgoyne's place of detention after the 
Battle of Saratoga. Since 1916, Apthorp House has been the 
home of the master (or chief facult)^ resident) of this Harvard 
dormitory. 

Now continue up Linden, turn left on Mass. Ave. and 
enter Harvard Yard through the gate opposite Holyoke Center. 
Wadsworth House, built in 1726, was the official residence of 
Harvard's presidents until 1849. Washington used it as one of 
his many headquarters, and supposedly the final plans to oust 
King George's troops from Boston were hatched in the Wads- 
worth parlor. Wander toward the center of Harvard Yard and 
look at elegant University Hall, designed by Bulfinch in 1816. 
Originally used as the student commons (dining hall). Univer- 
sity Hall was the scene of some unscholarly shenanigans when 
the four classes used to compete against each other in food 
fights. The statue in front of University Hall, created by 
Daniel Chester French, is known as the "Statue of Three Lies." 
The inscription reads "John Harvard, Founder, 1638." In fact, 
the college was founded in 1636, Harvard was not the founder 
but an early contributor, and the model for the statue was 
Sherman Hoar, a Harvard student in 1885, since no one knew 
what the Rev. John looked Hke. 

Behind University Hall, the Harry Elkins Widener Library, 
Memorial Church, and Sever Hall form a quadrangle. Widener, 
the third largest library in the country, contains fifty miles of 
book shelves and ten floors of stacks. The library is a memorial 
to Harry Widener, a young book collector who drowned in 
the sinking of the Titanic. Harry had indicated that he 
intended to donate his books to Harvard when the school 
had a sufficiently well-maintained library, so Mrs. Widener 



185 



gave the University a place to store Harry's books and room 
for about eight million more. As you walk down the granite 
steps of Widener you face Memorial Church, dedicated to the 
Harvard men killed in both World Wars. Built on a massive 
scale to counterbalance Widener, the Doric columns on 
Memorial Church's portico are so gigantic that they had to be 
made in a shipyard. 

Now turn right, walk toward Quincy St. and confront Car- 
penter Center for the Visual Arts, home of Harvard's depart- 
ment of Visual and Environmental Studies. This glass and 
concrete structure, finished in 1963, is the only building in the 
U. S. designed by the great French architect, Le Cor- 
busier. Conservative Bostonians compare it to "two pianos 
wrestling," but most agree that Le Corbusier turned his build- 
ing into an abstract sculpture with a striking arrangement of 
angles and curves. (You can go up the ramp which allows you 
to pass through the building and watch the activities inside 
without disturbing the hard-working artists.) The ground floor, 
open to the public, exhibits the works of students and local 
artists. 

Next door is the Fogg Art Museum, built in Harvard's fa- 
miliar neo-Georgian style. The exhibits of this superb teaching 
museum change with the courses offered by the Fine Arts 
department. Farther down Quincy, on your right, is Gund Hall, 
designed by John Andrews for the Graduate School of Design, 
and Memorial Hall, on your left, facing Cambridge St. "Mem 
Hall," which Henry James called "the great bristling brick 
Valhalla," is a famous Victorian building designed by William 
Ware and Henry Van Brunt as a monument to the Civil War 
dead and finally completed in 1878. A fire in 1956 destroyed 
the wooden tower (which extended the building's height 
by a third), the pinnacles, and the clock, and they have 
never been replaced. Today Memorial Hall is used for large 
lecture classes, music and dramatic events, and the infamous 
freshman mixer. Walk inside before you leave to see Sanders 
Theater and the stained glass windows in the west hall. 

Now pass the undergraduate Science Center, designed by 
Jose Luis Sert and associates, and turn left into Harvard Yard 
again, this time into the oldest part of the university, a former 
cow pasture which the Harvard overseers purchased in 1637. 
In 1810, when John Kirkland became president, he found the 
Yard an "unkempt sheep-commons," cluttered with a brewery 



186 



and sundry privies. He is responsible for the tree-planting, the 
footpaths, and the tradition of care which still persists. In the 
farthest comer of the Yard, the freshman dormitories, Hollis, 
Lionel, Stoughton, and Mower form a square to the north 
of Harvard Hall. Hollis, built in 1763, and Stoughton, 
in 1805, boast such famous former residents as Emerson, 
Thoreau, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Edward Everett Hale. 
Holden Chapel between Lionel and Mower, Harvard's first 
official chapel, was completed in 1744. It was the first home 
of the Medical School, and is now the headquarters of 
the Harvard- Radcliffe Chorus. Since Holden was a com- 
moner, it is Mrs. Holden*s coat of arms you see above the 
entrance. 

Next to Hollis is Harvard Hall, today a classroom building 
which stands on the site of the original Harvard Hall, de- 
stroyed by fire in 1764. On the night of the fire a student had 
snitched a book from the library, and the next day, realizing 
that it was the only surviving volume from John Harvard's 
library, went to President Holyoke, expecting an ample reward. 
Holyoke thanked him, took the book, and expelled him for 
breaking the rules. Massachusetts Hall, built facing Harvard 
Hall in 1720, is the oldest Harvard building still standing. The 
upper two floors are used as a freshman dorm, and the 
building also contains the office of Harvard's President. 

You now end your tour facing Johnson Gate, the main 
entrance to Harvard Yard. Before you take the subway back 
to Boston, stroll through Harvard Square, the most eclectic 
block in New England. There you'll find shops selling every- 
thing from saris to imported coffee, and the largest number of 
bookstores per square foot in the country. Before you leave 
listen to the troubadors who congregate in front of Holyoke 
Center, check the wares of the local craftsmen, and compare 
the techniques of the street hawkers, canvassers and evangelists. 



187 



BACK BAY TRAIL 

{Maps, pp. 190-192) 

The Back Bay trail is divided into two loops which— unless 
you are a stalwart walker— might best be taken separately. To 
get a sense of the unique historical development of this dis- 
trict, you should take the east loop first and strike out in the 
early afternoon to get to the Gibson Museum during its open 
hours. 

Choose a sunny afternoon to take the MBTA to Copley 
Station, where the east loop begins. Named for portraitist 
John Singleton Copley, Copley Square was Boston's religious 
and intellectual center at the end of the last century. As you 
emerge from the Dartmouth St. exit of the subway station 
you face the Copley Plaza Hotel, which was the site of the 
Museum of Fine Arts until it moved to the Fenway in 1909. 

Cross the street and head diagonally across the modern plaza 
to the striking glass Hancock Tower, one of the unluckiest 
buildings in Boston. Growing pains began in 1965 when I. M. 
Pei was commissioned to design a home office for the John 
Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company. Following their 
"good neighbor" policy of urban design, Pei and his partner 
Henry Cobb drew up plans for a 60-story rhomboidal building 
sheathed in mirrors to reduce its apparent size. What followed 
was a less than neighborly battle, with the Boston Society of 
Architects claiming the building would destroy the serenity of 
19th-century Copley Square. Hancock won, the zoning law 
was changed, and construction got underway in 1968. No 
sooner was the excavation made than sidewalks and streets 
shifted, damaging water and sewage mains. Later some 3,500 
of the 10,344 windows cracked and had to be replaced with 
plywood sheets. But the building is intact now and, as one 
architect observed, "It really is an excellent ( neighbor ) , be- 
cause it looks Hke it isn't there." 

Enter the Hancock Building on Clarendon St. and stop at 
the Boston 200 Visitor Information Center to check on special 
events. Next take the elevator to the observatory, where pho- 
tomurals, a taped commentary, a model of the city in 1776 
and a filmed helicopter ride provide orientation to Boston 
topography. Below you, laid out like a graph, is the most 
orderly set of streets you will ever find in Boston. Parallel to 
the river are five broad avenues, the middle one, Common- 



188 



wealth Avenue (or, as Bostonians say, Comm. Ave.) marked 
by a Parisian-style mall. 

Long the home of Boston's First Families, the Back Bay 
still cradles a fev^ Cabots and Lowells among its current 
population of students and young professionals. While other 
Americans boast of connections with the Mayflower, these 
First Families trace their rise to the fortunes of the 19th- 
century merchant princes. For a hundred years now they have 
been cultivating that endearing provinciality which (as Oliver 
Wendell Holmes put it) "carr(ies) the Common ... as the 
unit of space, (and) the State House as the standard of 
architecture." 

Back Bay was once a bay or estuary of the Charles River 
that cut back behind the city, almost isolating it from the 
mainland. In a prospectus appealing directly to the people, 
early developers proposed damming the bay to provide water 
power for mills located on a smaller cross dam: 

How shall the citizens of Boston fill their empty stores? The 
answer is easy,-ERECT THESE MILLS, AND LOWER 
THE PRICE OF BREAD. If the pubHc do not have all 
these improvements it will not be the fault of 
URIAH COTTING 

Over objections that the "beautiful sheet of water" would 
become an "empty mud-basin, reeking v^th filth," the dams 
were in operation by 1821. But the number of mills envisioned 
by the planners never appeared, and— much to their chagrin— 
the Back Bay became a stinking mudflat. Only the giant frogs 
who took up residence in the marsh were happy. As described 
by a visiting writer, "Some, when they sit upon their breech, 
(were) a foot high, and some as long as a child one year old." 
So clamorous were they that Bostonians named Frogg Lane 
(the present Boylston St.) in their honor. 

A menace to public health, the land was divided in 1856, 
with small parcels going to private developers and the largest 
portion going to the Commonwealth. With gravel brought from 
West Needham, the filling of the bay started at Arlington St. 
in the late 1850s. Filling and building activity proceeded apace 
until the late 1880s, when the new district reached the Fens. 

Now return to ground level and cross the street to Trinity 
Church. If you are here between 10:30am and 3:30pm, go in 
and pick up a fact sheet detailing the history and architecture 



189 




17 

1/ 





/ ^\ GRIMED /: 



Boston Common 
& Public Garden 



walking trail 
^ registered landmark 



of tbe church. Designed by H. H. Richardson, the church is 
a free adaptation of 11th-century French Romanesque style. 

From its consecration in 1877 the church was under the 
superb leadership of Phillips Brooks, composer of the carol 
"O Little Town of Bethlehem." A bronze statue of Reverend 
Brooks now stands outside the north transept of the chiurch. 
Erected by the citizens of Boston, it is inscribed with a Bos- 
tonian's idea of the four cardinal virtues; 

Preacher of the Word of God 
Lover of mankind 
Bom in Boston 
Died in Boston 

Across the plaza, which was designed in 1969 by Sasasld, 
Dawson and Demay, the graceful Renaissance Public Library 
faces the square. Save it for the end of the loop and look 
across the street, behind the newspapers and flowers, for the 
New Old Soudi Church. For the story behind its name and 
other tidbits, read the handout available inside the Boykton 
St. entrance (open 8:30am to 5pm). 

Leaving Copley Square, head one block up Dartmouth and 
take a right on Newbury St Originally lined with fine homes, 
Newbury St is now known for its elegant shops, galleries, and 
sidewalk caf6s. At the end of the first block is Richardson's 
ivy-covered Trinity Rectory, built as a two-story house in 
1879. As you continue down Newbury St., New England Life 
appears on your right. Beneath this mammoth building work- 
men in 1913 and 1939 found buried deep in the silt some 
65,000 decayed, upright stakes interlaced with wattling. Ac- 
cording to archaeologists this was an ancient fish weir, used 
by aborigines 2,000 to 6,000 years ago to trap fish for food. 

At the comer of Berkeley and Newbury Sts. is the Church 
of the Covenant, where poet and philosopher George San- 
tayana used to walk from his boyhood home on 302 Beacon 
to see "a bit of genuine Gothic." The building opposite was 
built in 1862 for the Boston Society of Natural History, one 
of the first such societies in America, whose membership Kst 
included scientists like Louis Agassiz. When the Society moved 
to the present Museum of Science, the building was taken 
over by Bonwit Teller. 

Follow Newbury to Arlington St, which forms the western 



193 



border of the PubUc Garden. Just south of you is ibe Ariington 
Street Church* Designed by Arthur Gihoan, projector of ibe 
Back Bay plan, this was the first building constructed on the 
newly filled land. The Mother Church of American Unitarians, 
tiie Arlington Street Church was first ministered by the aboli- 
tionist William Ellery Channing, of whom Jonathan Phillips 
said, 1 have studied his character. I believe him capable of 
virtue.** Several blocks down Arlington at Ae Stuart Street 
Armory is Boston 200s The Grand Expositioo (see p. 103). 
If you decide to see the exhibit later, walk up ArBn^on past 
Ae Ritz Carlton to die begiiming of the Commonweddi Ave- 
nue Mali 

Back in 1856 the Back Bay Commissioners under architect 
Arthur Gihnan set aside the mall and the Public Garden for 
recreation. Although the Public Garden had boasted a green- 
house and a conservatory for birds and plants in the 1840s, it 
wasn't until 1861 that tibe present design, with its continental 
fountains, trees, and pond, was approved. For the area west of 
the Public Garden, zoning restrictions set limits on building 
heights, confined materials to masonry and brick, and stipu- 
lated setbacks of 20 to 25 feet from the curb. 

You can stop for tea or lunch at the Boston Center fat Adult 
Education, 5 Comm. Ave. (Call 267-4430 for hours.) Then 
turn ri^t on Berkeley St to see an extraordinary church graft. 
The original First and Second Church was built in the English 
Gothic Revival Style and admired as the "Westminster Abbey 
of Boston." In 1969 a fire swept the church, leaving only tl^ 
tower intact. Paul Rudolph's addition incorporates the spire 
in a novel design diat preserves die architectural character 
and skyline of Back Bay. 

Continue down Berkeley past the French Lilnrary (main 
entrance at 53 Marlborough) to Beacon St., formerly the toll 
road over die Mill Dam. Veiled by late afternoon mist, this 
was a popular promenade for young lovers. At 137 Beacon is 
the Gibson House. The first Mr. Gibson was a merchant in the 
China trade; later Gibsons are noted only for having turned 
their house into a musetim. If you arrive between 2pm and 
5pm any day except Monday or a holiday, you can see die 
interior of their Victorian home preserved just as it was at the 
tunr of the century. 

Leaving the museum, resume your stroll as far as die Goedie 
Institute at 170 Beacon. Open to the public, die first two 



194 



floors are filled with contemporary German art and literature. 
For modem scu^ture, look around tbe courtyard of 180 
Beacon. 

Now turn left on Clarendon St Two blocks up, at the 
comer of Comm. Ave., is the First Baptist Church. Another 
work by Richardson, this church with its austere, unadorned 
interior forms a striking contrast to the richness of the conr 
temporary Trinity Church. On the tower is Bartholdi's frieze 
of famous Bostonians. You won't have to squint to see why 
irreverent Bostonians dub this the '^Church of the Holy Bean 
Blowers.*' 

Proceed up Comm. Ave. past 128-130, an elaborate French 
Baroque building which makes its more sedate bedfellows look 
conservative indeed. The most reactionary of the lot is the 
chib on the comer of Commonwealth and Dartmouth Sts. 
Bastion of Boston's Female Society, the Chilton Club admits 
members through its front door, members with guests at the 
side door, and servants and deliveries by flie alley door. The 
public is not admitted through any door. 

For nonmembers, die best vantage point is the Vendome 
across the way. For decades the city's foremost hotel, it was 
patronized by the Louis TifFai^s, Sarah Bernhardt, Oscar 
Wilde, and other international luminaries. 

From Dartmouth tum right onto Newbury and pick out 
Hartwell and Richardson's Exeter Street Theater. Built as a 
temple for the Progressive Spiritualists, the building was con- 
verted into a theater, and was the only movie house a Proper 
Bostonian woman would enter. This was no doubt because 
its proprietor was a woman of high culture who spoke with 
a -British accent and showed only foreign films. 

Now as you tum onto Exeter St., Phillip Johnson's 1971 
addition to the Boston Public Library will appear to your left 
Resist the temptation to go in, and walk down Boylston St 
to the main entrance in Copley Square. Here is the most im- 
posing view of the main building, which was completed in 
1895. With the vision of "an apparatus that shall carry this 
taste for reading as deep as possible into society," early Bos- 
tonians created the first lending library in the world. Go in 
to see the Literary Boston Exhibit, and stop at the informa- 
tion desk for a pamphlet that will guide you through richly 
decorated rooms to the murals by Puvis de Chavannes and 
J. S. Sargent. (For library hours, see p. 110.) 



195 



If you want to start tbe west loop of the trail now, walk up 
Boylston St to Prudential Center (or take tbe MBTA to Pru- 
dential station). Stop in tbe Prudential pavilion to see Where's 
Boston, Boston 200's exhibit on the city today (see p. 105). Then 
head for the world headquarters of Ae Christian Science 
Church, Founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1879 to "reinstate 
primitive Christiani^ and its element of heaBng,'' the First 
Church of Christ, Scientist is framed by its new center, de- 
signed by architects Pei and Cossutta. 

Walk beside the reflecting pool past the quadrant-shaped 
Sunday School (tours of church and school are available; see 
p. 228) and around to the neighboring Horticultural HalL 
Since 1900 this has been die home of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, ^^ch introduced Ae cultivation of ap- 
ples to the United States. Its outstanding library is open to 
visitors Mon-Fri, 9am to 4:30pm in winter, 8:d0am to 4pm 
in summer. 

Across the street is Symphony Hall, home of tfie Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. Unlike most of the countr/s orchestras, 
ndiich were organized by groups of citizens, the B.S.O. was 
founded in 1881 and financially supported by one man. Major 
Henry Lee Higginson, for its first 37 years. Since 1918 when 
the Major relinquished his control. Symphony (as a Proper 
Bostonian would say) has been supported by contributing 
'Triends,*' many of whom can be seen in their customary stalls 
wearing their customary garb at Friday concerts. (For 
concert information, see p. 294.) 

Now loop back around to (be main entrance of the Christian 
Science Center. Running obliquely at its side is the Christian 
Sdenoe Publishing Society, which prints the international daily 
newspaper The Christian Science Monitor, Faithful to its 
promise "to injure no man,*' Ae Monitor has been known to 
sketch diapers onto the picture of a nude baby before releasing 
it for publication. While you're here visit the Mapparium— a 
unique chance to view the world from the inside (see p. 228 
for hours.) 

Leave the Christian Science Center via Mass. Ave., which 
took on the name of the Cambridge street after it was extended 
across the river by the Harvard Bridge. Turn right on Boylston 
St. and pay tribute to Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, who first inocu- 
lated Bostonians against smallpox and unwittingiy instituted 



196 



a new fad, the smaQpoz party. Naturally^ tea and music were 
included. 

955 Boykton is the home of the Institute of Contemporary 
Art^ which restored the exterior of this century-old pohce 
station and turned die interior into an exciting gallery (open 
Mon-Sat, 10am to 5pm; Sun, 2pm to 5pm; $1. ) As you turn 
down Hereford St the exclusive Tennis and Racquet Club will 
be on your right. 

At 40 Hereford hunt for the modest sign marking Miss 
Farmer^s School of Cookery. Perhaps best known for her 
Boston Cooking School Cook Book (which was refused by 
leading publishers and had to be printed privately), Fannie 
Farmer gave the world its first recipes using standard and 
level measurements, ensuring consistent results time after time. 

Heading back down Comm. Ave., you will be following the 
route of the Boston Marathon, the 26-mile foot race that has 
taken place every spring since 1897. As you pass the Andrew 
House, 32 Hereford, notice die cast-iron balconies over the 
first story windows. They came from the Tuileries Palace in 
Paris which burned during the 1874 revolt Nearby is the 
Pickman House, 303 Comm. Ave., whose austere classical 
facade beHes the extravagance of its original owners. For one 
daughter's debut Ae Pickman home was transformed into a 
garden, for the other a Parisian caf6 with sidewalk tables, 
lampposts, and simulated stars. Number 287 is the Interna- 
tional Institute where foreign visitors can stop between 9am 
and 5pm weekdays for orientation and good fellowship. Farther 
down the mall pause in front of 217 or 199 and count the 
Cadillacs doubleparked on the street. This is the sign of Boston 
clubdom. 

Not far beyond the clubs at 191 Comm. Ave. is the home 
of Major Henry Lee Higginson, a Boston institution himself, 
who was as generous with advice as he was with money. 
Declaring, "Any well-trained businessman is wiser than the 
Congress and the Executive," the Major saw fit to honor 
Presidents T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson with his opinions. 
A sobering reminder of the public's fickleness is the statue of 
William Lloyd Garrison, the abolitionist-reformer who was 
dragged through the streets of Boston only fifty years before 
this monument was placed on the mall. Even then the statue 
was so controversial that nearby residents talked of moving out 
of their homes. 



197 



After turning left at the Webster-Ames mansion (306 Dart- 
mouth, built 1872), you can take a side trip to the end 
of Dartmouth, where the grassy Esplanade borders the banks 
of the Charles River. (For ways to divert yourself, see Outdoor 
Boston.) Then resume your padi up Marlborough to a deU^t- 
ful set of row houses. Numbers 225-231 form a ''group house** 
of individual units, which are joined to their neighbors 233-239 
by rhythmic repetition of oriel windows, dormers, and simple 
doorways. Somewhat less serene, though certainly more fun, is 
the house at the end of the bk)ck, 12 Fairfield. Built in the 
Queen Anne Style, this building has picturesque chimney 
stacks, gables, and brick cut in playful tinker toy shapes. 

As you head left on Fairfield St look down the alkys that 
run the length of Back Bay. Part of Oilman's original scheme 
to save the district from urban bHght, the alleys provided in- 
conspicuous access to kitchen doors for deliveries. Today they 
are used for pai^g by residents and treasure hunting 1^ 
local indigents. 

If you are feeling adventurous, diis is a good time to poke 
around some shops on Boylston and Newbury Sts. Hunt for 
toy models of McDonald's or organic Fritos; or check Shopping 
for specific items. 

Climax your day with a trip to the top of the Pro. From 
Ae SkywaJk on the 50th floor (Admission $1) you can see 
the eflFect this urban renewal project has had on the Back Bay. 
To begin with it was built over train yards that had been a 
terrific eyesore. But these yards had also protected Back Bay 
from contact with the less desirable South End and Hunting- 
ton Ave. Though a great civic improvement, the modem cen- 
ter, by its design which allows fluid movement of people, also 
provides a bridge between the South End and Back Bay, thus 
jeopardizing the social insularity and domestic character of 
the Back Bay. But development is always a two-sided issue. 
In losing its domestic scale, the area has gained a dramatic 
tower that links Back Bay to the rest of Boston's spine of 
skyscrapers. 



198 



I^IUJIL HALL MARKETPLACE 

is coming back to life! 

Since 1742, Faneuil Hall has been Boston's tradi- 
tional market district. In 1825, Alexander Parris 
designed the imposing granite "Quincy Building" and 
side blocks for the city's expanding commerce. To- 
day, a full-scale redevelopment program is reviving 
this historic area as an exciting contemporary center, 
bringing together fine shops and restaurants, a food 
market, nightlife and entertainment — for a true 
modern marketplace in downtown Boston. 



BLACK HERITAGE TRAIL 



The fiist black Bostonians anived in 1638 aboard tibe sUp 
Desire horn the port of Providence in Barbados, the West 
Indies. The Puritans paid for them through the sale of "trouble- 
some Indians/' A second vessel, the Rainbowe, the first Amer- 
ican slave ship, left Boston in 1645 for the Guinea coast of 
West Africa. Available slaves were scarce as the British had 
traded there earlier. The Americans provoked a quarrel with 
a coastal village, landed their cannon, and attacked. Those 
Guineans who were not killed were taken captive and brought 
to Massachusetts for sale. Stories of the massacre had drifted 
back to Boston, howev^, and the ship was met by indignant 
citizens who had its officers seized and its human cargo re- 
turned home at public expense. 

By 1705 there were well over four hundred slaves in Boston, 
most of whom were house servants. Others were responsible 
for transporting farm produce from the outlying areas to the 
markets of North Square and Haymarket, where they bar- 
gained and traded on their masters' behalf. Gotten Mather, 
colonial Boston's most influential minister, reputedly first learned 
of smallpox inoculation from his Senegalese slave who had 
been immunized by African doctors. Mather led tibe fight to 
introduce the practice among a reluctant Boston population. 

The first free black settlement was at the foot of Gopp's 
Hill in the North End and was known as '^ew Guinea." 
The SnowhiU St side of nearby Gopp's Hill Burying Ground 
bears the bodies of over 1,000 colonial Boston blacks, includ- 
ing Prince Hall, the founder of the Black Masons. Blacks are 
also to be found in the Gentral Burying Ground on the Gom- 
mon. By 1829 the handful of free blacks in the city had risen 
to relative prosperity with new jobs as street laborers, coach- 
men, window cleaners, sailors and barbers. As Irish immigrants 
poured into the North End, Afro-Americans moved out to 
better quarters on tfie north slope of Beacon Hifl. Most of tiie 
social and religious organizations of Boston's present black 
population have their origins with the Beacon Hill colony. 

The 19th century saw a portion of that community move 
across die Charles River to Cambridge in search of better 
schools. Others who were servants followed their employers 
into the new townhouses of the South End and Back Bay. 
With the end of the century and the deterioration of die nortib 



200 



slope of Beacon Hill, the heart of the black community next 
moved to the South End and Roxbury. The post-World War 11 
northern migration and West Indian influx have expanded that 
settlement imtil now most of Roxbury, North Dorchester and 
parts of Mattapan are predominantly black communities. 

Black Bostonians have been aroimd for over three hundred 
years and have amassed a history as varied and interesting as 
that of any of the city's other long-term ethnic groups. Ironi- 
cally enough, much of that history has been a struggle with 
a liberal Boston social conscience which has supported social 
change elsewhere but has resisted advancement at home. Take 
the Black Heritage Trail to explore that history. 

To begin the Black Heritage Trail, take the Blue line of the 
MBTA to the Bowdoin stop. Exit onto Cambridge St. and 
walk to the right until you reach Joy St., which intersects 
Cambridge on your left. Once on Joy St., climb up a block 
until you reach Smith Court. When the north slope of Beacon 
Hill was black, this was the heart of the community. As you 
enter the Court, on yoiu: left is the Old African Meeting House, 
the first black chinrch in Boston and one of the earliest edu- 
cational centers for persons of African descent. It was con- 
structed in 1805 by Boston blacks who refused to continue to 
sit in the galleries of the white churches. William Uoyd Gar- 
rison founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society here. 
The building today houses the Museum of Afro-American His- 
tory—the center for many Black Heritage activities. Stop here to 
pick up a more detailed brochure about the trail including a 
walking tour and a schedule of events. Notice also the marker 
outside the building. It is the Black Heritage Trail logo and 
will appear on every ate in Boston relevant to black history. 
Some of the more important of diese include: 

Abiel Smith School on Smith Court. The first public school 
for black children in Boston. It was reluctantly established by 
the city in March of 1834 after black citizens, tired of paying 
taxes to support public schools which their children could not 
attend, protested and demanded equal educational facilities. 
Forty years later, overcrowding prompted parents to petition 
for integration into the regular public school system. 

George Middleton House, 5 Pinckney St. This wooden structure 
on Beacon Hill was built in 1795 by Middleton and a 
barber named Lewis Glapion, both free blacks. Middleton was 



202 



Look For This Sign as You Walk 
the Block Heritage Trail 




BLACK 
HERITAGE 
TRAIL 




1. Old South Meeting House, Milk 
and Washington Streets, Boston 

2. Tremont Temple, TremonI Street, 
Boston 

3. Old Granary Burying Ground, 
Tremont Street (Adjacent to Park 
Street Church). Boston 

4. Park Street Church, Tremont and 
Park Streets. Boston 

5. Crispus Attucks, site of Boston 
Massacre, Boston Common 

6. Boston Common 

7. Civil War Monument, 
Boston Common 

t. The Stote House, Beacon Siretl, 
Boston (Beacon Hilll 



9. The George Middleton House, 
5 Pinckney Street, Boston 
(Beacon Hill) 

0. The African Meeting House, Smith 
Court, Boston (Beacon Hill) 

1. Abiel Smith School, Smith Court, 
Boston (Beacon Hill) 

2. John J. Smifh House, 86 Pinckney 
Street, Boston (Beacon Hilll 

3. The Lewis Hoyden House, 66 Phillip* 
Street, Boston 

4. Dr. George f. Grant House, 
108 Charles Street, Boston 

5. Charles Street Meeting House. 
Charles Street, Boston 

4. Site of Boston Massacre, Washington Stre«l 



a colonel who led a black Massachusetts company called the 
"Bucks of America" at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Also at 
Bimker Hill was Peter Salem of Framingham, the black soldier 
who killed the leader of the British forces. Major Pitcaim. 

Lewis and Harriet Hayden House, 66 Phillips St. The Haydens 
were two abolitionists whose home served as an important 
station on the Underground Raihoad. Lewis was a runaway 
slave from Kentucky who escaped to Boston in 1848. He and 
his wife aided John Brown with plans for the raid on Hwmer's 
Ferry and William and Ellen Craft with their escape from 
slavery, 

Charles Street Meeting House, Charles and Mt. Vernon Sts. 
The site of many 19th-century abolitionist meetings, the meet- 
ing house saw a famous controversy over the seating of black 
servants in the family pews. Outraged members withdrew to 
form the Tremont Temple, the first integrated church in 
Boston. 

Boston Massacre Monument, Tremont St. side of the Boston 
Common. This memorial to the five victims of the Boston Mas- 
sacre bears the name of Crispus Attucks, a former slave, at 
its top. 

Robert Gould Shaw Monument, the Common at Park and 
Beacon Sts. The 54th regiment was a company of free Mas- 
sachusetts blacks who fought in the Civil War. Sgt. William 
Carney, a member of the regiment, was the first black Amer- 
ican to win the Congressional Medal of Honor. The flag of 
the regiment is on display in the Hall of Flags in the State 
House. 

Granary Burying Ground, Tremont St. The graves of At- 
tucks and the other Massacre victims are here, to the right of 
the main entrance gate. 

Boston Massacre Site, in front of the Old State House. The 
o£Bcial site of the Massacre of 1770 is marked by a 
circle of cobblestones. For a full account of the event see the 
Freedom Trail: Downtown: 



204 



proud to say 
our famous neighbcH* 
is looking better 
than ever. 

Since 1831, when we opened our doors at 28 State Street we Ve been 
fortunate enough to live across the street from the Old State House. 
So when we were asked to contribute to the restoration of this 
great historic shrine, we were glad I to be the 
one private organization to help. Along with HUD 
and other public bodies, we are helping by contributing to the 

renovation of this beautiful building, including internal 
and external work as well as display facilities and extra staffing 
to make it more accessible to visitors. Now more than ever, 
the Old State House should be on everybody's tour of historic Boston. 

New England Merchants 
National Bank® 



OTHER BOSTON NEIGHBORHOODS 

East Boston 

East Boston was unintentionally founded around 1630 by 
"One Noddle, an honest man of Salem" who drowned o£Fshore 
when his canoe overturned. He lost his life but gave his name 
to the largest of the five islands that then comprised East Bos- 
ton; and Noddle s Island it remained until the area's o£Qcia] 
settlement in 1833. Like the other islands, Noddle's Island has 
been obliterated and connected to the mainland by 19th- 
century landfill operations. You may get some idea of its loca- 
tion, however, if you remember that present-day Maverick 
Square was once the property of an early settler on the island, 
Samuel Maverick, who hved up to his name by being an 
Episcopal royalist in a predominantly Piuitan community. Of 
the other islands, Hog or Breed's Island is now the area of 
Orient Heights, and Bird, Apple and Governor's Islands have 
been levelled to accommodate Logan International Airport. 

In the 19th century East Boston was a lively business dis- 
trict whose shipyards were world-famous. The Donald McKay 
shipyard alone produced 21 clipper ships, as well as a good 
number of ocean packets, schooners, warships and steam ves- 
sels. With the decline of the shipyards in the latter half of the 
century. East Boston became more residential than commar- 
cial. The neighborhood was mostly Irish in the 1880s (wiA 
pockets of Portuguese, Greeks, Scandinavians, Russians and 
Germans here and there), but it has been predominant^ 
Italian since an influx of immigrants in 1905. 

Brighton 

Brighton was originally the home of the Nonantum Indians, 
a friendly tribe converted to Christiamty by the Puritan mis- 
sionary, John Eliot. Along with Christiamty (they were Ae 
first tribe converted in British America), the Nonantums 
adopted agriculture and rejected their former nomadic ways. 
Unequipped and untrained, the Nonantums could not adjust 
to their new lifestyle and, as they put land under cultivation, 
drove away the wildlife that had once sustained them. The 
Puritans, afraid that the starving tribe would become hostile 
during King Phillip's War, sent them to Deer Island. They 
were never to return. 



206 



Welcome to our ^ i\\ 
neighborhoods! 



Like America, 
Boston is made 
up of mani; different 





parts. Neighborhoods. Each with a 
history, a flavor of its own. Throughout 
Boston, some twentx; neighborhoods 
want to show you what makes them 
spedal. And tiiey're using as their 
local' 'showcase 
libraries, schools or 
community centers. As one 
of this dty's oldest and largest 
banks, with roots of our own 
in Boston's neighborhoods, 
we're delighted to spor]sor 
this program for Boston 200, 
So please, in order 
to really participate in the Bicentennial 
celebration, stop in at the neighborhood 
exhibits and see the real Boston. 
It's the neighborly thing to do. 

The National Shawmut 
Bank of Boston 

Participating neighborhoods: 
South End, Brighton, the Waterfront, Fenway, the North End, 
Beacon Hill/West End, South Boston, Chinatown, West Roxbury, 
East Boston, Jamaica Plain, Roslindale, Hyde Peurk, 
Mission Hill, Dorchester, Roxbury. 






The British settlers, however, succeeded in forming a flour- 
ishing market and agricultural center here. Before the era of 
transcontinental railroads and Chicago's boom, thousands of 
barrels of Brighton beef were salted and shipped across the 
coimtry each week. Merchants also sent fnrit trees, seeds, and 
flowers west by the Boston-Albany Line and stocked down- 
town shops with May Day bouquets for the city's gentlefolk. 
Here the strawberry and the Brighton pine were first cultivated, 
as was the first asparagus plant in the U.S. Some of Brighton's 
famous fruit reached the public in a more potable form- 
currant wine became a best-selling beverage. Today Brighton's 
organic days are over and it is a bustling commuter town 
composed of families, students, and elderly citizens with a 
variety of ethnic backgrounds. 

South Bostim 

South Boston achieved fame during the Revolution— Wash- 
ington set up his guns on Dorchester Heights here, laid siege 
to the city and forced the British to evacuate Boston on 
March 17, 1776~but it did not experience its most vigorous 
growth until the beginning of the 19th century. At that time 
glass, iron and shipping industries moved into the area and 
attracted Irish immigrants looking for work. They stayed, built 
fine houses (one of which became the Perkins Institute for the 
Blind, where Helen Keller was educated), and laid out the 
neat streets and parks you can still see today. This has been 
and still is the most predominantly Irish neighborhood in Bos- 
ton, a close-knit community that brags about the L Street 
Brownies, a group of hardy men who defy freezing winter 
temperatures and go swimming every day. 

Dorchester 

Around 1630 the Rev. John White of Dorsetslrire, England, 
rallied together some of his parishioners and lurged them to 
found a settlement in the New World. They made elaborate 
plans with him for the new colony, set sail, and founded 
Dorchester, the Dorsetshire of the newly established Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony. (The Rev. John White himself stayed 
home in England.) After initial setbacks the settlement of 



208 



Dorchester thrived, first as a fishing port and then as a ship- 
building community. 

In the early 19th century the first pottery works in the 
country was established in Dorchester, and mills— grain, paint, 
copper, textOes— cropped up in the lower falls area. Undoubt- 
edly the most pleasant aspect of industrialization was the 
fragrance of chocolate that once floated from the famous Wal- 
ter Baker chocolate factory. 

Dorchester also developed as a suburban residential and 
recreational area. In 1822 Savin Hill— once fortified for the 
Revolution— became a seaside resort area complete with luxury 
hotel. Today it is better known for its "three-deckers," typical 
3-family dwellings in Boston and the passion of domestic archi- 
tecture buflFs. Equally prominent is the Ashmont Hill area, 
which developed as a suburb for the well-to-do in the late 
19th century. 

Dorchester is now a quiet residential community proud of 
its long history. Five of its historic houses remain: tiie Blake 
house, the two adjoining Clap houses, the Ball-Hughes house 
and the Pierce house. (George Washington not only slept in 
the Pierce house, he reportedly lost a pistol there.) 

Mattapan 

Mattapan was described by Captain John Smith as flie *T[sle 
of the Mattahunts," the Indian tribe who lived in the area. 
(The name Mattapan means "a good sitting-down place.") 
Originally the part of Dorchester referred to as "the Pasture," 
Mattapan was^ declared separate in 1630 and quickly became 
a mill center. Leather, com meal, steel nails, chocolate and 
paper were produced by water-powered mills and factories 
along the Neponset River. The Hollingsworth Paper Mill, built 
in 1773, is the oldest paper mill in America still standing. 

In 1800, Mattapan was a sparsely settled community with 
a "hay scale and drinking trough" in the center of town. It 
grew slowly throughout tfie next century, until the Chelsea 
Fire of 1907 brought an influx of Jews in search of new homes. 
By 1930, Mattapan was the largest Jewish center in Massa- 
chusetts. Since then, however, the Jewish inhabitants have 
been moving steadilv to more remote suburbs, to be replaced 
by blacks and other ethnic groups. Modem Mattapan is pre- 
dominantly a middle-class black community, with neighbor- 



209 



hood assodatioDS working to preserve local history and char- 
acter. 

Roxbuiy 

Roxbury was one of six harbor vilkges founded in 1630 by 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was located on the mainland, 
but connected to the settlement of Boston on Shawmut penin- 
sula by the "Neck," a strip of land about a mile long and 
barely 200 feet wide. On 4e 18th of April in 75, William 
Dawes made his midnight ride over the Neck through Rox- 
bury to Lexington, warning the countryside that the British 
were coming. (His friend Paul Revere took an alternate route, 
was captured by the British between Lexington and Concord, 
but achieved immortality anyway. ) The Neck disappeared with 
19th-century landfilling, but Washington St. still follows 
Dawes's route from the peninsula over the Neck throu^ 
Roxbiury. 

Until after the Revolution Roxbury was a sparsely populated 
farming community, whose heart was Eliot Square (named 
for Puritan missionary John Eliot). The square is the site of 
the First Church of Roxbury, whose original building was 
used as a signal station for the patriots during the Revolution 
and was William Dawes's starting point. Also on the square is 
the Dillaway-Thomas House, the former home of Rev. Charles 
IXQaway, who taught the first Japanese students to come to 
this country. The house, which was used to quarter Revolu- 
tionary soldiers, now belongs to the city of Boston and is 
being restored as an adjunct to the Museum of Afro- 
American History. 

For about a hundred years EHot Square was also the home 
of the Roxbury Latin Sdiool (now located in West Roxbury), 
which boasts such alumni as Revohitionary hero Joseph War- 
ren, cardiologist Paul Dudley White and historian Walter Muir 
Whitehill. Odier famous Roxbnryites are the portraitist Gilbert 
Stuart, Boston's foremost abolitionist William Uoyd Garrison, 
and Black Muslim leader Malcolm X. 

Besides EUot Square, a visit to Roxbury should include the 
Shirley-Eustis House on Shirley St., built by Governor William 
Shirl^ in 1750 and later bought by Governor William Eustis. 

Roxbury today is a predominancy black residential district 
and the center dE black culture and politics in Boston. On Ehn 



210 



Boston. The finest 
in the land. 



The 17,000 people at 
Finast are proud to be ' 
part of Boston's 
200th anniversary. 




Finast 



Hill Ave. is tbe National Center of Afro-American Artists, an 

educational and cultural institution that grew out of the well- 
known Elma Lewis School of Fine Arts. The Center sponsors 
performances and classes for the community and oftoi pro- 
vides scholarships to neighborhood children for instruction in 
the arts. For information on performances, see p. 291, p. 295 
and p. 296. Other outstanding community groups include Circle 
Associates and the Roxbury Action Program, which underwrite 
small neighborhood businesses and invest in the area's eco- 
nomic growth. 

Roxbury has also been a center of the civil- rights move- 
ment. Neighborhood parents organized in the 1960s to per- 
suade the Boston School Committee to close Roxbury's Board- 
man School and send local children to Peter Faneuil School on 
Beacon Hill. The movement, known as Operation Exodus, was 
the first community-organized busing program in the U.S. 
Mandatory city-wide busing has now been ordered by a state 
court, as a result of political action that stemmed from Opera- 
tion Exodus. Another outpost of dvil rights in Roxbury is 
Freedom House, an activities center opened by Muriel and 
Otto Snowden which has been in operation for 25 years. 

Mission Hill 

Mission Hill, a multi-racial section of old Roxbury bordering 
on Boston s medical complex, started as a working-class Irish 
neighborhood created by immigration in the 1840s. Later in 
the century Cerman factory workers joined the community and 
founded Mission Church, the first basiHca in Nortib America. 
You can visit the basilica at 1545 Tremont St. and get a first- 
hand look at its famous building material, Roxbury pudding 
stone. (Legend has it that the giants who used to live in Rox- 
bury got angry one night during a feast and threw their plinn 
pudding at each other, scattering these unique stones all over 
the area.) 

Jamaica Plain 

There are two tiieories about the origfai of the name Jamaica 
Plain. The first is that it celebrates Cromwell's victories in 
the Caribbean. The second is that it states the drinking pref- 
erences of Boston's 17th-century dock workers: they liked 
Jamaican rum, and they Hked it ''plain." 



212 



The coming of the Boston-Provldeiice Railroad converted 
Jamaica Plain from a country retreat to a streetcar suburb. 
Tanneries and breweries sprang up, manned by newly arrived 
Irish and German workers. But tt^ town retained much of its 
rural character thanks to the expansion of Frederick Law 
Olmsted's park system. In 1880 James Arnold, a New Bedford 
merchant, established the 500-acre Arnold Arboretum as the 
link in the emerald necklace" of Olmsted parks. This spectac- 
ular garden, together with Franklin Park, the Arborway and 
Jamaicaway, make Jamaica Plain the greenest commimity in 
Boston. 

Although the Arboretum is Jamaica Plain's most conspicuous 
attraction, the neighborhood also contains the delightful Chil- 
dren's Museum, the home of Mayor Curley (now in use by 
the Oblate Fathers), and Bromley-Heath, the first tenant-run 
housing project in the U.S. 

West Roxbury 

West Roxbury, positioned on the eroded cone of a volcano 
(it's been dead for 100 million years), was not recognized as 
a community distinct from Roxbury proper until 1851. Part of 
this neighborhood rests on land granted to Captain Joseph 
Weld in 1643 for ser/ices rendered to the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. West Roxbury is most famous as the former home of 
Brook Farm, a Utopian experiment in clean living and high 
thinking. Hiis community, founded by such transcendentalists 
as George and Sophia Ripley, William Ellery Channing, and 
Margaret Fuller (with occasional support from Emerson, Haw- 
thorne and Theodore Parker), suffered a spiritual and financial 
collapse after five years. Still, this "French Revolution in 
miniature," as Emerson dubbed it, lingers in the minds of 
American reformers and intellectuals. 

Roslindale 

Roslindaie was a part of West Roxbury until 1870 (when 
it was named after the vacation spot of Roslyn in Scotland) 
and grew as a streetcar suburb, settled mostly by Germans and 
Irish. In Roshndale's Forest Hill Cemetery are buried General 
Warren, who was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill, and 
Eugene O'Neill, the great American playwright 



213 



Hyde Paik 



Hyde Park, incorporated in 1868, is the most distant suburb 
of Boston, pocketed between West Roxbury and Dorchester. 
It was also one of the first commuter towns in the area, its 
growth encouraged by the Boston-Providence RaiLroad. But 
Hyde Park had noteworthy industries of its own. The Neponset 
River and its tributary, Mother Brook, powered the town's 
cotton and woolen mills. People still reminisce about the 
George Clark paper mill which once produced the distinctive 
red-and-blue-threaded paper used for U.S. currency. 

After its first pioneer settlement, Fairmont Heights, was 
established in 1856, Hyde Park was the chosen residence 
of many writers, artists and reformers. Angelina and Sarah 
Grimke, fervent abolitionists and women's rights advocates, 
Hved here, and J.J. Enneking, the famous rural painter, drew 
inspiration from the picturesque landscapes that surrounded his 
home. During the Civil War, this neighborhood was the site 
of Camp Meigs, an Army training camp. 5000 troops were 
readied for battle on the former pasture of Ebenezer Paul, 
among them the Union's first black regiment under the 
command of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. 



Provident 

Institutionl)r§a\an^ in Boston 



30 Winter Street— 36 Temple Place 

Nation's Oldest Savings Bank Charter 
Founded in 1816 

SPONSORS OF THE 
OFFICIAL BOSTON 200 CALENDAR 



214 



ENTERTAINING YOURSELF 



FESTIVAL AMERICAN CALENDAR 

Boston will celebrate the Bicentennial by organizing nei^ 
borhood festivals and city-wide galas, and by looking ahead 
to the future as well as back on die past. Boston is already 
known as an exciting place to live, and this aspect of the city 
will be accentuated during the Bicentennial by hundreds of 
events ranging from talks on current issues to neighborhood 
parades. One special Bicentennial program will be "The Bi- 
centennial Forums: Boston Examines the American Experi- 
ment," sponsored by the New England Mutual Life Insurance 
Company in cooperation with Boston 200 and the Parkman 
Center for Urban Affairs. Beginning in early 1975 and con- 
tinuing through 1976, this series will feature nationally-known 
leaders who will engage in public dialogues about the coim- 
try's historic principles and their implications for the future. 
In addition, the Ford Hall Forum, America's oldest public 
lecture series, will continue to present free talks by contro- 
versial personalities at the Alumni Hall at Northeastern Uni- 
versity. For more information on the Bicentennial Fonuns call 
338-1975 (Boston 200 information) or check the Boston 200 
newspaper; for the Ford Hall Forum call 426-0725. 

You may also want to look into the lecture series of two 
Boston 200 Task Forces. The Task Force on Law and Civfl 
Liberties will deal with constitutional issues of ciuxent inter- 
est by presenting mock trials at Faneuil Hall; and the Task 
Force on Health Care will sponsor the Lowell Lectures in 
Medicine for 1975 and 1976, talks by nationally acclauned 
health leaders on milestones in medicine and on the issues 
a£Fecting health care delivery today. 

Last but not least, the city will honor its own citizens, all 
its neighborhoods, and members of the ethnic groups which 



215 



give Boston its special diversity and cultural richness. Each 
month of the Bicentennial the Mayor's OflSce of Cultural Af- 
fairs will pay tribute to a di£Ferent nationality with special 
cultural programs as well as dance, musical and drsunatic 
performances; and Boston 200 will set up exhibits in Qty 
Hall every week (from May to Sept) which will feature a 
different Boston neighborhood. Boston 200 will also sponsor 
special events in the neighborhood for that week. Be sure to 
inquire about these programs during your visit, and watch for 
traditional neighborhood events, such as the street processions 
in the North End on feast days. You can also go to the 
Children's Festival, held every Sunday afternoon in Copley 
Square, where your children can meet Boston children, teadi 
each other regional games and listen to folk singers. 

The Mayor's 0£Bce of Cultural Affairs' most sweeping pro- 
ject is Summerthing, a treat to the native and die visitor alike. 
An ambitious effort to make the city a more enjoyable place 
to live, Summerthing works hand-in-hand with Boston neigh- 
borhoods to sponsor festivals, creative workshops, block 
parties and performances. For information on spedfic Sum- 
merthing and ethnic-month events call the ARTSIINE at 
261-1660. When Summerthing is not in season, ARTSLINE is 
an information source for all of Boston's cultural goings-on. 
For specific dates of the above events and changes which may 
occur in the following festivals, consult the Boston 200 news- 
paper or call Boston 200 information at 338-1975(6). 



MARCH 1975 

5 Boston Massacre Day--205th anniversary celebrated by 
procession led by Charlestown Militia from the Mas- 
sacre site to City Hall Plaza. 

17 St. Patrick's Day and Evacuation Day Parade-proces- 
sion begins at Andrew Sq., marches through South 
Boston to East Broadway. 

APRIL 1975 is Irish MonA in Boston 

14-24 First ten days of U.S. Bicentennial Celebration. Open- 
ing of all Boston 200 exhibits and trails. Call 338-1975 
for information. 



216 



America, 

YouVe got 200 good wishes coming 

So when they light the candies on our cake, 
celebrate with an ice-cold bottle of delicious Coca-Cola. 
In our entire history there hasn't been a more 
refreshing traditipn than enjoying Coca-Cola. 





18 Lantern Service at Old North Church commemorating 
the 200th anniversary of Paul Revere's ride. Re- 
enactment of Paul Revere's ride begins at Paul Revere 
Mall in North End and ends on Lexington Green. Re- 
enactment of William Dawes' ride from John Eliot 
Sq. in Roxbury to Lexington Green. 

19 Patriots Day— Parades in Lexington and Concord, and 
in Boston from Old City Hall to Revere Mall to Old 
North Chiurch. Parade by Ancient & Honorable Artil- 
lery Co. in Back Bay. City Ring, to which all Boston 
is invited to bring bells and join area high school bands 
and church chimes in ringing in Patriots Day. 

20 Bike race along Paul Revere's route, sponsored by State 
Bicentennial Commission. 

21 Boston Marathon— 26-mile run form Hopkinton to Pru- 
dential Center 

MAT 1975 is Albanian Month in Boston 

Four Elements Air Festival— Kite Festival sponsored by the 
Committee for Better Air 

19 Black Solidarity Day— celebration at FranWin Park 

20 Lafayette Day— ceremony at Lafayette Monument on 
Boston Common 

26 Memorial Day— ceremony at Copley Sq. 

JUNE 1975 is Afro-American Month in Boston 

Four Elements Earth Festival— "plant-in" and folk song fete 
at the Fenway 

2 First Muster Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany Parade— Faneuil Hall to Boston Common to Cop- 
ley Square 

7-8 June Art in the Park— Boston Conmion 

13-14 Celebrate— Jubilee-The Black Triumph— all night caba- 
ret, cultural events and entertainment at the National 
Center of Afro-American Artists 

15 Bunker Hill Day Parade— from comer of Vine and 
Tufts Sts. in Charlestown. 

17 Bunker Hill Re-enactment— Bunker Hill Monument, 
Charlestown. 200th anniversary of historic battle. 



218 



The first woman clerk in a 
Boston store was hired by 
Gilchrist — a startling inno- 
vation at the Washington 
and Winter corner where 
Gilchrist has been making 
news since 1842. 



Boston's 
"FIRST" 
Department 
Store 
is the FIRST PLACE 
you'll want to shop! 




More than ever, Gilchrist is doing exciting NEW things! Like offer- 
ing the FIRST "Ms." Charge Account in the entire country. Like 
being the FIRST departnnent store to welcome Master Charge and 
BankAmericard. Visit us and be delighted with more FIRSTS . . . 
unexpected low prices on fabulous fashions and wonderful gift ideas. 



Have lunch with us and discover our world- 
famous Golden Almond Macaroons — 
mother Gilchrist FIRST! 






Washington at Winter Streets 
Branch stores in Brockton, Quincy. Saugus, 
Stoneham, Medford, Framingham. Basement 
Branches in Cambridge and Dorchester. 



JULY 1975 SUMMERTHING 



Four Elements Fire Festival— demonstraticms by tihe Fire De- 
partment and fireworks displays 

4 Independence Day— parade begins at Qty Hall, pro- 
ceeds through historic sections of Boston and ends with 
extensive exercises at Faneuil Hall. Declaration of In- 
dependence read at Old State House. Fireworks over 
Dorchester Bay. 

5-6 Independence Day festivities continue in the neighbor- 
hoods 

11-13 Feast of Madonna del Carmine— North End 
18-20 Feast of St Rocco-North End 
25-27 Feast of St. Joseph-North End 

AUGUST 1975 SUMMERTHING 

Four Elements Water Festival— celebration on the Esplanade 

1-3 Feast of St. Agrippina— North End 

8-10 Feast of Madonna della Cava— North End 

15-17 Feast of Madonna del Soccorso— North End 

22-24 Feast of St. Anthony-North End 

29- 31 Feast of St. Lucy-North End 

30- 31 Festival of the August Moon— Chinatown 

SEPTEMBER 1975 is Lithuanian Month in Boston 
OCTOBER 1975 is Italian Month in Boston 

9 Leif Erickson Day— celebration at Leif Erickson Statue 
on Commonwealth Ave. 

13 Columbus Day— ceremony at Columbus Statue in Louis- 
burg Sq. Parade in North End. 

27 Veteran's Day— parade circles Boston Common and the 
Public Garden 

NOVEMBER 1975 is Jewish Month in Boston 

Whole World Celebration opens at Hynes Auditorium 



21 Christmas Festival of Lights opens at Boston Common 

220 



DECEMBER 1975 is Hispanic Month in Boston 

16 Boston Tea Party Day— observance on the Boston Tea 
Party Ship at Congress St. Bridge 

JANUARY 1976 is Arab Month in Boston 

1-6 Christinas Festival of Lights continues on Boston Com- 
mon 

15 Martin Luther King, Jr. Day— celebration at City Hall 
19 Benjamin Franklin Day— ceremony at Franklin Statue 

at Old City Hall 

FEBRUARY 1976 is Chinese Month in Boston 

12 Lincoln's Birthday— ceremony at Lincoln Statue in Park 
Sq. 

16 Washington's Birthday— celebration at Equestdan Statue 
on Boston Common 

MARCH 1976 is Polish Month in Boston 

5 Boston Massacre Day— the Charlestown Militia leads a 
procession from the Massacre Site to City Hall Plaza. 
206th anniversary of Massacre. 

14 St. Patrick's Day and Evacuation Day Parade— proces- 
sion begins at Andrew Sq., marches tturough South Bos- 
ton to East Broadway. 200th anniversary of British 
evacuation of Boston. 

APRIL 1976 is Armenian Month in Boston 

19 Patriots Day— re-enactment of rides of Paul Revere and 
William Dawes. Parades, (see April 1975) 
Boston Marathon— a 26-mile run from Hopkinton to 
Prudential Center 

MAY 1976 is Creek Month in Boston 

Four Elements Earth Festival— "plant-in" and folk song fete 
Committee for Better Air. 

19 Black Solidarity Day— celebration at Franklin Park 

20 Lafayette Day— ceremony at Lafayette Monument on 
Boston Common 

26 Memorial Day— ceremony at Copley Sq. 

221 



JUNE 1976 is Haitian Month in Boston 



Four Elements Earth Festival— a "plant-in" and folk song fete 
at the Fenway 

5- 6 June Art in the Park— Boston Common 

7 First Muster Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany—parade from Faneuil HaU to Boston Common to 
Copley Sq. 

11-12 Celebrate— Tubilee— The Black Triumph— all night caba- 
ret, cultural events, and entertainment at the National 
Center of Afro-American Artists 

17 Bimker Hill Day— re-enactment of historic battle at 
Bunker ffill Monument 

20 Bunker Hill Day parade— begins at Vine and Tufts Sts. 
in Charlestown to the Boston Common 

JULY 1976 SUMMERTHING 

Four Elements Fire Festival— demonstrations by Ae Fire De- 
partment and fireworks displays 

Operation Sail brings ships from many countries to Boston 
harbor 

3 Washington's arrival in Boston— re-enactment at Bos- 
ton Common 

4 Independence Day ( see July 1975 ) 

9-11 Feast of Madonna del Carniine— North End 
16-18 Feast of St. Rocco-North End 
23-25 Feast of St. Joseph-North End 
30-31 Feast of St. Agrippina-North End 

AUGUST 1976 SUMMERTHING 

Four Elements Water Festival— celebration on the Esplanade 

1 Feast of St. Agrippina continues— North End 

6- 8 Feast of Madonna della Cava-North End 
13-15 Feast of Madonna del Soccorso— North End 
20-22 Feast of St. Anthony-North End 

27-29 Feast of St. Lucy-North End 

29 Festival of the August Moon— Chinatown 

SEPTEMBER 1976 is Native American Month in Boston 



222 



OCTOBER 1976 is Portugaese MoaAi in Boston 

9 Leif Erickson Day— celebration at Leif Eiickson Statue 
on Commonwealtli Ave. 

11 Columbus Day— ceremony at Columbus Statue in Louis- 
burg Sq. 

27 Veteran's Day— parade circles Boston Common and die 
Public Carden 

NOVEMBER 1976 is Yankee Mondi in Boston 

Whole World Celebration opens at Hynes Auditorium 

19 Christmas Festival of Lights opens and continues 
through Jan. 5 on Boston Common 

DECEMBER 1976 is Multicultural America Month in Boston 

16 Boston Tea Party Day— observance on the Boston Tea 
Party Ship at Congress St. Bridge. 




why weight? 

While you're here in town. ..do what Bostonians 
do! Come to historic Summer Street and weigh 
yourself for free on Kennedy's old fashioned 
scale! It s accurate, and a great way to meet 
people! After you weigh in, please visit the 
rest of the store, featuring Kennedy's out- 
standing collections of famous name 
fashions for men and women, 
young adults and boys! 



223 



MUSEUMS AND ATTRACTIONS 

If you want to gaze on some great art, see the physical 
remnants of America's past, or indulge an idiosyncratic interest, 
Boston has a museum for you. The following listings are 
divided into three parts: fii^t, the major sights which appeal 
to the general audience and the connoisseur alike; second, 
those which cater to more specialized interests; and third, those 
located on the outskirts of the city. Devote a day to the 
Museum of Fine Arts, take an avid stamp collector to the 
only philateHc museum in the world, or pack a picnic hmch 
and leave for the country, visiting on your way the former 
home of Bronson Alcott's Utopian community. 

MAJOR MUSEUMS AND ATTRACTIONS 

Boston Tea Party Ship and Museum, Congress St. Bridge on 
the Tea Party Path (338-1773). T-South Station; by car from 
south. Southeast Expressway to Downtown-Chinatown exit; 
from north. Expressway to High St.-Congress St. exit The ex- 
hibit includes the brig Beaver 11, a full-scale copy of one of 
the ships involved in the Tea Party. The Tea Party Museum 
houses audiovisual presentations and historical documents rele- 
vant to the Tea Party. Visitors may explore the entire ship and 
throw chests of tea overboard,, creating their own Boston Tea 
Party. Open daily, 9am to 5pm in winter, 9am to 8pm in 
summer. Adults $1.50, children 14 or under, 75^. 

Children's Museum, Jamaicaway, Boston (522-5454). T- Arbor- 
way, get off at Buttle St. Take the kids to a museum 
where everything can be touched. Play with computers, par- 
ticipate in a Japanese tea ceremony, visit an Algonquin wig- 
wam, see what the frequently changing "What's New" exhibit 
has to offer. Films and arts and crafts demonstrations change 
weekly. All tiie guides are friendly, well-informed and helpful 
Open Tues-Fri, 2pm to 5pm, Sat, Sun and school vacations, 
10am to 5pm, Fri, 6pm to 9pnL Adults $1.60, children 3-15 
80^, Fri eve. free. 

Chinatown. From T-Boylston, walk down Boylston St., con- 
tinue on Essex, turn right on Harrison Ave. to flie heart of 
Chinatown, identified by the pagoda-shaped telephone booths. 
Oxford PL, off Harrison, is the spot where the Chinese first 
settled about one hundred years ago. Until after World War 



224 



n, when die tense political situation in China encouraged 
many families to emigrate to America, Chinatown was com- 
posed mostly of transient males who came to work in the whal- 
ing industry, the textile mills or in laundries and restaurants, 
areas where they were not competing with Westerners. They 
would work in die United States, send money to their families 
and, with hick, return home in a few years. Today Boston's 
Chinatown is the third largest Chinese setdement in the na- 
tion, after San Francisco and New York. Explore for yourself 
the myriad specialty shops and groceries and discover the best 
bargains on brocade jackets, jade crafts, porcelain, exotic teas 
and spices. Complete your tour with a meal at one of the 
many excellent restaurants in the area. If you're here in Feb- 
ruary or August, attend one of the festivals— the Chinese New 
Year or the Festival of the August Moon— and watch colorful 
dragon dances and fireworks displays. (See the Festival Ameri- 
can calendar.) 

First Chuieh of Christ, Scientist, Christian Science Center 
(262-2300 ext 2078) T-Prudential or Symphony. The Christian 
Science Center consists of the First Church of Christ, Scientist 
and the Christian Science Publishing Society. The church build- 
ing, called The Mother Church by its members, consists of 
two distinct buildings: the Original Edifice, first permanent 
home of the church, and the domed Extension, where services 
are held today. The Publishing Society publishes Christian 
Science magazines, books, pampUets and the Christian Science 
Monitor, an influential international daily newspaper. While 
you are there, be sure to visit the Mapparium, a huge walk- 
through colored globe. Tours of The Mother Church: Mon- 
Fii, 10am to 5pm; Sat and Sun, noon to 5pm. Tours of 
Mapparium and Publishing Society: Mon-Fri, 9:30am to 
11:30am and 1pm to 3:30pm. Mapparium only: Mon-Sat, 
8:15am to 4pm; Sun, noon to 3pm. Free. 

Franklin Paric Zoo, Franklin Park, Boston (442-0991) T-Egles- 
ton Station, then take Franklin Park bus; by car, take exit 17 oflF 
Southeast Expressway. A part of Frederick Law Olmsted's 
Boston park system, now Franklin Park is a rather shabby zoo 
but getting better all the time. Special features include the 
Children's Zoo, where attendants allow children to help them 
feed the animals, and "A Bird's World", a giant aviary. Open 
May-Nov, daily, 10am to 5pm. Main Zoo free. Children's Zoo, 
adults 75^, children 25#. Bird's World, adults 25#, free to 
accompanied children. 



228 



The Isabella Stewart Gardner Musenm, 280 The Fenway, Bos- 
ton (734-1359). T-ArBngton, stop at Museum of Fine Arts. 
Mrs. Jack's Palace is a more impropriate name for this museum, 
the art collection of one of Boston's great eccentrics. In tfie 
eyes of the proper Bostonians, Mrs. Gardner committed her 
m:st indiscretion by being bom in New York. For those which 
followed Mrs. Jack took gleeful responsibility. She drank beer 
instead of tea, walked a pet Hon (named Rex) instead of a 
dog, and drove her sleigh along the sidewalk when she had 
a mind to. She collected jewels and had her two favorite 
diamonds set on gold springs to wear in her hair like butterfly 
antennae. And each Lent she absolved herself— her sins were 
rumored to be well worth the penance— by scrubbing the steps 



however, was collecting art, not to mention artists. To nouse 
her collection she reconstructed a Florentine palace, shipped 
stone-by-stone from Italy. Although in her sixties when 
building began in 1910, she rarety missed a day at ihe site 
and was always accompanied by h^ personal trumpeteer who 
summoned malingering workmen. 

Her collection reflects her personality as clearly as her home 
does. One of the most magnificent private galleries in the 
world, it includes one of the finest Titians extant ("The Rape 
of Europa"), one of Ae world's thirty-six surviving Vermeers, 
and works of Botticelli, Tintoretto, Corot, Sargent and Whistler. 

Sadly, her good taste was exceeded only by her cosmic 
ignorance of design and exhibit skills. She crammed a tiny 
room full of Manets and gave Ae central position to William 
James' portrait of his brother. Her own portraits by Sargent 
and Whistler have rooms to themselves, while the only Ver- 
meer in New England is lost in the clutter of a heavily 
decorated room. 

None of this ineptness would be so irritating if Mrs. Gardner 
hadn't insisted to posterity that she knew what she was doing. 
But she bequeathed her collection to the pubHc on condition 
that none of her pieces ever be moved. If so much as an ash- 
tray is re-arranged, the land, building, and all of its contents 
are to be sold and the money donated to Harvard. Everyone 
is afraid to test the strength of her will in court 

Despite these foibles, perhaps even because of them, the 
Gardner is one of Boston s guaranteed delights. Every city has 
its art patrons, but only this one had a Mrs. Jack. Open Tues, 
1pm to 9:30pm; Wed-Sun 1pm to 5:30pm. Free. Free con- 
certs September Arough June, Thurs and Sun at 4pm and 
Tues at 8pm. 



of the Ghurch of the Advent 




229 



Govemment Center— New City Hall (722-4100) T-Govem- 
ment Center. Tours of City Hall are given Mon-Fri 10am to 
4pm, starting every half hour. Begin at the information desk, 
llie Main Art Gallery on the fifth floor has frequently chang- 
ing showings of major artists. Ask at the information desk for 
the location of the other four exhibit spaces which feature local 
talent. Tours and galleries are imder the auspices of the Mayor's 
OflBce of Cultural Affairs. For further details see Freedom 
Trail, p. 119. 

Harvard University Museams^ 11 Divinity Ave., Cambridge 
(495-1000) T-Harvard. The University museums are com- 
posed of four distinct collections. The Museum of Comparative 
Zoology (entrance on Oxford Street) displays stuffed speci- 
mens and skeletons of a wide variety of animals, extinct 
and surviving. The North American Bird collection, the oldest 
known dinosaur egg, the ^Harvard" Mastodon, and the only 
known skeleton of a Kronosaurus, a 42-ft marine reptile, are 
among its attractions. The Mineralogical and Ge<dogical Mu- 
seum houses 150,000 mineral samples. Of special interest are 
the stalactites and fluorescent min^als. The Botanical Museum 
holds the famous glass flower collection, the work of Leopold 
Blaschka, who created these life-like modek as teaching tools 
for Harvard students. The display includes 164 families of 
flowering plants as well as models depicting the life cycle of 
many non-flowering species, the pollination process and the 
effects of disease on plants. The Peabody Museum of Archae- 
ology was the first museum of its kind in die country. Its 
collection includes artifacts from Eskimo, South Sea Island, 
Mayan and Sou&west American Indian cultures. A fine exhibit 
on traditional and contemporary aspects of Tlinglt Indian (an 
Alaskan tribe) life opened in 1974. The special Bicentennial 
exhibit is an ethnographic study of American Indian culture, 
emphasizing the Revolutionary period. Open Mon-Sat, 9am to 
4:15pm. Free; Glass Flower exhibit, 25^. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, 955 Boylston St, Boston (266- 
5151) T-Auditoriimi. Founded in 1936, the ICA continues to 
be the leading force in Boston contemporary art through its 
exhibitions, public art program and related educational activi- 
ties. Excellent changing exhibits in a renovated 19tii-century 
police station. Tours of artists' studios every first Thursday <rf 
the month. Open Mon-Sat 10am to 5pm, Sun 2pm to 5pm. 



230 



L. 



m LIKE IT HEREI 

AHDm'YE BEEN AROUND 

forWyears 



GTE Sylvania has been around Boston for 
three-quarters of a century. We're a 

major Massachusetts industry, proud to be 
a part of your past. And we look 
forward to being part of your future. 



f> Boston 200 «i 



OOsyu/ANiA 

DANVERS • WALTHAM • NEEDHAM 
FALL RIVER • SALEM • IPSWICH 



9>9 



The Massachusetts State House, Beacon Street, Boston (727- 

2121) T-Park St The seat of the Massachusetts government 
overlooks Boston from the city's highest hill, once the prop- 
erty of John Hancock, Revolutionary financier and the state's 
first elected governor. Completed in 1795, the central red 
brick, white-columned section was designed by Charles Bul- 
finch, under the inspiration of classical temples. The dome, 
now covered with 23 karat gold, was first sheathed with cop- 
per by Paul Revere in 1802. Atop the dome is a gilded pine 
cone, a symbol of the forests that helped the early settlers 
survive. Here you can watch the State Senate and House of 
Representatives in action and visit the governor's oiffice if he's 
not around. The Archives Museum in the basement holds 
docimients and maps significant in Massachusetts history, in- 
cluding Bradford's manuscript of the history of Plimoth Plan- 
tation, the 1630 Massachusetts Bay Company Charter, Indian 
treaties and some of Paul Revere's engravings. Tours are avail- 
able; phone for the schedule. 

Museum of Afro-American History, Smith Court off Joy St., 
Boston (723-8863) T-Bowdoin. A restored African meeting 
house, the oldest black church building in U.S. The museum 
displays exhibits of Afro-American history in New England. 
Guided tours of the Black Heritage Trail may be arranged by 
appointment. Open daily lam to 4pm. Adults $1, children 50^. 

Museum of Fine Arts, 465 Huntington Ave., Boston (267-9377) 
T-Arborway ( Himtington Ave. ) . Streetcar stops in front of the 
MFA. 

The MFA, an imposing granite palace, occupies twelve 
acres of land, making it one of the few Boston sights which 
are not crowded between other buildings. The museum has 
eight structurally separate departments— Egyptian, Classical, 
Decorative Arts (European and American), Asiatic (Chinese, 
Japanese, Indian, Islamic, and Korean), Prints and Drawings, 
Textiles, Paintings, Contemporary, and a non-circulating li- 
brary, open to the public, which contains 145,000 books and 
pamphlets. 

The collection of Egyptian architectural casts and artifacts 
is the most complete one outside of Cairo, and the Japanese art 
collection has no rival in the nation. You will pass through end- 
less rooms devoted to early American furnishings— Duncan 
Ph3^e chairs, Paul Revere sflver, canopied four-posters— more 
ihan enou^ Americana to please the most finicky Daughter 
of the American Revolution. In the hemicycle, on the sec- 
ond floor» an aiiay of Impressionist paintings (mosity Monet) 



232 



For the 
next two years 

well 

showyou thepast 

two hundred. 



Museum Hi^ights, 1975-1976: 

FRONTIER AMERICA, 
January 24 - March 12, 1975 

PAUL REVERE'S BOSTON 
April 18 - October 12, 1975 

COPLEY, STUART, WEST 
July 22 - October 17, 1976 

NEW ENGLAND PROVINCIAL PAINTERS 
July 22 - October 17, 1976 



BOSTON MUSEUM OF HNE ARTS 
479 Huntington Avenue, Boston 



creates a mood of light and color which will follow you through 

the entire museum. 

During the Bicentennial the Museum of Fine Arts has 
planned several special exhibits, including a collection of 18th 
century art treasiures called "Paul Revere's Boston: 1735-1818" 
(Apr-Oct, 1975), an exhibition of paintings by Copley, Stuart, 
and West (July-Oct, 1976), New England Provincial Painters 
(July-Oct 1976), and a massive diorama of the Battle of 
Bimker Hill, complete with 5200 toy soldiers (June-Sept, 
1975). 

When you are either footsore or eyesore, stop for a gracious 
lunch at the MFA restaurant. The food is good and the in- 
terior view exquisite. A trip to the MFA is an absolute must. 
Don t sweep dirough; spend at least half a day there. Open 
Mon, Wed, Fri, Sat, Sun, 10am to 6pm, Tues, Thurs, 10am to 
9pm. $1.50, free Sun morning. 

Museum of Science and Hayden Planetarium, Science Park, 
Boston (742-6088) T-Lechmere to Science Park. An action- 
oriented museum featuring live animals, natural history and 
technical science exhibits, visitor-operated demonstrations, 
audio-guided toiurs. Hayden Planetarium oflFers programs twice 
daily as well as lectures, courses, and special evening demon- 
strations in astronomy. Special Bicentennial exhibits on "Yankee 
Ingenuity" and "Medicine and Health in Boston/* For people 
with children, a must, for those without, a treat. Cafeteria on 
premises. Open Mon-Sat 10am to 5pm, Fri until 10pm, Sun 
11am to 5pm. Adults $2, children $1. 

Museum of Transportation, Larz Anderson Park, 15 Newton 
St., Brookline (521-1200) T-Cleveland Circle, then bus to 
Forest Hills. Once the estate of Larz Anderson, wealthy world 
traveler, diplomat and car bufF, who used to buy a car every 
year (starting in 1898) and never sold one. Twenty to thirty 
autos are displayed at any one time, plus sleighs, carriages and 
a fire engine (rides available on weekends). The antique bi- 
cycle collection is the best on the East Coast. Slide shows and 
silent films continuously on weekends and during the summer. 
Open Tues-Sun, 10am to .5pm. Adults $1.50, children and 
senior citizens 25^. 

New England Aquarium, Central Wharf, Boston (742-8870) 
T-Aquarium. All the bizarre, colorful and amusing specimens 
of marine life are on display here. Watch scuba divers feed 
the fish in a 200,000 gallon ocean-water tank, visit the salt- 



234 



Pack a two-story-high 
dinosaur into your visit to 
Boston, along with a Moon- 
landing craft, a 90-fbot wave 
tanic, a giant '^iiirity'^machine, 
and maybe a side trip to 




m 



Put Boston's famous and fascinating 
Museum of Science into your plans. Sure, it's 
based on the ideas of knowledge and discovery 
. . . but the emphasis is always on fun. 

And be sure to take in the newest show at 
our renowned Hayden Planetarium - where 
one of the world's most amazing projectors 
brings you on journeys through space and time 
that you'll always remember. 

You'll find our Skyline Room a great 
place for lunch . . . overlooking the Charles 
River and featuring one of the city's truly 
spectacular views. 

There's convenient parking at the Museum 
garage if you drive. Or take the MBTA Green 
Line to Science Park station. See you soon? 

Museum of Science 

Science Park • Boston 



water tray which covers the entire first floor wheie aquatie 

mammals and birds show oflF, and admire the new mammal 
barge. Gallery guides are located at each major exhibit; un- 
derwater movies are shown daily. You can also watch a his- 
torical film, "Boston and the Sea," made by the Museum of the 
American China Trade. Open Mon-Fri, 9am to 5pm; Fri till 
9pm; Sat, Sun, holidays, 10am to 6pm. Adults $2.50; students, 
senior citizens and servicemen, $1.25; children 6-15, $1.00. 

Harrison Gray Otis House, 141 Cambridge St., Boston (227- 
3956) T-Charles or Government Center. Built in 1796 and 
designed by Bulfinch, this house gives you a picture of Boston 
high life in the days of the early republic. Exact reproductions 
of the furniture, wall paper and paint colors have been created 
through extensive research, making the interior as exact a 
facsimile of the original interior as is possible. The Society for 
the Preservation of New England Antiquities, an organization 
which restores and protects fine historic houses, has headquar- 
ters in the Otis house and maintains its Hbrary and museum 
here. Contact their o£Bce for more information on SPNEA 
homes in the area. Open Mon-Fri, 10am to 4pm. $1. 

Charlestown Navy Yard and *'01d Ironsides," T-Conmnmiiy 

CoUege on the Orange Line. The Boston Navy Yard, founded 
in 1800, covers 43 acres. It is located on historic Moulton's 
Point, where the Charles and Mystic Rivers merge, the spot 
where the British launched their attack in the Battle of 
Bunker HQl. The installation originally cost $19,350, appro- 
priated from funds for the construction of six 74-gun ships. 
It proved to be a good investment, for today the complex is 
worth $450 million. In 1833 the drydocks, the first in the 
nation, were completed under the guidance of Col. Laommi 
Baldwin, "the father of American Civil Engineering." The 
Naval Yard has built, outfitted, and laimched ships for every 
American war since 1812. Part of it has now been designated 
a National Historic Site, maintained by the National Park 
Service. 

The most conspicuous sight in the Navy Yard is certainly 
the U.S.S. Constitution or "Old Ironsides." This, the most 
famous ship in American history, was built in 1797 by Joshua 
Humphrey. 175 feet long, and holding 400 men, the ConsUtu- 
Hon was an innovation in its time. It was longer than most 
ships and had more cannon, but its maneuverability allowed 
it to run from the enemy when out-gunned. "Old Ironsides" 
was intended as the showpiece of the Revolutionaxy War Navy, 



236 



Come aboard 
the Discovery. It^s a 
showboat full of sea lions, 
whales and botdenosed 
dolphins. 

Right in Boston harbor, right next to 
Central Wharf is the only floating mammal 
amphitheatre in the world! It's the New- 
England Aquarium's Discovery. Walk across 
the gangway and take a seat in the stadium 
above the quarter of a million gallon pooL 

That's where the sea lions, dolphins and 
small whales i)erf orm for you. Trained in 
Florida, they're ready to show New 
Englanders what they know. YouH see them 
jump through hoops, play ball, and echo 
locate objects with blindfolds on. They're so 
smart they could even throw tea into the 
harbor to celebrate the bicentennial! 

During their performance, youll see an 
open-ocean film on a lairge screen above the 
I)ooL It's a movie that the Aquarium has 
put together from locations all around the 
world. While you watch, youll learn how 
these mammals live in their natural 
environment. 

Come aboard the showboat Discovery for 
a water ballet, a ball game, a movie and 
an out-at-sea education. The sea lions, 
whales and dolphins will applaud you when 
you're there. 

New England Aquarium 

___TheFinsofMan 




but did not see action until the uno£Bcial war with the Bar- 
bary pirates at Tripoli in 1803. But it was during the War 
of 1812 that the U.S.S. Constitution gained its fame and its 
nickname. On August 19, 1812, the Constitution engaged in 
its first fuD-scale sea-battle with the British frigate, the 
Guerriere, oflF the Nova Scotia coast. After an hour of cannon 
fire the Constitution was nearly unscathed while the Ouerriere 
could barely limp into port. The British soldiers, astoimded 
by the fact that their cannon fire didn't dent its sturdy oaken 
sides, dubbed the ship "Old Ironsides.'* 

The Constitution has suflFered more threats from the U. S. 
Navy than from enemy guns. It was decommissioned in 1830 
and the Navy was about to destroy it when Oliver Wendell 
Holmes rallied the nation to its defense with his poem "Old 
Ironsides." The Navy then rebuilt it and kept it on active 
duty imtil 1882. Again in 1905 the Navy flew in the face of 
public sentiment and proposed that the Constitution be used 
for target practice. Instead, through funds raised in a nation- 
wide campaign, the Constitution was completely rebuilt in 
1925. Today "Old Ironsides" has undergone a third recon- 
struction, this time with a $45 million Senate appropriation, 
and rests safely in the Navy Yard, the oldest commissioned 
ship in the Navy. One of the Navy Yard buildings houses the 
Constitution Museum, devoted to the ship's history. 

Other sights in the Charlestown Navv Yard include the 
Rope Walk, the Commandant's house and the Alexander Par- 
ris building. The Rope Walk, a remarkable building almost 
a quarter of a mile long, was the place where all the rope for 
the U.S. Navy was manufactured until 1971. The Comman- 
dant's house, a graceful square brick Federal mansion, designed 
in 1809 by Samuel Nicholson, has been the home of the Navy 
Yard's commandant since its completion. The Rope Walk, 
along with the granite laboratory buildings and the wood- 
and-metal shop, was designed by Alexander Parris. His sim- 
ple, well-proportioned style set an example for many American 
architects. During the Bicentennial, a multi-media exhibit of 
the Battle of Bunker Hill will be presented on Hoosac Pier. 



238 



Costly Victory } ^ 
c/?/2 Im^iQjrtal Defeat... 




.. _ . J..- :4\: ■ ■ - ^ .See - ^ v--X^:r -^-^- 
' ^ ■ - "Whiles of Their Eyes" 
at the 

BUNKER HILL PAVILION 

ADJACENT TO THE U.S.S CONSTITUTION 

Charleslown, Mass. 
Created by WHITE OAK DESIGN, Inc. 
Raytheon Historical Foundation Corporation 



ADDITIONAL MUSEUMS AND ATTRACTIONS 



Boston Fire Museum, 20 Eustis St., Roxbury, T-Dudley. This 
is the oldest surviving firehouse in Boston, originally built in 
1819. The present structure has been restored to its original 
decor, complete with models and a photographic history of 
early fire departments. Exhibits tell the history of fire de- 
partments from colonial times to the present Open Mon-Fii, 
9am to 5pm; Sat-Sun, 10am to 4pm. Free. 

Busch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University, 29 Kirldand St., 
Cambridge (495-2338). T-Harvard; parking diflScult. Germanic 
art from the Middle Ages to the present with an especially 
excellent collection of German Expressionist works. Every 
Thursday at noon organ concerts are ^ven. Tours may be 
arranged in advance. Open Mon-Sat, 9am to 4:45pm; in the 
summer closed Sat. Free. 

Mary Baker Eddy Museum (Longyear Historical Society), 120 
Seaver St., Brookline. T-Kenmore, take Chestnut Hill bus to 
Fisher Ave. By car, Huntington Ave. outbound, follow signs 
for Fisher Ave. This 100-room tum-of-the-century mansion 
contains memorabilia of the founder of Christian Science, 
Mary Baker Eddy— portraits, photos, manuscripts, personal 
possessions. Stroll through the gardens and grounds, main- 
tained by the Longyear Historical Society. Tours available. 
Open daily, 9am to 5pm (earlier closing in winter.) Adults 
$1, under 20, 25^. 

Fogg Art Museum, Quincy St., Cambridge (495-2387) T- 
Harvard. Teaching museum of Harvard University. The best 
university art museum in the country, the Fogg shows an 
excellent selection of period and genre. Three exhibits under 
the title "Memories of Eighteenth-Century Harvard" are 
planned for the Bicentennial: Benjamin Franklin (Apr 17- 
Sept 22, 1975), Lafayette (Winter 1975-76), and Har%^ard 
Divided (May-Sept, 1976). Open Mon-Sat, 9am to 5pm; Sun 
2pm to 5pm. Free. 

Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts, 186 Tremont St., 

Boston (426-6040), T-Boylston. Exhibit on the Masonic fra- 
ternity with particular reference to Masons in Boston from the 
colonial period to the present. Exhibits include material on 
Lafayette, Joseph Warren, Paul Revere, John Hancock and 
Washington. Open Mon-Fri 10am to 4pm. Free. 



240 



Hayden Gallery, MIT Library, Memorial Drive, Cambridge 
(253-4680) T-Central Square. A small gallery with fine rotating 
exhibits of contemporary painting and sculpture. Note the 
giant Calder stabile outside. Open during the acad^uic year. 
Mon-Sat, 10am to 4pm, closed Sun. Free. 

John F. Kennedy National Historic Site, 83 Beals St., Brooldine 
(566-7937) T-Cleveland Circle Hne to CooHdge Comer. The 
35th President of the United States was bom in this house in 
1917, and it is furnished with pieces which belonged to his 
family. Open daily 9am to 5pm. Adults 50^, children under 
16 free. 

London Wax Museum, 179 Tremont St., Boston (542-6882) 
T-Boylston. 125 life-size wax figures by Madame Josephine 
Tussaud. The museum includes 3iat chamber of horrors with- 
out which no wax museum would be complete. Open Mon- 
Sat, 10am to 9:30pm, Sim, 1pm to 9:30pm. Adults $1.95, 
children $1. 

Museum of the American China Trade, 215 Adams St., Milton 
(696-1815) T-Ashmont, then Mattapan streetcar. The former 
home of Captain Robert Bennet Forbes, this museum in- 
cludes a collection of China Trade art objects, documents and 
artifacts which capture the spirit of America's participation in 
the Far Eastern sea trade. Open Tues-Sat, 2pm to 5pm. Adults 
$1.50, children 50^. 



OUT^F-TOWN ATTRACTIONS 



Cardinal Spellman Philatelic Museum, Regis College, Weston 
(894-6735) T-Riverside, taxi to college. By car, Mass Pike to 
Weston exit, turn onto Rt 128. This is the only museum in the 
world devoted exclusively to stamp collecting. Guided tours 
may be arranged by appointment. Open Tues and Thurs 9:30am 
to 2:30pm, Sun 2pm to 5pm. Adults 50^, children 25^. 

De Cordova Museum and Park, Sandy Pond Road, Lincoln 
(259-8355). Rt 128 to Trapelo Rd. (exit 47W). Julian De 
Cordova, 19th-century glass manufacturer, bequeathed his 
home to the town as a museum. The 30-acre park is decorated 
with outdoor sculpture, while inside the mansion graphics. 



241 



painting and sculpture aie displayed. Arts and crafts classes, 
films and demonstrations are offered regularly. Call to arrange 
a gallery talk. Open Tues-Sat, 10am to 5pm, Sun, l:dOpm to 
5pm, closed Mon. Adults $1.50, children 50^. 

Fniitlands Museums, Prospect Hill, Harvard (456-3924). Take 
Rt 2 to Harvard exit, south on Old Shirley Rd., turn onto 
Prospect Hill. Fniitlands includes the remains of Bronson 
Alcott's Utopian community, a Shaker museum lepresenting 
another communal experiment, an Indian Museum, and an art 
gallery of American landscapes and portraits, featuring works 
by members of the Hudson River School Fniitlands is housed 
in an 18th-century farmhouse where Alcott founded his 
Transcendentalist community in 1843. Artifacts of Alcott and 
his friends— Emerson, Thoreau, and Fuller— are on display. 
Open Tues-Sat, 1pm to 5pm. Adults, $1, diildien 25^. 



GALLERIES 

Gallery-hopping on Newbury Street could while away a day 
if you aren't careful, and much more if you are a serious art 
patron. You'll find art suited to every taste and pocketbook, 
primitive to contemporary, graphics, sculpture, watercolors, 
oils, ranging in price from expensive to modest (forget about 
cheap— just browse if you re broke). Gallery talks are offered 
at many places, especially if a special exhibit is featured. Most 
galleries are open from 10am to 5pm Mon-Sat but some close 
Mondays and keep erratic hours during the summer, so call if 
you want to visit a specific one. The Copley MBTA station 
brings you within a few blocks of all of the following galleries, 
plus many more: 

Alpha Galley, 121 Newbury (536-4465) offers fine contem- 
porary art with an emphasis on graphics by modem masters. 

Childs, 169 Newbury (266-1108), exhibits fine American paint- 
ing of the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth cen- 
turies, as well as art objects of the China trade. 

Doll & Richards, 172 Newbury (266-4477), is the nation's 
oldest gallery. Its general policy, which is waived today, was 
to carry only works by Hving artists. It specializes in twentieth- 
century American scidpture, prints, and painting. 



242 



Graphics 1 and Graphics 2, 168 Newbury (266-2475) has an 
outstanding selection of original prints by 20th-century artists. 

Harcus Krakow Rosen Sonnabend, 7 Newbury (262-4483), 
also has a branch at the Chestnut Hill Mall. It concentrates on 
contemporary painting, graphics, sculpture and tapestries. 

Pucker/Safrai, 171 Newbury (267-9473), exhibits African and 
Eskimo sculpture, the polished bronze works of Kieff, and 
graphics by twentieth-century masters like Chagall, Matisse 
and Rcasso. 

Rolly-Michauz, 125 Newbuiy (261-3883), exhibits ImpiessioiH 

ist and post-Impressionist works. Contemporary artists of in- 
ternational r^ute are represented, among them Calder and 
Picasso. The oils and sculpture are expensive but some draw- 
ings, lithographs, and even some wat^cokrs are within reach. 



WE SALUTE YOU, 
BOSTON. 
YOUR HISTORY 
ISAVITALPARTOF 
THE AMERICAN SPIRIT. 




venae 



Prudential Center. Boston 



243 



Shore Galleries, 8 Newbury (262-3910), features recent 
works by New England artists and nineteenth and early 
twentieth-century American art 

Vose Galleries of Boston, Inc., 238 Newbury (536-6176), has 
been directed by the Vose family with taste and integrity for 
five generations. Some of their paintings by Thomas Cole, 
John Singleton Copley and Gilbert Stuart circulate to mu- 
seums. The gallery has a large collection but insufBcient waU 
space to display all of it. Therefore, describe the types of 
painting which interest you and the attendant will assist you. 

There are a number of galleries in the Harvard Square 
area, although they cannot compare with Newbury Street's. 
Art/ Asia at 8 Story Street, and Art Explorers, at 1804 Massa- 
chusetts Ave. (specializing in Eskimo art), are well worth a 
visit. If you'd like to rent a picture or attend an art class go to 
Cambridge Art Association at 23 Garden Street or call 876- 
0246. 

The Boston Visual Artists Union Gallery, Three Center 
Plaza, sells the works of its 700 Boston area artist-members. 
The BVAU Gallery brings together artists dealing with a 
variety of styles and media and gives the public access to the 
art created in its midst, by means of one of the finest new 
galleries in the U.S. The gallery usually closes for a few 
weeks in late summer, so call first if you're in town then 
(227-3076). T-Govemment Center. 



244 



SHOPPING IN BOSTON 



DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

Hustle-bustle-rush-rush. For energetic shoppers. Before 
Christmas beware mounted policemen hired to protect cars 
from pedestrians. Besides bdng the locus of a thriving jewelry 
business, Washington Street is famous for its large clothing and 
department stores. Charles Street, backyard shopping district 
for Beacon Hill, excels in rare antiques and exotic plants. 
Neighborhood specialties for Chinatown, North End and 
Waterfront listed below. Late nights Monday and Wednesday. 
T-Park, State or Washington. 

ANTIQUES: Elegant antiques on Charles St; nautical artifacts 
and Americana along the Waterfront 

BOOK SHOPS: 

Special Collections (Antiquarian): 

Brattle Book Shop, 5 West St. Since 1825. Oldest continuously 
run rare book store in Boston. Proprietor George Gloss was 

A Boston 
Landmark 




234 Berkeley Street, Boston 

245 



honored as a walking Bbrary of knowledge and dispenser of 
philosophy in the Commonwealth's 1973 Golden Dome Cita- 
tion. 

Goodspeed's Book Shop, 18 Beacon St. and 2 Milk St Special- 
ties are antique maps and autographs. 

Starr Book Co., Inc., 37 Kingston St Superb collections of 
American and English literature. 

General Selection: 

Lauriat's, Inc., 30 Franklin St. and 1 Washington Mall. Large, 
deals in fine bindings and complete sets. Also cards and party 
supphes. 

The Old Comer Bookstore, 50 Bromfield St. Boston's oldest, 
originally on comer of School and Washington Sts. 
U.S. Government Printing Office Boston Bookstore, G-25 JFK 
Building, Government Center. Everything the government 
wants you to read. Open Mon-Fri, 8am to 4pm. 

COMESTIBLES: Fresh fish from Fish Pier off NorAem Ave. 
and lobster companies on Commercial St. (all on Waterfront). 
Italian wine, cheese and pastries on Hanover and Salem Sts. 
in North End. 



DEPARTMENT STORES: 

Filene's, 426 Washington St. Wide selection of high-quality 
goods. Lively battle in Automatic Bargain Basement, where 
clothes, linens, gifts sell at reduced prices. Unforgettable. 
Gilchrist's, 417 Washington St. Bostons oldest department 
store. Popxdar prices. Famous for almond macaroons baked 
hourly. 

Kennedy's, 32 Summer St. Wide choice of men s, women's, 
boys' clothes. 

Jordan Marsh, 450 Washington St. Boston's largest store. High 
quality; bargain basement. 

R. H. Steams Co., 140 Tremont St. Fine-quality men's, 
women's, children's clothes; household articles. 
F. W. Woolworth Co., 350 Washington St. Complete depart- 
ment store with moderate prices. 

OLD COINS, STAMPS: Poke around Bromfield and Province 
Sts. 



246 



years after the shot heard 
'round the world, Eben Jordan and Ben Marsh 
opened the doors of a new retail establish- 
ment in downtown Boston. The year was 1851 
and the corner of Washington and Summer 
streets has been the busiest corner in New 
England ever since. 

124 years later Jordan Marsh is, as it was then, 
the leading store in town for fashions and 
home furnishings. Our growth has been ccn- 
stant (from one store to ten in four New 
England states). But our roots remain in down- 
town Boston, where our home office and 
major store are still located. 

We invite you to visit all our fine stores. Boston, 
Framingham, Maiden, Peabody, Braintree, 
Burlington, Worcester, Bedford, N. H., South 
Portland, Maine and Warwick, R.I. But for 
nostalgia's sake, we direct you downtown, 
where it all began. 




JORDAN MARSH 



OFEN MABKETSt 



The Boston Flea Maiket, Quincy Market Anttqoes and crafts, 
old-time musie and entertainment every Smiday, Apr-Oct, 1pm 
to 6pm« 

Faneuil Hall Flower Maii^et, adjacent to Faneuil HaD. Cut 
flowers, plants at market prices. Open daily. 
Haymsurket, Faneuil Hall area. Fruit, vegetables, meat at 
wholesale prices. Jostling crowds, Italian mamas. Take a shop- 
ping bag. Fri and Sat, dawn to dusk. 

Italian North End, Hanover and Salem Sts. Barrels of squid, 
eels; fresh oregano, fruit, and nuts in open air markets; tan- 
talizing whifFs from bakeries. Practice your Italian before 
going. A daily happening. 

AMERICANA: 

Faneuil Hall Gift Shop, Faneuil HaD First Floor. Boston 200 
information and Bicentennial conmiemorative items. Open daily 
10am to Gpm. 

Faneuil Hall Heritage Shop, Faneuil Hall Basement, #5. 
Early American reproductions in pewter and silver. Open 9am 
to 7pm daily. 

NEWBURY AND BOYLSTON STREETS 

Boston gone continental. Elegant, prestigious and ^[pensive. 
Check the galleries (see Galleries p. 242) and plant boutiques 
or feel European in a sidewalk cafe. Exciting cluster of shops 
in Prudential Center. Best for couture, coiflFures, and fashion- 
able imports from Europe and New York. Open late Monday 
and Wednesday nights. T-ArHngton, Auditorium, Copley or 
Prudential. 

ARTS, CRAFTWORK: Leatherwork, American Indian arts. 

On Newbury St. from Clarendon to Hereford. 

Buffalo Days, 221 Newbury St. Native Indian arts. 

The Santa Fe Shop, 167 Newbury St. American Indian arts 

and crafts. 

So)oum, 254 Newbury St Artisan showcase. Delightful stuffed 
animals. 



248 



PAINE FURNITURE 

BOSTON NATICK 




FURNrrURE 



gifts for your 
historic visit! 



FINE APPAREL, SHOES: Brand-name clothes, branches of 
top Nfew York stores. Along Newbury St. from ArlingtMi to 
Dartmouth and the entire length of Boylston St. 

Brooks Brothers, 46 Newbiury St. Fine-quality men's clothes. 
Bonwit Teller, 234 Berkeley St. Choice women's apparel. Also 
The Twig at Bonwit Teller, 73 Newbury St. Bonwit s junior 
shop. 

Joseph Antell, Newbury St. Elegant shoes and bags for 
women. 

I. Miller Guild House, 37 Newbury St. Chic women's shoes 
and bags. 

Lord and Taylor, 750 Boylston St. First-class clothes for men, 
women, and children. 

Louis, 470 Boylston St. Distinctive men's apparel, designer 
clothing. 

Peck and Peck, 500 Boylston St. Impeccable selection of 
women's wear. 

Saks Fifth Avenue, Prudential Center. Exclusive clothing fos 
men, women, children. 

FUN AND GAMES: 

Boston Chess Studio, 335 Newbury St. Largest selection of 
chess games and books in New England. Tables for playing, 

40^ per hr. Open Tues and Fri, noon to 8pm; Wed, Thurs and 
Sat, noon to 6pm. 

Brentano's Book Store, Prudential Center. Hand-carved chess 
and backgammon sets, gallery of sculpture, jewelry, prints. 
Books, too. 

F.A.O. Schwarz, 40 Newbury St. Toys, toys, toys! Many im- 
ported or made specially for F.A.O. Riotous stuflFed gira£Fes. 

INTERIOR DECORATION, DESIGN, FURNISHING: Along 
Newbury St. from Berkeley to Exeter and Boylston St from 
Arlington to Exeter. 

Decor International, 171 Newbury St. Hand-woven rugs, tap- 
estries. Folk art from New Guinea, Africa, 35 countries in all. 
MaKanna, 416 Boylston St. Trousseau items, especially fine 
linens. 

Pan-tree, Inc., 380 Boylston St Goturmet cookware. Men 
welcome. 

Rug Gallery, Inc., 112 Newbury St. Rya rugs, Polish and 
Yugoslavian peasant designs. For walls and floors. 



250 



LORD & TAYLOR, THE PRUDENTIAL CENTER 
THE FASHION STORE FOR YOU AND YOUR FAMILY 



0^^ 



Walls and the Coverings Thereof, 164 Newbury St Fine wall- 
paper, matching fabrics. 

INTERNATIONAL FLAVOR: Interior furnishings, assorted 
crafts. Many on Newbury St. between Clarendon and Exeter. 

Artisans, 165 Newbury St. Yucatan jewelry, Japanese tureens, 
much more. Affordable prices. 

Aladire Ltd., 156 Newbury St. Handprinted Nigerian textiles. 
Alianza, 140 Newbury St Mexican h^dcrafted design. Furni- 
ture, wall hangings, jewelry. 

The Wandering Piper, 167 Newbury St. Scottish crafts and 
clothes, including kilts, tartan skirts, Harris tweed jackets. 

JEWELRY: Custom design work in silver and gold. In the 
Arlington to Berkeley block of Newbury and on Boylston from 
Arlington to Dartmouth. 

Shreve, Crump and Low Co., 330 Boylston St Where proper 
Boston brides register silver and china patterns. Check for 
special Bicentennial section. 

THE LATEST THINGS: Stereo equipment, natural cosmetics, 
organic foods, contemporary costumes. Newbury St above 
Dartmouth and all along Boylston St. 

Erewhon Trading Co. Retail Store, 342 Newbury St. Organic 
groceries, picnic makings. 

The Face and Body Shop, 217 Newbury St. Natural-care body 
products, tea blends, herbs and spices. 

Organic Food Cellar, 297 Newbury St. Organic foods, bulk 
grains. Tofu ice cream sandwiches for natural food epicures. 
Tao Book Store, 303 Newbury St. Eastern culture and religion, 
getting-your-head-together books and miscellania. 

HARVARD SQUARE 

Young and fun. Street music, Hari Krishna, and yogurt cones. 
No discernible logic to location of shops; of necessity the fun 
is in the search. Best for boutiques, books, and fine crafts. 
Very special shops mentioned below. Open late Thursday night 
T-Harvard. 

ARTS, CRAFTS: Work in leather, clay, wood, gold, silver, and 
gems. 

Contemporary Crafts, 10 Arrow St Intriguing gallery and 
shop witib work in wood, glass, etc. 



252 




Spoons 
for a 

Boston Tea Party 



Landmarks of the 
American Revolution 
are richly reproduced in 
four teaspoons of heavy 
silver plate by Reed & 
Barton. (Left to right): 
Faneuil Hall and Bunker 
Hill Monument; Old North 
Church and Paul Revere's 
Ride; John Hancock 
House and the Boston Tea 
Party; Old State House 
and the Minute Man. 
Order several sets. As 
elegant Bicentennial 
commemoratives, ideal 
gifts, handsome additions 
to your personal silver 
collection. Four 6-inch 
spoons, gift boxed, $17.95 
plus $1.50 postage and 
handling. (Mass. residents 
add 3% sales tax.) 



s 
c 



SHREVE,CRUMP &LOW CO. 



330 Boylston St.. Boston. Mass. 021 16 (617) 267-9100 T 
The Mall at Chestnut Hill. Mass. 02167 (617) 965-2700 J—i 



BOOKS: Bookstores are indigenous here. Good general selec- 
tions at: 

Harvard Coop Book Annex, Palmer St 
Harvard Bookstores, Inc., 1248 Mass. Ave. 
Paperback Booksmith, 25 Brattle St. 
Phillips-Brentano's Book Store, 7 Holyoke St. Also games. 
Reading International Corp., 47 Brattle St Foreign periodi- 
cals, too. 



Special collections at: 

Book Case and Annex, 41 and 42 Chnrch St. Huge assortment 

of second-hand books. 

Grolier Bookshop, 6 Plympton St. Modem poetry. 

Logos Bookstore, 58 Boylston St. Contemporary Christian 

books and oddments. 

Mandrake Book Store, 8 Story St. British and American art, 
architecture, psychiatry, philosophy. 

Pangloss Bookshop, 1284 Mass. Ave. Second-hand books, ob- 
scure literary magazines. 

Schoenhofs Foreign Books, Inc., 1280 Mass. Ave. Foreign- 
language books and art prints. 

Sphinx Book Store, 111 Mt. Auburn St Good books on phi- 
losophy, the occult, and organic cooking. 
Starr Book Shop, Inc., 29 Plympton St. Second-hand books, 
especially American and English Hterature. 
Temple Bar Bookshop, 9 Boylston St. Poetry, literature, and 
photography are specialties. 

Thomas More Book Shop, 6 Holyoke St. Modem religion, 
theology, moral philosophy. 



CONTEMPORARY FURNITURE: 

Children's Workbench, 1033 Mass. Ave. 

Fluid Dynamics, 99 Mt. Auburn St. Water beds, of course. 

Hooper-Ames, 40 Boylston St. 

The Upper Story, 1045 Mass. Ave. 



254 




At the start of the Freedom Trail 
= 140 Tremont Street. Boston = 



OLD THINGS, USED THINGS: 



Dazzle, Inc., 11 Boylston St. (second floor). '^Experienced" 

jeans, jackets, and more. 

Goodwill Thrift Center, 1116 Mass. Ave. Recycled clothes, 
furniture. 

Keezer's Harvard Community Exchange, 1221 Concord Ave. 
New and used clothes bought and sold. "Poor Man's Brooks 
Brothers" ( 15-minute walk from Harvard Sq., or take Belmont 
Center bus. ) 

THE OMNIBUS: 

The Harvard Coop, 1400 Mass. Ave. Any and everything. 
PLACES TO MOSEY AROUND: 

Desi^ Research, 48 Brattle St. Scandinavian cont«nporary 
design and Marimekko fabrics. 6 departments (including fur- 
niture and houseware) in a labyrinth of glass and color. 
The Garage, 36 Boylston St. Over 25 shops. Folk art, house- 
ware, funny boxes, beer-making stuff, far-out clothes. 
True, 40 Brattle St, Unique gifts for others— and yourself. 
Fancy candles, soap, cookware and more. 



THE MAN 
OF FASHION 
SHOPS AT . . 



31 boylston st./ boston 

clothing/furnishings 
footwear 



all major credit cards honored 
phone 267-6001 




256 



OUTDOOR BOSTON 



Parks 

For Frederick Law Olmsted, the father of the Boston Park 
system and previously the designer of New York's Central 
Park, the public park fulfilled a particular need. It produced a 
healthfully soothing and refreshing ^ect upon people escaping 
the bustle, confinement, and disturbance of the city into spa- 
cious natural scenery. Implementation of Olmsted's concept of 
an "emerald necklace" adorning Boston is a glittering example 
of far-sighted land use policy by 19th-century government. 

Below are brief descriptions of seven major parks you are 
likely to see. For further information on these or other parks 
and specific events held within them, call the Boston Dept of 
Parks and Recreation (722-4100) or the MDC Park Office 
(727-5250). 

Boston Common, the oldest public park in the nation, dat- 
ing from 1634, provides green space and shaded walking paths 
in the heart of downtown Boston. On smnmer Simdays a 
bandstand concert is held from 2pm to 4pm, and at Christmas- 
time live reindeer are on display near the intersection of Park 
and Tremont Sts. as part of the famous Christmas festival fea- 
turing lighted trees all over the Common. Beneath the Com- 
mon is the Underground Parking Garage, which has reason- 
able rates and is open 24 homs a day. MBTA stations are at 
Park St. and Boylston. 

Adjacent to the Common, across Charles St., is the Public 
Garden which contains fountains, formal flower beds, and 
carefully labelled rare trees. Of special interest is the Swan 
Boat Ride, a thoroughly enjoyable break from sightseeing oi 
shopping and something no child visiting Boston should miss. 
The boats, shaped like swans and pedalled by strong-legged 
summer employees, navigate the duck and goose infested 
waters of the Garden s pond. The ride costs 40^ for adults, 
25^ for children, and is open daily Apr-Sept. 

The Back Bay Fens follow Muddy River and lie between 
Park Drive and the Fenway. Hundreds of rose varieties grown 
in formal plantings are best seen in June and July, and private 
citizen plots, the remnants of Boston's wartime Victory Gar- 
dens, are the interesting individual expressions of city gardeners. 

Charlesbank Park and the Esplanade border the Charles 



257 



River and lie along the Back Bay residential section. The 
Community Boating concession for Boston residents is located 
in the park next to the Longfellow Bridge. Model boats can 
be sailed in Storrow Lagoon, and playground and picnic facili- 
ties are available. The Hatch Shell, a bandstand, is the site of 
pleasant evening concerts by the Boston Pops and Boston 
Symphony Orchestra (see Theater, Music, and Dance). Take 
the MBTA to Charles. 

Arnold Arboretum in Jamaica Plain is open daily from sun- 
rise to sunset. Administered by Harvard University in con- 
junction with the Boston Dept. of Parks and Recreation, the 
Arboretum is an extraordinarily beautiful 265-acre park con- 
taining over 6,000 varieties of ornamental trees, flowers, and 
shrubs. Middle May is the most splendid time; hundreds of 
lilacs, dogwoods, azaleas, and rhododendrons are in bloom. 
All plants are labelled. There is no admission charge and 
parking is free. Take the MBTA to Forest Hills, then walk 
two blocks west to the entrance. By car follow Route 1 south 
to Jamaica Plain. 

Franklin Park, the largest park of the system, is accessible 
from the Egleston MBTA station. Every night of the summer, 
from July 4 to Labor Day, it is the home of the Elma Lewis 
Playhouse in the Park, a program of the National Center of 
Afro-American Artists. The free performances range from mu- 
sic and dance to dramatic presentations, gospel, and rock mu- 
sic. In the past, Duke Ellington, Odetta and the Billy Taylor 
Trio have participated. The park also houses the Franklin Park 
Zoo, open daily year-round. Admission to the main Zoo is free; 
the children's Zoo costs 75^ for adults, 25^ for children. 



OUTDOOR AcnvrriES 

Beaches 

Crane's Beach, Argilla Rd., Ipswich. 30 miles north of Boston. 
Take Rt 128 exit 18. A SM mile white sand beach with large 
dunes. Can be crowded in mid-summer. Parking $2.50 week- 
days, $3.50 weekends. 

Nahant Beach, Nahant Beach Parkway, Nahant. 15 miles 
north of Boston near intersection of Rts lA and 129. T-Hay- 
market, then bus. Firepits and playground. Surfing allowed. 

258 



We're Exploring Alternatives to Worid Hunger, 

United Brands has long shared the widespread concern 
over adequate world-wide production and distribution of 
food. As major producers of nutritious foods, we 
continually seek new ways and means to develop high 
protein food sources; new fields, new technologies are 
constantly being explored. 

Food production is not the only business we're in, but it's 
one of the most rewarding. Meats, bananas, lettuce, 
shortening and cooking oils, poultry and livestock feeds 
are just some of the areas where we are working to 
improve and increase production. 

Maybe hunger can't be erased everywhere in the world... 
but we intend to keep trying. 

Iljjr^ UNITED 



United Brands is a major agri products and petrochemical cotnpan> ^S-'*^J COMPANY 



Nantasket Beach, Rt 228, Hull (925-0054). 18 miles south of 
Boston. T-Fields Comer, then bus. Also reachable by Mass. 
Bay Line boat from Rowe's Wharf on Atlantic Ave. (T- Aqua- 
rium). Two round trips daily; $4.75 adults, $3.25 children 
under 12. Call 542-8000 for department times. Paragon Park 
is at the beach and surfing is allowed. 

Plum Island, Parker River Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport. 35 
miles north of Boston. Take Rt 1 to Newburyport, then follow 
signs to Plum Island Turnpike. Beautiful 6)2 mile sand beach 
with abundant water fowl. Surf -fishing allowed. Parking is $1 
and admission 50^ per person over 16. 

Revere Beach, Revere Beach Parkway, Revere (284-0038). 
Off Rt lA, T-Revere Beach. Bathhouse facilities. 

South Boston Beaches. Along Day Blvd. in South Boston. T- 
South Station, then bus for Castle Island, City Point, Pleasure 
Bay and M Street Beaches. T-Columbia for Carson Beach, 
which has bathhouse facilities and rental lockers. 

Beaches: Freshwater 

Cochituate State Park, Rt 30 near Mass. Pike interchange, 
Natick. Picnic tables and firepits in the woods surrounding 
the lake. 

Walden Pond Reservation, Rt 126, Concord. Swim in the pond 
Thoreau lived by and explore the adjacent woods. Open June 
15-'Labor Day. 

Boat Rentals 

Simpson's Pier, 90 Broadsound Ave., Revere (284-9656). T- 
Revere Beach. Fishing boats with outboard motor; $4 per 
hour, $24 per day. Open May-Sept, 7am to 7prQ. 

Hurley's Boat Rental, 136 Bay View Ave., Quincy (479-1239). 
T-Quincy, then Hough's Neck bus to Sea St. 16-ft. fishing 
boats with outboard motor; $17.50 per day. Open Apr-Oct, 
6am to 6pm daily. 

Jamaica Pond Boat House, 507 Jamaicaway (Rt 1), Jamaica 
Plain (524-3321). T-Arborway line to Pond St. Rowboats at 
75^ per hour. Fishing is allowed on the pond with license. 
Open Apr-Oct, from 5am to 8pm weather permitting. 



260 



South Bridge Boat House, Main St (Rt 62), Concord (369- 
9438). Canoes and rowboats available for use on a 24-mile 
stretch of the Concord River which passes by the revolutionary 
battleground. $2 per hour, $10 per day weekdays. $3 per 
hour, $15 per day weekends. Open 9am to 6pm weekdays, 
9am to dusk weekends. Closed Mon. 

Winthrop Sailboat Rental, 541 Shirley St., Winthrop (846- 
2497). T-Orient Heights, then bus to Crystal Cove Marina. 
10-ft. to 17-ft. sailboats; $20-$35 per day. Instruction available. 
Open May-Nov. 



Bicycle Rentals 

Beacon Hill Bike Shop, 303 Cambridge St., Boston (523-9133). 

T-Charles. 3-speed bicycles; $1.50 per hour, $6 per day. Open 
Sam to 7pm daily. 

Bicycle Peddlar, 832 Commonwealth Ave., Boston (731-2550). 
T-Commonwealth Ave. line. 3-speed bicycles; $1.25 per hour, 
$3.50 per day weekdays, $4 per day weekends. Open 10am 
to 5pm. Closed Thurs. 

Herson Cycle Co., 1250 Cambridge St., Cambridge (876-4474). 

T-Harvard/Lechmere bus line. 3-speed bicycles; $3 per day, 
$12 per week. 10-speed bicycles: $6 per day, $25 per week. 
Large deposit required on 10-speeds. Open Mon-Fri, 9am to 
8pm; Sat, 9am to 5pm. 



Fishing 

Tackle, bait and advice as to what is running are available 
from: 

Bill's Bait and Sport Shop, 1400 Dorchester Ave., Dorchester 
(436-9473). 

Frisky Bait and Tackle Service, 291 Watertown St., Newton 
(244-9682). 

Mass. Bait Shop, 466 American Legion Highway, Revere 
(284-8400). 

Neponset Circle Bait Shop, 6 Redfield St., Dorchester (436- 
9231). 

New England Bait and Tackle, 323 Meridian St., East Boston 
(567.9326). 

261 



A license is required to fish in fresh water anywhere in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 7-day non-resident permits 
are available from the Division of Fisheries and Game at 100 
Cambridge Street, Boston (727-3158) or from any town clerk 
for $8.25. The following ponds are conveniently located and 
are stocked with trout. 

Horn Pond, Wobum. Between Rts 3 and 38. 

Houghton's Pond, Blue Hill Reservation, Milton. Near Rt 128, 
exit 65. 

Jamaica Pond, 507 Jamaicaway (Rt 1), Jamaica Plain. T- 
Arborway line to Pond St. Rental rowboats available. Special 
Jamaica Pond permit required; is available at Jamaica Pond 
Boat House. 

Upper Mystic Lake, Mystic St. (Rt 3), Winchester. 

Salt water fishing does not require a license. There is a new 
250 ft. fishing pier at Castle Island in South Boston (T-South 
Station, then City Point bus) and North and South ,Shore 
communities often allow fishing from the shoreline. Small fish- 
ing boats with outboard motors can be rented to increase 
mobility (see Boat Rentals). Deep sea fishing is available 
through Boston Harbor Cruises Inc. The boat leaves daily at 
8am from Long Wharf (at State St. and Atlantic Ave., T- 
Aquarium) and returns at 4pm. The price of $10 includes bait 
and tackle. For more information call 227-4320. 



SPECTATOR SPORTS 
Baseball 

Boston Red Sox Baseball Club, 24 Jersey St., Boston (267- 
2525). T-Kenmore. American League professional baseball. 
Games are at Fenway Park, perhaps the best major league 
park in the nation for spectators due to its relatively small size 
and high proportion of good seats. The crowd is always large, 
loud, partisan, and friendly. 81-game season nms Apr-Oct with 
day and night games. Tickets are $1.25-$4.50. 

262 



Basketball 



Boston Celtics Basketball Club Inc., Boston Garden, Boston 
(523-6050). T-North Station. NBA professional basketball fea- 
turing the greatest dynasty in the history of professional sports, 
12 times world champions. The Celtics are always among the 
best teams in the league; they play intelligent, fast-break bas- 
ketball, and have developed a winning tradition of excellence. 
40 games in an Oct-May season with most games Wed and 
Fri nights and Sun afternoons. Night games begin at 7:30pm, 
afternoon games at 2pm. Tickets $3-$8. 

Football 

New England Patriots Footiball Club, Rt 1, Foxboro (262- 
1776). Take Southeast Expressway to Rt 128 to Rt 1-95 then 
Foxboro exit. Buses also available. NFL professional football 
with three exhibition and seven regular season home games 
played Aug-Dec. Games are played at the new Foxboro Sta- 
dium. Tickets can be difficult to obtain, so check well in ad- 
vance. Tickets cost $5-$8. 

Hockey 

Boston Bruins Hockey Club, North Station, Boston (227-3200). 
T-North Station. The NHL professional team in a hockey- 
crazy town. If you are from out-of-town, don't cheer too hard 
for the other team— Boston fans are highly partisan and im- 
bued with Bruin pride. Many games are sellouts so inquire 
about the availability of seats. 40 games plus playoffs in a 
season running Oct-May. Most games on Thurs and Sun. 
Tickets $6-$ 10. 

Soccer 

Boston Astros, Boston University Nickerson Field, Babcock 
St., Boston (262-2807). T-Commonwealth Ave. line. ASL pro- 
fessional soccer with 20-game season running May-Sept. Most 
games on weekends. Starting time 7:30pm. Tickets $l-$3. 

Boston Minutemen, Boston College Alumni Stadium, Chestnut 
Hill (227-5474). T-Commonwealth Ave. line to the end; NASL 
professional soccer. 20 game season May-Aug with most home 
games Sat at 7:30pm. Tickets $l-$4. 



263 



Tennis 



Boston Lobsters Tennis Club, Walter Brown Arena, Babcock 
St., Boston (266-9682). T-Commonwealth Ave. Line. WTT 
professional tennis. 22 home matches played at night, May- 
Aug. Tickets $4-$6. 

Boxing 

AAU Amateur Boxing, the Harbor House Hotel, 830 The Lynn- 
way (Rt lA), Lynn (742-2248). Boxing every Mon night 
June-Labor Day. Admission $3. From Sept-Jan the action 
shifts indoors to the Wonderland Ballroom, 1290 N. Shore 
Blvd., Revere. T-Revere Beach. 

Dog Racing 

Wonderland Race Track, Wonderland Park, Revere (284- 
1300). T- Wonderland. Races at 8pm, May to September. Per- 
fectas, Trifecta, and daily double. $1 admission. Closed Sun. 

Horse Racing 

Bay State Raceway, Rt 1, Foxboro (361-4900). Take South- 
east Expressway to Rt 128 to Rt 1-95, then Foxboro exit. Gray 
Line buses also available. Harness racing June-Sept, Tues-Sat 
at 8pm, Sunday at 2pm. Admission $1. Closed Mon. 

Suffolk Downs, McClellan Highway, East Boston (567-3900). 
T-Suffolk Dovms. Thoroughbred racing Sept- July with 9 races 
weekdays, 10 races weekends and holidays. 1:30pm post time. 
Admission $2-$3. Closed Tues. 



264 



major 
league 
sport. 

The bi^est major league 
sport in town. 

Suffolk Dcnvns. 

Major LeagueThoroughbred Racing. 

Route U.S. 1, East Boston, Mass. 

Free Parking. 
For information call: 567-3900. 



RESTAURANTS 



We have chosen restaurants with the intention of providing 
a varied list which covers a wide price range and contains 
places to eat in each major section of the city. You will find 
that restaurants are arranged by area and not by specialty, 
although certain styles of food are often concentrated in cer- 
tain parts of town: the North End, for instance, is the home 
of Italian cooking in Boston. If you are seeking a certain style 
of restaurant— French, Indian, kosher, vegetarian— consult the 
index of the book to find the pages on which those entries 
occur. 

This list is limited by space, and does not by any means 
contain all the fine restaurants in Boston. In addition, many 
new restaurants will open dining the Bicentennial, too late to 
make our publishing deadline. We urge you to discover your 
own favorites. Also, because of the time lapse involved in pub- 
lishing this book, you should not be surprised by a 5-10% rise 
in prices due to inflation. 

Finally, keep in mind that Boston contains large and excel- 
lent hotels, which serve food commensurate with their other 
facilities. We have made it a practice not to Est hotel res- 
tain-ants except for a few which are particularly famous, but 
you may want to sample other hotel fare on yoiur own. 



DOWNTOWN 

Athens Olympia, 51 Stuart St. (426-6236). T-Boylston. The 
Olympia serves Greek food, particularly lamb, in a friendly 
Einropean atmosphere. Meals cost $2.50 to $6.25. Children's 
menu available on request. Liquor. No reservations needed. 
American Express. Handy to theaters and dovmtown cinemas. 
Open daily, 11am to midnight 

Benihana of Tokyo, 201 Stuart St. (542-1166). T- Arlington. 
At Benihana's your meal is cooked at the table. This unique 
experience in Japanese dining draws a varied clientele; prices 
range from $5.50 to $10 (the Benihana special which also 
includes sake wine). Credit cards accepted and reservations 
required. Liquor. Open Mon-Fri, noon to 2:15pm, 5:30pm to 
9:30pm; Sat, 5:30pm to 10:30pm; Sun, 4:30pm to 8:30pm. 



266 



There's so 
much culture 

m Boston, 
you can taste it 




America's best tasting yogurt. 



Bette's Rolls Royce, One Union St (227-0675, 523-8409). 
T-Govemment Center or Haymarket. All the food at Bette's 
is homemade; specialities include oysters, steaks, home-fries, 
Reuben sandwiches, Greek salad, chili, pastries. Dress is in- 
formal. Sunday nights from to 7pm to 11pm you'll find honky- 
tonk piano, sing-alongs, and Dixieland bands. Free hors 
d'oeuvres, Mon-Fri, 5pm to 7pm. Prices range from $1.25 to 
$5.95, all a la carte. Open daily, 11:30am to 2am. Liquor 
license; credit cards accepted. No reservations. 



Delimaster, 150a Tremont St. (825-3688). T-Park St. or 
Boylston. Take-out or sit-down delicatessen meals. Stuffed cab- 
bage, pepper steak, Hungarian goulash, and all of the tradi- 
tional New York deli items. Open daily, 7am to 3am. Prices 
from 60^ to $7.80 (half portions for children). No credit cards 
or reservations. Beer and wine. 



Dini's, 94 Tremont St. (227-0380). T-Park St. Good seafood 
in the center of downtown Boston. Lunch and supper can be 
ordered a la carte or as complete meals, ranging horn $6 to 
$10. Steaks, chops and chicken are also served; a children's 
menu is available. Reservations are recommended; American 
Express and Master Charge accepted. Liquor. Open daily, 
10:30am to 10:30pm; Sun, 11:00am to 10:30pm. 



Dunfey's Last Hurrah, Tremont and School Sts. (227-8600). 
T-Park St. or Government Center; parking around comer at 
Province Street Garage. Schrod, steak, shrimp or chicken 
matched with your choice among seven sauces. All entries in- 
clude potato and Parker House rolls. Salad from a varied salad 
bar. Stews and sandwiches also available. The atmosphere is 
exuberant Gay Nineties. Liquor. Major credit cards accepted. 
Meals cost $2 to $10. Open daily, 11:30am to 2am. No reserva- 
tions. 



Durgin Park, 30 North Market St. (227-2038). T-Govemment 
Center or Haymarket. Durgin Park is famous for many things, 
particularly its rude waitresses, long communal tables, and 
roast beef. The menu is huge, the atmosphere loud and 
friendly. Luncheon specials at $1.25 until 2:30pm. Other items 
are k la carte, ranging from $3.50 to $9.00. Open Mon-Sat, 



268 



11:30am to 9pm. No credit cards or reservatioiis accepted. 
Liquor. 

Fatted Calf Saloon and Eatery, 4 Beacon St. (523-8721). 
T-Park St. or Government Center. Full meals available from 
$1.75 to $4.95. Specializing in beef dishes. Liquor. American 
Express and BankAmericard accepted. Open Mon-Fri, 11:30am 
to 10pm. 

Havah Nagila Restaurant, 280 Cambridge St., Boston (523- 
9838); T-Cbarles. 1653 Beacon St., Brookline (277-3433). 
T-Cleveland Circle line to Washington Sq. Informal, inexpen- 
sive ($1.00-$3.75) Israeli and Midcfle Eastern specialties. Sand- 
wiches, shish kebab and good Turkish coflFee are the staples. 
Beer and wine. No reservations or credit cards. Open daily, 
11:30am to midnight. 

Jacob Wirth's, 31-37 Stuart St. (338-7194, 8586). T-Boylston. 
A traditional German restaurant, famous for its good beer. 
Floor is sprinkled with sawdust. Limches from $1.50 to $2.25; 
dinners, $1.50 to $3.75. Open Mon-Sat, 10:30am to 9:15pm. 
Liquor. No credit cards; no reservations. 

Locke-Ober Cafe, 3-4 Winter Place (542-1340). T-Washing- 
ton; parking under Common or in Bedford St. Garage. One 
of Boston's most famous restaiurants— and certainly its most 
traditional. Women may now dine in its elegantiy paneled 
downstairs room, once reserved for men. Both dining rooms 
are faithfully Victorian in decor. The cuisine is French and 
American, and meals cost from $5 to $18. Liquor. The res- 
taurant accepts American Express, Bank-Americard and Master 
Charge. Open Mon-Sat, 11am to 10pm. Reservations recom- 
mended. Jackets required. 



Trace the Freedom Trail below you 
as you enjoy dinner in our eighth 
"Wp) %FF ^loor restaurant with a panoramic view 
-w^m^ of old Boston. Choice aged steaks. 

I KiL prime rib and seafood traditional 

ji j^l^^ jN^^^^ jazz in the lounge seven nights a week. 



J9irloin 



77 N Washington Street near Boston Garden/723-3677 



269 



Maison Robert, 45 School St. ( 227-3370). T-Park St. or Gov- 
ernment Center. One of Boston's newer excellent restaurants, 
located in the Old City Hall. French-style veal leg of lamb, 
Dover sole, filet mignon are among the specialties. The Mai- 
son has two floors, with food upstairs slightly more expensive 
($15 for a full dinner). Outdoor cafe in summer. Open Mon- 
Fri, noon to 2:30pm, 6pm to 10pm; Sat, 6pm to 10; 30pm; 
Sun, 6pm to 10pm. American Express, Master Charge, and 
BankAmericard accepted; reservations required. Liquor. Jackets 
and ties required for dinner. 

Maitre Jacques, 10 Emerson Place (742-5480). T-Charles St. 
or Science Park. Maitre Jacques is "a classical French res- 
taurant in a modem setting." AH items are k la carte, luncheon 
prices ranging from $4 to $8, dinner from $5 to $10. Special- 
ties include lamb, veal, Dover sole, and of course, onion soup 
gratin6e. Open Mon-Fri, noon to 2:30pm, 6pm to 10pm; Sat, 
6pm to 10:30pm. Credit cards accepted; reservations desired, 
liquor. Jackets and ties required for dinner. 

One Dock Square, 16 North St. (723-9887). T-Govemment 
Center. Serves both lunch and dinner. Thick market-style 
sandwiches and salad bar; fish and meat dishes served too. 
Dinners from $2.25 to $6.95. Open Mon-Sat 11:30am to 
11:30pm, Sun 9am to 9pm. Sunday brunch 11am to 2:30pm. 
American Express, BankAmericard, and Diner s Club accepted. 
Reservations suggested for dinner. Liquor (2 bars). 

Patten's Restaurant, 173 Milk St (227-8775). T-State or Aqua- 
rium; adjoining parking. Located in a Bulfinch building. Pat- 
ten s emphasizes seafood and steaks served in an early Amer- 
ican setting. Schrod, prime rib, stuffed shrimp and big 
sandwiches (crab, chib, Reuben) are specialties. There's a 
$1.95 luncheon plate; other choices go from $2.50 to $10. 
Liquor. Master Charge, American Express and Diner's Club 
are accepted. Open Mon-Sat, 11am to lam. 

Pete's or Sabia's Cafe, 82 Broad St. (338-9666). T-Aquarium 
or State; parking at Harbor Tower Garage. Large, relaxed 
place with a long list of daily specials, most of them ranging 
from $2 to $4.50 and including potato. Many kinds of meat, 
fish and sandwiches. No freezer: all food is fresh. Ejiown for 
its big drinks. No credit cards. Open Mon-Fri, 11:30am to 
10pm (last food order 9pm). 



270 



Union Oyster House, 41 Union St. (227-2750). T-Haymarket 
or Government Center; parking in Government Center garage. 
A Boston landmark in its own right, the Oyster House has 
been doing continuous business since 1826 in a building which 
dates from 1742 or earlier. In colonial times the building was 
a fashionable draper's shop, selling imported silks. The 
Massachusetts Spy, a periodical "Open to All Parties But In- 
fluenced by None," was published in the upper stories. During 
the Revolution Ebenezer Hancock, paymaster of Washington's 
army, kept his office here. When the restaurant opened, it 
soon became a favorite of Daniel Webster, who could polish 
off six plates of oysters and as many brandy-and-waters at a 
sitting. It was also briefly the home of Louis Philippe, later 
king of the French, who once gave French lessons to Bostonians 
for a living. Now Boston s oldest restaurant, the Oyster House 
is most proud of its baked stuffed lobster, shore dinner, oyster 
stew and fresh schrod, though other excellent seafood and 
prime meats are available. Lunch prices range from $1.15 to 
$3.25, dinners from^$3.50 to $11.25 (though less expensive 
sandwiches are available). Liquor. American Express, Bank- 
Americard, Diner s Club and Master Charge accepted. Open 
Sun-Thurs, 11am to 9pm; Fri, 11am to 9:30pm; Sat, 11am to 
10pm. Children's menu available. 

CHINATOWN 

China Pearl, 9 Tyler St. (426-4338). T-Boylston; parking next 
door. Large, good, Chinatown restaurant featuring Cantonese 
and Polynesian food. Specialties include Moo Goo Gai Pan, 
Champagne Duck and The Four Happiness. Prices range from 
$5 tg $8.50. Liquor; all major credit cards accepted. Open 
daily, 11am to 2am. 



maison 
robert 

Old City Hall 
45 School Sf 
227-3370 



maitre 
Jacques 




Chorles R Pork 
10 Emerson PI. 
742-5480 



Lucien Robert Chef & owner 



cuisme fron^Qise 
Fine wines 
formal dining 
aperitifs 

outdoor lunches 
private parties 



271 



Fung Won, 8 Tyler St. (542-1175). T-Essex. Cantonese-style 
food, specializing in Peking Duck ($12— serves 3 or 4). 
Luncheon specials, 11am to 3pm, weekdays. Open Mon-Fri, 
9am to 3pm; Sat-Sim, 9am to 4pm. Prices start at $1.60. No 
credit cards; no liquor. Reservations required for large groups. 

The Shanghai, 21 Hudson St. (482-4797). T-Boylston. Shang- 
hai, Szechuan, and Mandarin fare. Peking Duck is especially 
good. Patrons are given chopsticks, and must ask for forks. 
Prices range from $1.95 to $13.50. Open daily, 11am to 3pm 
for lunch, 5pm to 10pm for dinner. Tea and pastries served 
Sat and Sun, 11:30am to 2pm. 

NORTH END 

Cantina Italiana, 346 Hanover St. (742-9851). T-Haymarket. 
Good, inexpensive Italian food in an informal atmosphere. Spe- 
cialty of the house: shrimp fra diavolo. Dinners from $2.50 to 
$5.50, children's portions on request. Liquor. Reservations re- 
quired on weekends; American Express accepted. Open daily, 
11:30am to midnight. 

Felicia's, 145A Richmond St. (523-9885). T-Government Cen- 
ter. Northern Italian cooking, including chicken virridicio (boHe- 
less chicken) and cannelloni (homemade crepes filled with 
meats and covered with white cream sauce). Wed-Sat you 
can watch Felicia cooking in the kitchen. Full dinners from 
$6.50 to $8.95; k la carte items also available. Beer and wine; 
children's menu; reservations accepted, except on Sat; Amer- 
ican Express and Diners Club. Open Mon-Sat, 5pm to 
10:30pm; Sun, 4pm to 10:30pm. Jackets and ties required in 
winter. 

Giro's, 464 Hanover St. (523-8420). T-North Station. Large 
selection of Italian-American dishes, including steaks, chops, 
lobster, chicken, pasta. Lunch prices start at $1.90; all dinners 
are a la carte. Credit cards and reservations are accepted. 
Liquor. Open daily, 11:30am to lam. 

Joe Tecce's, 53 North Washington St. (523-8975). T-Hay- 
market or North Station. One of Boston's most famous Italian 
restaurants. Specialties include veal scallopini and chicken 
cacciatore; reasonable prices attract a very mixed clientele. 
Open Mon-Fri 5pm to 11pm, Sat 5pm to midnight. No credit 
cards or reservations. Liquor. 



272 



Mother Anna's, 211 Hanov^ St (523-8496). T-Haymarket. 
Italian food, including veal scallopini, chicken and shrimp. 
Full dinners average $6.25; half-portions available for children. 
Open Tues-Sun, 5pm to 11pm. No credit cards or reservations; 
wine and beer. 

Polcari's, 283 Causeway St. (742-4142). T-North Station. 
Polcari's Italian-American cuisine attracts a large crowd of 
Boston businessmen and politicians. A la carte meals start at 
$2.50. Specialties include shrimp scampi, lobster fra diavolo, 
lasagna, steaks, and filet mignon. Open Mon-Fri, 11:30am to 
lam; Sat, 5pm to lam; Sun, ll:30toi to lam. Credit cards 
accepted. Liquor. Reservations not required. 



CHARLESTOWN 

Warren Tavern, 2 Pleasant St (241-8500). T-Community Col- 
lege. It's typical Boston fare of seafood, beef and poultry in an 
old New England atmosphere. The building dates from 1780. 
Master Charge accepted. Reservations suggested on Fri and 
Sat, jackets after 6pm. Prices from $4.50 to $7. Open Mon-Sat 
in summer, daily in winter, 11:30am to 2:30pm, 6pm to 9pm. 



WATERFRONT 

Anthony's Pier 4, 140 Northern Ave. (423-6363). T-South 
Station or take the Fish Pier bus; parking available. Anthony's 
is one of the most famous seafood restaurants in Boston. The 
food is expensive, but of high quality. Specialties include fresh 
seafood, lobster, steaks and roast beef. Reservations are not 
accepted, so you'U probably have to wait a while and enjoy 
the free cheese and crackers in the bar. Try to get a table 
with a view of the Boston skyline and harbor. Liquor. Credit 
cards are accepted. Open Mon-Sat, 11:30am to 11pm; Sun 
and holidays, 12:30pm to 10:30pm. Jackets and ties required. 

The Chart House, 60 Long Wharf (227-1576). T-Aquarium; 
parking at restaurant. Steaks, chicken and seafood dinners 
from $6 to $9; sandwiches served at the bar, hamburgers avail- 
able for children. Lunch prices range from $2 to $4. Open 
Mon-Fri, 11:30am to 2:30pm; Mon-Thurs, 5pm to 11pm; Fri- 
Sun, 5pm to midnight. BankAmericard, Master Charge, and 
American Express accepted; no reservations. Liquor. 



273 



Dom's, 236 Commercial St. (523-8838). T-Aquarium or Gov- 
ernment Center; parking lot across street. Located near the 
wharves in an old beer warehouse with the original beam- 
and-brick interior, Dom's serves northern Italian meals, spe- 
cializing in seafood, pasta, chicken and veal dishes. Lunch 
runs $1.75 to $4.50; dinner, $3.50 to $10.75. Children under 
ten get free spaghetti, meatballs and beverage at dinner. 
Liquor. Master Charge and BankAmericard accepted. Open 
Sim-Fri, noon to 2:3C^m; Mon-Sat, 5:30pm to 1:30am; Sun, 
noon to midnight. 

Jimmy's Harborside, 242 Northern Ave. (423-1000). T-South 
Station; street parking and valet service. A fine seafood res- 
taurant located on the Fish Pier, with a large seating capacity 
and a romantic harbor view. Limited reservations are accepted; 
otherwise, you wait in the bar. All kinds of fish and shellfish, 
though baked stufiFed filet of sole and lobster Newburg are 
specialties. Prices range from $2.25 to $9. Limited children's 
menu. American Express, Master Charge, Diner s Club, Carte 
Blanche and house credit cards accepted. Open Mon-Sat, 
11:30am to 9:30pm. Jackets required. 

No-Name Restaurant, 15% Fish Pier (338-7539). T-South Sta- 
tion, then City Point bus. Seafood at low prices is the specialty 
of this waterfront restaurant. Fish is freshest possible, pastry 
is homemade. Meals from $2 to $3. Clientele is mainly fam- 
ilies, businessmen. Open Mon-Fri, Sam to 9:30pm. No reserva- 
tions. 



BEACON HILL 

Au Beauchamp, 99 Mt. Vernon St. (523-6720). T-Charles St. 
Typical French food and atmosphere in lovely setting on his- 
toric Beacon Hill. The fare includes coq au vin, Chateau- 
briand, coquilles St. Jacques, soft shell crabs amandine. There 
is a children's menu. Entrees from $6.25 to $10. Open noon 
to 2:30pm, 6pm to 9pm; Sun, 5:30pm to 9pm. Wine and 
beer. Reservations required on weekends. 

The Charles, 75A Chestnut St. (523-4477). T-Charles, Arling- 
ton, or Park St. A Beacon Hill restaurant that caters to a young 
oflGice crowd, it offers beef Cordon Bleu, stroganoff and other 
dishes from $5.50 to $9.50. Don't be surprised to run into local 
politicians. Credit cards are accepted and French and Italian 



274 



wines are available. Open every day except Sunday for dinner, 
4:30pm to 11pm. Also open for lunch. Reservations required 
on Sat 

The Townhouse, 84 Beacon St (227-9600). T-Park St or 
Arlington. It's popular with yoimg business people and com- 
bines a seafood and steak menu. "Biggest biurger in town." 
Simday brunch. Credit cards are accepted and ^bere is a bar, 
where prices start at $2.50. The BiJl and Finch Pub is a 
separate cocktail section with sandwiches and snack foods. 
Open 11:30am to 2am. 



BACK BAY 

Cafe L' Ananas, 281 Newbury St (353-0176). T-Auditorium. 
French/Continental cooking— lunch may be eaten outdoors. 
Complete lunches from $3 to $5, dinners from $8 to $13. No 
credit cards. Reservations accepted. Liquor (including 70 
wines). Open Mon-Sat, noon to 2:30pm, 6pm to 11pm. 

Cafe Budapest, 90 Exeter St (734-3388). T-Copley, located 
in the Copley Hotel; parking at Prudential Center. One of 
Boston's most elegant restaiurants, offering Hungarian food 
and romantic decor. Iced cherry soup, goulache, mixed grill 
k la Hongroise and Himgarian strudel are the particular spe- 
cialties. Excellent Viennese coffee. Meals from $10 to $16. 
Liquor. Major credit cards accepted. Reservations recom- 
mended. Open Sun-Thurs, noon to 10:30pm; Fri-Sat, noon to 
midnight. Jackets and ties required. 

Cafe Florian, 85 Newbury St (247-7603). T-ArHngton or 
Copley. A sidewalk cafe which serves an exclusive line of 
French omelettes; specialty dishes include Hungarian goulash. 
Shrimp Arrogada; full Une of Espresso and Viennese coffees, 
European pastries. Prices range from $2.50 to $5. Clientele is 
predominantly shoppers, businessmen, and famihes. Open Mon- 
Thurs, noon to midnight; Fri-Sat, noon to lam; closed Sun. 

Casa Romero, 30 Gloucester St (261-2146). T- Auditorium. 
The simple, tasteful decor of Casa Romero promises good 
food, and you won*t be disappointed. But beware of the spicesi 
Specialties include enchiladas verdes (tortiUa and chicken in 
green sauce), shrimp, stuffed peppers, cactus salad, chocolate- 
cinnamon coffee, and rich mango souffle. Prices from $4 to 



275 



$17 (dinner for two). Open 7 days a wecfk, 6pm to 11pm; 
lunch is served Tues-Fri, noon to 2:30pm. No credit cards; 
reservations not accepted Fri and Sat. Liquor. 

Charley's Eating and Drinking Saloon, 344 Newbury St. (266- 
3000). T- Auditorium. Also Chestnut Hill Mall, Chestnut Hill 
(244-1200). Charley's friendly Gay Nineties pub atmosphere is 
complemented by some of the best beef this side of the Charles 
River. Specialties include New York sirloin, prime ribs, and 
sHced London broil; Charley's also brings back the nickel 
beer, served with dinner entrees. Full bar service. Prices range 
from $1.95 for one of Charley's heaping sandwiches to $6.50 
for 16 oz. of sirloin steak. Open daily, 11:30am to 3:30pm for 
lunch, 3:30pm to lam for dinner, drinking until 2am. Amer- 
ican Express and Carte Blanche accepted. Charley's serves a 
large mixed crowd, but does not take reservations, so get there 
early on weekends. 

Copley's, Copley Plaza Hotel, Copley Sq. (267-5300). T- 
Copley. A stately restaurant in one of Boston's most luxurious 
hotels. Four menus rotate daily, offering quiche, schrod. Car- 
petbagger Steak (wrapped in bacon and served stuffed with 
mushrooms, peppers and onions). Black Forest Cake, and other 
specialties. Extensive salad bar. Lunches average $3.65, dinner 
entrees from $4.95 to $8.95. Soft, live music nightly. A con- 
servatory and tea court are also on the premises. Open Mon- 
Fri, 11:30am to 3pm, 6pm to midnight; Sat, 6pm to midnight; 
Sun, noon to midnight Reservations taken for dinner. Jackets 
and ties required. 

The English Room, 29 Newbury St. (262-8631). T-Arlington, 
one half block from the Ritz Carlton Hotel. Service is fast and 
unrefined at the English Room, but there's plenty to eat. Rolls, 
salad, dessert and beverage are included in the price of each 
of the twenty entrees. Prices from $2.90 to $4.50. The dinner 
crowd is largely students. No credit cards, no liquor. No 
reservations, either, so it's a good idea to get there before 
6pm on the weekends. Open daily, 11am to 9pm. 

Falstaff Room, Sheraton Hotel (236-2000). T-Prudential Cen- 
ter. Sunday brunch is a bargain at the Falstaff Room— wide 
selection of dishes from bagels and lox to Boston cream pie, 
all for $4.33 ($2 if you are under 12). Bloody Mary fountain 
provides an endless supply of Bloody Marys . . . they're weak, 
but they're free. Ail-American steak and brew dinners also 
available, 5:30pm to 11pm, 7 days a week. Sunday bnmch. 



276 



9:30am to 3pm; Mon-Fri, breakfast and hmch, 7:30am to 
2:30pm. Full liquor license; credit cards accepted. 

Greenhouse I, 385 Boylston St. (261-1050). T- Arlington, Syr- 
ian sandwiches are the specialty in this small Near Eastern/ 
American sidewalk cafe. It also creates its own new sand- 
wiches, priced from $1.25 to $2.50. Open daily, 11am to 6pm 
(8:30pm dtiring the Bicentennial). Plants are sold in the 
greenhouse in the rear. 

Hai-Hai, 423 Boylston St. (536-8474). T- Arlington. One of 
Bostons few Japanese restaurants, Hai-Hai ("Yes-Yes") oflFers 
tempura, katsu (fried cutlets), steak teriyaki, soba (a soup/ 
stew), and daily specials at prices you can aflFord (lunch, 
$1.50-$3, dinner, $2.50-$4). Open Mon-Sat, noon to 2:30pm, 
5pm to 10pm; Sun, 4pm to 9pm. Beer and wine. No credit 
cards; no reservations. 

Half-Shell, 743 Boylston St. (423-5555). T-Copley. Seafood 
restaurant with branches in Denver and L.A. Prices from $2 
to $14. Open daily, 11:30am to 2am. Liquor. Credit cards 
accepted; reservations required for parties of eight or more. 

Joseph's, 279 Dartmouth St. (266-1502 ). T-Copley. Grand old 
French restaurant. One of Boston's most famous. Dinners are 
all k la carte and start at $5. Major credit cards accepted; 
reservations advisable. Open Mon-Sat, 11:45am to 11pm. 
Liquor. Jackets required. 




SEAFOOD 

Dinner Served till 2 A. M 
Lunch 11:30-2:30 P.M. 

Why com€ to the seafood capital of the 
world if not to eat the world's finest seafood? 

Youll find us just across from the Prudential 
Center. No need to rush, we are open from 8 am 
to 2 cLm. Plan your day or evening, 
then include us — anytime! 

743 Boylston Street 423-5555 



277 



Ken's at Copley, 549 Boykton St. (266-6149). T-Copley. Large 
deli-restaurant on Copley Square, known for its blintzes, pas- 
trami, cheese pie, pastries and combination sandwiches. Good 
for breakfast or brunch. Meals go from $1.75 to $5.95. Beer 
and wine available; no reservations or credit cards. Open daily, 
7am to Sam. 

Newbury's Steak House, 94 Mass. Ave. (536-0184). T-Audito- 
rium; free parking at 341 Newbury St. Steaks (filet mignon, 
sirloin, London broil) and fresh seafoods. Large sandwiches 
served for lunch and dinner. Salad bar. Lunches range from 
$1.95 to $2.75, dinners from $3.25 to $5.75. Liquor. Open 
daily, noon to midnight. 

Ritz Carlton Dining Room and Cafe, 15 Arlington St. (536- 
5700). T- Arlington. Considered one of Boston's finest res- 
taurants, the Ritz offers excellent continental and New England 
cuisine in dining rooms overlooking the Public Garden. Reserva- 
tions are required in the dining room but not in the cafe. 
Liquor. Dinners in the cafe range from $5 to $7.50, lunches 
$4 to $6. Prices in the dining room are from $10 to $15 for 
dinner, and $7 to $10 for lunch. Open daily from noon to 
2:30pm, 6pm to 9pm. Cafe closed Sim afternoon. Jackets and 
ties required. 

Top of the Hub, Top of the Prudential Tower (52nd floor) 
(536-1775). T-Prudential. If it is a clear day, the Top of the 
Hub will give you a superb view of the city. The food is 
American, with prices ranging from $6 to $11. A cocktail 
lounge, featuring music and diicing, is open every night until 
lam, Sun and Mon until midnight. Restaurant hours are: Mon- 
Sat, 11:30am to 3:15pm, 5:30pm to midnight; Sun, buffet 
brunch, 11am to 2pm, dinner, 4:30pm to midnight. Credit 
cards accepted, reservations not required. Liquor. Jackets and 
ties required for dinner. 

Trader Vic's, Statler Hilton Hotel, Park Sq. at Arlington St. 
(426-2000, X354 or 355). T-Arlington. Part of the famous 
national chain, known for its steaks, lobster, curry, Cantonese 
food and exotic cocktails. Meals from $5 to $11. Children's 
portion priced accordingly. Reservations advisable; all major 
credit cards accepted. Open for lunch, Mon-Fri, 11:30am to 
2:30pm; daily for dinner, 5pm to 11:30pm. Jackets and ties 
preferred except for limch during summer. 



278 



SOUTH END 



Bob the Chef, 604 Columbus Ave. (262-9773). This is "the 
home of soul food." Chicken, fish, ribs, black-eyed peas, and 
rice pudding are among th6 many recommended specialties. 
The meals are filling, and the prices are low ($2.75-$3.60). 
No credit cards, liquor, or reservations. Open Tues-Sat, 11am 
to 9pm. 

Premier Restaurant, 1130 Washington St. (426-2218). T-Dover; 
ample parking. Billing itself as the "last of its kind in Bos- 
ton," this large Jewish-style delicatessen serves dinners from 
$3 to $4. Hot pastrami, and home-made soups are the house 
specialties. Seating 150, it was rated best deH by Boston Maga- 
zine. Open Mon-Sat, Sam to 9pm. 

Red Fez, 1222 Washington St. (338-8446). T-Dover. A Leb- 
anese-Middle Eastern restaurant with primarily a family and 
couples appeal. Reservations are required; wine and beei 
available. Lunch, $2.50, dinner, $3.50 to $6. Open daily, 
11:30am to 10pm. 

CAMBRHX^E 

Averof Restaurant, 1972 Mass. Ave. (354-4500). T-Harvard, 
then take bus to North Cambridge, Porter Square; plenty of 
parking. Averof's fare is primarily Greek and Middle Eastern 
— shish kebab, moussaka, kalamaria. The atmosphere is casual 
and frequently the Middle Eastern entertainment includes a 
belly dancer. Prices range from $1.10 to $5.50. There is a 
children's menu. Liquor. Open Mon-Sat, 11:30am to lam; 
Sim, 1pm to 11pm. 

Bartley*s Burger Cottage, 1246 Massachusetts Ave. (354- 
9830). T-Harvard. For hamburgers, try one of Bartleys 25 
varieties. The burgers are large; salads and sandwiches, too. 
Prices from 60^ to $2.25. Open Mon-Sat, 8am to epm. No 
credit cards or liquor license. 

Casa Mexico, 75 Winthrop St. (491-4552). T-Harvard. This 
cheerful basement offers authentic Mexican cuisine: chiles rel- 
lenos (a spicy appetizer), guacamole (avocado salad), enchi- 
ladas verdes, and much more. A la carte meals range from 
$5.50 to $7. Open Mon-Thurs, noon to 2:30pm, 6pm to 
10pm; Fri-Sat, noon to 2:30pm, 6pm to 11pm; Sun, 6pm to 



280 



10pm. Bring your own liquor or wine; reservations possible 
Sun-Thurs. No credit cards. 

Casa Portugal, 1200 Cambridge St. (491-8880). T-Harvard 
Square, then take Lechmere bus. Portuguese-style pork and 
seafood dishes are the specialties; marinated pork with clams, 
bacalhau (cod fish). Liquor. Reservations recommended on 
Fri and Sat. Children's minute steaks are $2.50. Regular meals 
are from $3 to $5. Open Mon and Tues, 5pm to 9:30pm; 
Wed-Sat, noon to 9:30pm. Closed Sun diuing June, July and 
Aug. 

Elsie's, 71 Mt. Auburn St. (491-2842). T-Harvard. Quick 
sandwiches, subs, hamburgers and frappes— a favorite hangout 
of Harvard students. All items are under $2. Pinball machines 
in an adjoining room. Open Mon-Fri, 6:30am to midnight; 
Sat, Sam to 4pm; closed Sun during summer. 

The Hungry Persian, 14A Eliot St. (354-9015). T-Harvard. 
This homey place features Middle Eastern sandwiches in Syr- 
ian bread, costing from 70^ to $1.50 (for the special sand- 
wich: beef, ham, turkey, lettuce, tomato and cheese in a 
special sauce). Seats 75; phoned-in take-out orders are ac- 
cepted. Popular with the Harvard Sq. crowd. Open Mon-Sat, 
11am to midnight; Sun, noon to midnight, 

Inina, 56 Boylston St. (868-5633). T-Harvard. Authentic Span- 
ish food in Harvard Sq. Iruna offers paella (shrimp, chicken, 
rice), filete (filet mignon), carzuela (seafood), salads, omelets, 
Sangria, and more. Lunches up to $2, dinners to $5.50 {k la 
carte). Open weekdays, noon to 2pm, 6pm to 9pm; Fri-Sat, 
noon to 2pm, 6pm to 10pm. No credit cards; no reservations. 
Liquor. 

Joyce Chen Restaurant, 302 Mass. Ave. (492-7272) T-Harvard, 
then Dudley bus; or (expected to open in late 1974) 390 
Rindge Ave. (492-7373) T-Harvard, and bus to North Cam- 
bridge and shuttle up Rindge Ave. The Boston area's most 
famous Chinese restaurant. Specializes in Mandarin and Sze- 
chuan food but has dishes from all major Chinese cuisines. 
The new Rindge Ave. restainrant will ofi^er a menu with a 
wider variety of Chinese food and will also feature cooking 
demonstrations and exhibits of Chinese culture. Prices about 
$3 to $6 per person. Special buffets Tues and Wed 6pm to 
8:30pm. Credit cards accepted. Liquor. Open Sun-Thurs noon 
to 10pm, Fri and Sat noon to midnight. 



281 



Legal Seafoods, 237 Hampshire St. (547-1410) T-Harvard, 
then take Lechmere bus. Restaurant oflFer* fresh seafood from 
Us own fish market. Julia Child, chef of TV fame, likes it, as 
do students, families and business people from the Harvard/ 
MIT communities. Meals run from $2.50 to $6.95. When the 
Chinese delegation visited the U.S. in 1973 they chose to eat 
here. Open Mon-Sat 11am to 9pm, Sim 1pm to 9pm. 

NataKe's, 1672 Mass. Ave. (547-9081). T-Harvard. Italian 
restaurant with primarily student clientele. Meals priced from 
$2 to $5. Liquor. Open Mon-Thurs, 11:30am to 10pm; Fri, 
11:30am to midnight; Sat, 5pm to 11pm. 

Natraj Indian Restaurant, 419 Mass. Ave. (547-8810). T-Cen- 
tral; parking behind the restaurant. Combine an evening at the 
Central Square Cinema with a moderately-priced authentic 
Indian meal at Natraj. Full dinners range from $2.75 to $4.95 
(a la carte items, too). The hot curry is very hot, but 
the menu provides many milder items to choose from. There's 
a special $12.75 dinner for 2, but a "minimmn advance notice 
of 8 hovirs is required for tbis dinner." Diimer: Mon-Thiurs, 
5:30pm to 9pm; Fri-Sat, 5:30pm to 10pm. Lunch: Tues-Fri, 
11:30am to 2pm. Reservations required on Fri and Sat. Master 
Charge accepted. 

The Underdog, 6 Bow St. (661-0388). T-Harvard, or Dudley 
bus along Massachusetts Ave. Specializes in Hebrew National 
kosher franks, pastrami and hot combination sandwiches. No 
sandwich over $1.60 at this writing (underdogs, 60^). Seats 
only 20, but you can phone take-out orders. Promises best 
pinball in Harvard Sq. Will supply food for hot dog barbecues 
and picnics (2-day notice for large groups). Open daily, 
11:30am to lam. 

Wursthaus Restaurant, 4 Boylston St. (491-7110). T-Harvard. 
One of the oldest restaurants in Harvard Sq., the Wursthaus 
features German- American food at prices from $1.65 to $7. 
The Wursthaus carries 112 lands of imported beer (and non- 
alcoholic beers for minors). The desserts are the best of the 
Wurst: try the cheese cake or apple strudel. Clientele includes 
business people, families, and students with cash to spare. 
Open Sun-Thmrs, Sam to midnight; Fri-Sat, 8am to lam. No 
credit cards; reservations not required. 



282 



ALL OVER TOWN 



Bailey's, 26 Temple Place (T-Park St.); 74 Franklin St. 
(T-State); 392 Boylston St. (T- Arlington); 21 Brattle St 
(T-Harvard); 1330 Boylston St., Brookline (T-Kenmore Sq., 
then bus to Chestnut Hill). These old-fashioned ice cream 
parlors are a Boston institution, famous for large, sloppy sun- 
daes and cones. The firm is 100 years old, and with due respect 
to the past, candy is made by hand at the 26 Temple Place 
store in Boston. Price range is 25^ to $1.25. 

Brigham's is another Boston institution that has now spread to 
the suburbs and sxuroimding areas. It is a chain of ice cream 
and candy parlors which usually also offer sandwiches and 
often hamburgers (though not all Brigham's stores have grills). 
Most locations seat 60 at counters and tables, and also fill 
take-out orders. 

Friendly's is a reliable ice cream chain that also serves burgers, 
sandwiches, and luncheon platters. There are dozens of loca- 
tions throughout Massachusetts, often near main roads and in 
shopping plazas. Lunches run from 50^ to $1.59. Free-standing 
shops are open from 7am to 11pm daily; Friendly's located in 
shopping malls are open at 9am, and closed Sundays. Boston 
locations are Charles River Plaza (T-Charles) and the Museum 
of Science (T-Science Park). 

Howard Johnson's, Exec. OflBce: Howard Johnson Plaza, Dor- 
chester, (848-2350). Howard Johnsons has 21 restaurants in 
the Boston area. For the location nearest you check the phone 
book, a Boston 200 Visitor Information Center or call the ex- 
ecutive office. The two Boston restaurants are at 500 Boylston 
St. (262-8914), and 196 Stuart St. (338-8349). Moderately- 
priced food of middle-quality served in identical fashion in 
restaurants across the U. S. Daily specials. 

Pewter Pot Mufiin House, 164 Tremont St. (Boston Common) 
(423-6288) T-Park St.; 741 Boylston St. (near Prudential Cen- 
ter) (536-4470) T-Prudential; 3 Brattle St., Cambridge (547- 
5376) T-Harvard. Open daily, 7am-midnight, serving a variety 
of inexpensive breaHast, lunch and dinner foods. Muffins are 
the specialty— the 12 varieties include blueberry, cranberry, 
com, chocolate chip, and banana nut. No credit cards, reserva- 
tions or liquor. 



284 



Whaf s red, 
white and blue 
all over? 




Over 100 stores 
serving the ice cream, 
candy and sandwiches 
Boston grew up on. 



THEATER, MUSIC AND DANCE 



After New York Qty, Boston offers more cultural activity 
than any other city on the East Coast. New shows often run 
in Boston before opening on Broadway, the Symphony Orches- 
tra is world-famous, and the many universities of the area 
provide talent and stimulation for repertory companies, dance 
groups, and choruses. Community participation is high-level 
too; Elma Lewis' National Center of Afro-American Artists 
(NCAAA) has been selected by the American Revolutionary 
Bicentennial Administration in Washington as the "national 
symbol of the arts made meaningful in current history." 

To underline the city's position as an important cultural 
center, Boston 200 has instituted a program called Festival 
American (see Calendar p. 215) designed to enlighten and 
entertain Boston residents and visitors. A major aim is to make 
the arts available to a maximum number of people and to 
focus attention on the significant contributions of American 
artists. Festival American vidll incorporate Smnmerthing, a 
nationally known program of the Mayor s OflBce of Cultural 
Affairs, which brings a wide variety of performing artists to 
Boston's parks and neighborhood centers. 

The following listings divide Boston cultural organizations 
into three groups: Theater, Music, and Dance. For the major 
organizations, those that perform frequently and regularly, a 
short description has been provided. To find out about the 
current activities of these and other groups, the best sources 
of information are the daily Boston Globe and Boston Herald 
American, the Boston 200 Newspaper, and the weekly Real 
Paper and Boston Phoenix. Additionally, call Boston 200 Infor- 
mation (338-1975) or ARTSUNE (261-1660), a recorded 
message from the Mayor's OflBce of Cultural Affairs describing 
the day's cultural highlights. 

THEATER 

Boston Center for the Arts, 539 Tremont St., Boston (426- 
5000). Supported by the City of Boston and private founda- 
tion grants, the BCA provides oflBce, rehearsal, and perfor- 
mance facilities to a variety of Boston cultural organizations. By 
1976 the Center, whose nucleus is the Cyclorama building, will 
consist of five theaters, three restaurants and an art gallery. For 



286 



more information on groups affiliated with the BCA consult 
listings for the Boston Philharmonia Orchestra, the Associate 
Artists Opera, the Theatre Co. of Boston, the Boston Ballet, 
Stage I, the Theater Workshop Boston— OM Theater Workshop, 
the American Center for Performing and Creative Arts, the 
Mass. Center Repertory Co., and the New England Regional 
Opera. 

Boston Repertory Theater Inc., One Boylston Place, Boston 
(423-6580). T-Boylston. A year-roimd repertory company 
which presents varied forms of traditional and modem theater. 
Performances are at 8pm and tickets are $l-$4. 

Cambridge Ensemble, 1151 Mass. Ave, Cambridge (876-2544). 
T-Harvard. A new theater group presenting both original 
and scripted plays. A special show for the Boston Bicentennial, 
"The Calvin Coolidge Follies," will open in 1975. 

Caravan Theater, Harvard-Epworth Church, 1555 Mass. Ave., 
Cambridge (868-8520). T-Harvard. A political and sociological 
review featuring original material and music. Performances 
are Wed, Fri, and Sat at 8pm and tickets are $2-$3. Open 
Oct-Jime. 

Charles Playhouse, 76 Warrenton St., Boston (423-2255). 
T-Boylston. A highly active 2-theater complex which presents 
classic and contemporary drama and an occasional musical 
review. Tues-Fri performances are at 8pm; Sat and Sim there 
are two shows. Tickets are $3-$6.50. 

Colonial Theater, 106 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. (426-9366). 
T-Boylston. Broadway, pre-Broadway and repertory theater 
featuring national companies. Evening performances are at 
7:30pm and there are Sat and mid-week matinees. Tickets are 
$3.50.$10. 

Tour the The Colonnade is a hotel in 
. #.1 the finest European tradirion. 

iJOntinent with The decor is contemporary and 

THE " 

f ^1 |1 I flxj l^y A\ Tip ^"'^ intimate lounge to our 

V-^JL/ V^JL ^ JL ^XjL JL>/JL^ rooftop pool to our Scandinavian 
^ T/^^rr^T^T ^"^^> tour the 

|»Jf f I IH I Continent at the Colonr\ade 
1 1V>/ L JL/JL> Hotel 

120 Huntington Ave. (Mass. Turnpike Exit 22) Tclephonei 261-2800 



elegant. The service is with 
Continental dedication and flair. 
From our Parisian cafe to 
our superb Zachary's Restaurant 



287 



Past and 
Presents. 

Boston 200 presents sonne revolutionary gift and souvenir ideas to 
commemorate your visit to Boston - where it all began. The Boston 200 
seal is your assurance that the items you choose have been approved 
by the city's official Bicentennial organization. 



First, picture this. Specially prepared 

Bicentennial postcards, slides and a 
souvenir photo book, all depicting old 
and new Boston, are available through* 
out the city at prices ranging from 
10 cents to $1.25. 

Now, as you recall, there was a group of 
"Indians" during our Revolution that 
went slightly overboard in the eyes of 
King George. And you can toast their 
success with the fine Oolong tea that 
fills the Boston Chinese Tea Party Tea 
Chests. These sturdy replicas of the 
crates that were heaved into Boston 
Harbor cost $3 

The Boston 200 group of ceramic and 
glassware products is your chance to 
put history to good use. Any of these 
high quality mementos of your trip to 
Boston - America's home town - wi II 
begin working as soon as you reach 
home. All ashtrays, coasters, tiles, 
glasses and mugs carry the Boston 200 
seal and are priced from $1.95 to $8.95 
for the handsome Revere Tankard. 







Of course, if you're interested in making 
a little history on your own, these 
Bicentennial Needlepoint Kits in a 
variety of designs - Boston scenes, 
historic flags, colonial dolls-are the 
perfect choice. It's your own effort that 
completes the kits that range in price 
from $9.50 to $19.50. 

And there's a lot of colonial charm and 
quite a few colonial charms in the 
Boston 200 collection of Bicentennial 
jewelry. The attractive Boston 200 seal 
has been reproduced on bracelets, 
brooches, necklaces and rings. And the 
charms? The charms depict many of 
the most important themes of our 
Revolution. All items, in a wide range of 
prices, are available at all official 
Bicentennial outlets. 

Speaking of revolution, the model citi- 
zens that got America off to that great 
start left part of their legacy in brick 
and mortar. If you're out to build a 
record of the past, any one of these heir- 
loom quality Landmark Models-of The 
Old State House, The Old North Church 
or Faneuil Hall - is the best way to get 
^ started. Each model has been carefully 
researched and comes with complete 
historical notes. They're an entertaining 
and educational experience at $2 each. 



A gift collection 
of truly historic 
proportions. 

From Boston 200. Jz^- 



Official Boston 200 
gift and souvenir 
products are 
availalde 
throughout the 
city at these 
locations: * 



Boston 200* 



The Boston Stone Gift Shop The Boston Tea Party Ship Mollis Drug 
Marshall Street 27 State Street Faneuil Hall 



Howard Johnson 57 Motel 
200 Stuart Street 

Old North Church 
193 Salem Street 

London Wax Museum 
179 Tremont Street 

Statler Hilton Pharmacy 
60 Arlington Street 

Elsoa Inc. 

Statler HHton Newsstand 
Park Square 

Zell's Inc. 

Treasure Masters Corp. 
(Top of Pru. - Souvenir Stand) 

NU 5-1.00 Store 
352 Hanover Street 

Center Plaza Pharmacy, Inc 
One Center Plaza 

F.W.WoolworthCo.#2 
Washington Street 



East India Trading Ca 
10 Marshall Street 
Creek Square 

North Station Bookstore 
North Station 

Archer Kent Stores 
174 Tremont Street 
733 Boylston Street 
Washington Park Shopping 
Center, Roxbury 

Bunker Hill Monument 
Souvenir Shop 
Monument Square 
Chartestown 

Jordan Marsh Co. 
450 Washington Street 

Filenes 

426 Washington Street 
Zell's Inc. 

Top of Hancock Tower 



Old South Meeting House 
Washington Street 

Kennedy Prints 
40 Joy Street 
Beacon Hill 

Sheraton Boston Hotel 
Newsstand 

Sheraton Boston Hotel 
Prudential Center 

Delphi Gift Shop 
Hotel Bradford 
273 Tremont Street 

Liggett Drug Store 
375 Washir^on Street 

Mondello's 

279 Hanover Street 

House of Hurwitz 
569 Washington Street 

Card Carousel 
238 Boylston Street 



Hasty Pudding Theatricals, 12 Holyoke St., Cambridge, Mass. 
(495-5205). T-Harvard. A Harvard tradition. A sophomoric, 
scatological musical featuring an all-male cast. Probably the 
oldest drag show in the country. The season runs from March 
to early April in Cambridge. Tickets are $3-$7. 

Loeb Drama Center, 64 Brattle St., Cambridge (864-2630). 
T-Harvard. Harvard University's theater. Presents both stu- 
dent drama productions and a variety of professional offerings. 

Massachusetts Center Repertory Co., 541 Tremont St., Boston 
(262-0340). T-Park St., then Tremont St. bus. A versatile 
equity repertory company which has performed Shakespeare, 
musicals and avant garde theater. Six evening performances 
and two matinees per week in a season which runs Oct- June. 
Part of the Boston Center for the Arts. Tickets $2.50-$4.50. 

National Center of Afro-American Artists Drama Program, 122 
Ehn Hill Ave., Roxbury (442-8820). T-Egleston, then bus. 
Major performing components are the National Center Theater 
Co. and the Elma Lewis Children's Theater Co. Actors are 
drawn from programs for college, secondary, middle, and pre- 
school students as well as a theater training program at Nor- 
folk Prison. The companies perform works not only from black 
literary tradition, but also from the body of world literature. 
For the Bicentennial, productions will focus on the material of 
eighteenth- and nineteenth-century black poets and writers. A 
newer company, the Wuhabi Mime Co., is also expected to 
contribute. Performances are at the National Center as well as 
theaters, schools and imiversities in the Boston area. 

Peoples' Theater, 1253 Cambridge St., Cambridge (547-4930). 
T-Central, Harvard or Lechmere, then bus to Imnan Sq. An 
interracial dramatic group which has been in existence for more 
than 10 years and performs in a storefront theater renovated 
by members of the company. Major productions, generally of 
contemporary material, are done in the winter and spring. 
Performances are Fri and Sat evenings at 8pm, Sun at 7pm. 
Tickets are free-$2. 

Pocket Mime Theater, Church of the Covenant, 67 Newbury 
St., Boston (247-9000). T- Arlington. French Classical mime 
with emphasis on American themes. Performances are Thurs, 
Fri, and Sat evenings and there is a Sat matinee. The season 
is Oct-Apr and tickets are $3. 



291 



The Proposition, 241 Hampshire St., Cambridge (876-0088). 
T-Central, then Central Sq.-Porter Sq. bus fine. Light im- 
provisational revue is offered year-round. The focus is gen- 
erally political and social. The Proposition Circus for Chil- 
dren, also an improvisation, features games and stories and 
performs Sat afternoons from June-Sept. A special Bicentennial 
show, a political cabaret entitled The Boston Tea Party, will 
be presented in 1975 at theaters in the Boston area. Wed and 
Thurs evening performances are at 8:30, Fri and Sat at 8pm 
and 10pm., and Sat afternoons at 2pm. Tickets are $3-$4. 

Shubert Theater, 265 Tremont St., Boston (426-4520). T- 
Boylston. Open Sept-Jime, presenting Broadway and pre- 
Broadway musicals, dramas and comedies. Evening perfor- 
mances at 7:30pm, matinees at 2pm. Tickets are $3-$ 15. 

Stage I, 539 Tremont St., Boston (426-8492). T-Park St., then 
Tremont St. bus. An experimental theater company specializing 
in drama concerning myth and ritual. Often classic works are 
adapted to incorporate dance. Performances Thiurs, Fri and 
Sat at 8:30pm at the Boston Center for the Arts. 

Theatre Co. of Boston, 551 Tremont St., Boston (423-7193). 
A resident professional equity group specializing in abstract 
drama and theater of the absurd. Evening performances are 
Tues-Sun, matinees are Wed and Sat. Tickets run $3-$6. 

Theater Workshop Boston— OM Theater, 539 Tremont St., 
Boston (482-4778). A professional company and school asso- 
ciated with the Boston Center for the Arts which creates 
original works and develops new forms of dramatic expres- 
sion. Programs for children and adults are performed at the 
BCA and other Boston area theaters. Tickets are $2-$3.50. 

Tufts Arena Theater, Tufts University, Medford (623-3880). 
T-Harvard or Lechmere, then Medford Sq. bus. Sept.-June the 
Arena Theater is the vehicle of the Tufts University Drama 
Department. In the summer a repertory company of young 
professionals and advanced students performs Wed-Sat at 
8:15pm. For the smnmers of 1975 and 1976, in honor of the 
Bicentennial, a special program, "This Boston Tumult," has 
been scheduled. Four playwrights, including Englishman David 
Forsyth, have been commissioned to write historical plays 
dealing with occurrences between 1760 and 1775. Tickets to 
the Arena Theater are $2.50-$3.50. 



292 



Wilbur Theater, 252 Tremont St, Boston (426-9366). T-Boyls- 
ton. Broadway and pre-Broadway material in a season running 
rom late Aug to middle Jime. Performances are Mon-Sat 
evenings at 7:30pm with matinees on Sat and occasionally 
midweek. Tickets are $3-$9. 



MUSIC 

Associated Artists Opera, 551 Tremont St., Boston (542-0308). 
T-Park St., then Tremont St. bus. Affiliated with the Boston 
Center for the Arts. All performances are held at the Center s 
National Theater. The season nms Nov-Feb and includes 
operatic adaptations of modem plays as well as classical works. 
Talent is drawn exclusively from the New England area. Per- 
formances are at 8pm and tickets cost $4-$8.50. 

Boston Pops, Symphony Hall, 251 Huntington Ave., Boston 
(266-1492) T-Symphony. The world-famous Pops, foimded in 
1885 and directed by Arthiu* Fiedler since 1930, plays Mon- 
Sat at Symphony Hall in May and June. Additionally, free 
evening concerts are given dining the first half of July at the 
Hatch Shell on the Esplanade. Viennese waltzes, show music, 
and marches are the basis of the program, and there are fre- 
quent guest performers representing all branches of the musi- 
cal world. At Symphony Hall the audience can sit around 
tables where refreshments are available during the concert 
Show time is 8:30pm and tickets cost $1.50-$8. 

Boston Philharmonia Orchestra, 551 Tremont St., Boston (536- 
2950). T-Park St., then Tremont St bus. Six to eight programs 
annually with performances on Sun evenings in the National 
Theater of the Boston Center for the Arts. The music is 
classical, although assisting artists are sometimes modem 
stylists. Performances are at 8pm and tickets cost $2-$5. 

Berklee College of Music, 1140 Boylston St., Boston (266- 
4322). T- Auditorium. 90 free performances during the aca- 
demic year in the Recital Hall. The fare ranges from soloists 
to big band sounds and many of the students have had exten- 
sive professional experience with big name bands. Addition- 
ally, several major concerts are given at John Hancock HalL 



293 



Boston Symphony Orchestra, 251 Huntington Ave., Boston 
(266-1492). T-Symphony. The Boston Symphony, with Seiji 
Ozawa as Music Director and Colin Davis as Principal Guest 
Conductor, is one of the nation's finest. The repertoire varies, 
but always consists of superbly performed classical music. 
About 75 performances are given Tuesday, Thursday, and 
Saturday evenings and Friday afternoons in a season which 
runs from late September to late April. In addition, there are 
Wednesday evening open rehearsals and a children's series 
under the direction of Harry Ellis Dickson. The bulk of tickets 
for all series are sold to subscribers who come regularly 
throughout the season, but seats for single performances are 
often available. Most evening concerts begin at 8:30pm, after- 
noon concerts at 2pm. Tickets are $1.50-$8. During the sum- 
mer the Orchestra is in residence at Tanglewood in Western 
Massachusetts. Trips to Tanglewood for concerts are available 
through Peter Pan Bus Lines. 



Camerata Players, Museum of Fine Arts, 465 Huntington Ave., 
Boston (267-9300). T-Huntington Ave. line. Renaissance and 
baroque music utilizing instruments from the Museiun of Fine 
Arts collection. Concerts are free every Tues night Oct-May at 
the musemn and four performances per year are given in larger 
halls. 



Chorus Pro Musica, 645 Boylston St., Boston (267-7442). A 
100-member chorus active Oct-June. Performs at Symphony 
Hall, Sanders Theater at Harvard University, and local 
churches. Programs usually incorporate contemporary and lit- 
tle known works with traditional material. For the Bicentennial 
the Chorus will focus on early American music and its Eiuro- 
pean origins. Tickets to performances range from $2-$6. 



Civic Symphony of Boston, 12 Ellsworth Ave., Cambridge 
(566-0367). A community orchestra made up of amateurs and 
students which concentrates on unusual and eccentric interpre- 
tations of great masterpieces. The season is Dec-May, per- 
formances are at Jordan HaU (T-Symphony), and tickets are * 
$l-$3.50. 



294 



Concert Cruises, Water Music Inc., 21 Sherman St., Cambridge 
(492-3667). T- Aquarium. Classical music on board a Bay 
State line boat touring Boston harbor. Performers are local 
choruses, chamber groups and ensembles. Two sailings, at 
5:30pm and 7pm every Mon and Thinrs, June-Sept. Embarka- 
tion is from Long Wharf at State St. and Atlantic Ave. Tickets 
are $2-$3.50. Water Music also runs the Jazz Boat on Wednes- 
days at the same times; tickets are $3. Cocktails may be pur- 
chased on board. 

Handel and Haydn Society, 140 Boylston St., Boston (266- 
3605). T-Symphony. America's oldest choral group, founded 
1815. Five concerts of classical choral music each year be- 
tween Oct and late May. The Messiah is performed at Christ- 
mas. Ticket prices are $3.50-$7.50 and the concerts are held 
at Jordan Hall and Symphony Hall. 

Masterworks Chorale, Box 312, Lexington (235-6210). Excel- 
lent choral group with members from more than 40 Greater 
Boston communities. Most performances are at Cary HaU in 
Lexington, but there are occasional Boston and Cambridge con- 
certs. The Chorale will be especially active dining Bicentennial. 
Admission free. 

National Center of Afro- American Artists Music Program, 122 

Ehn Hill Ave., Roxbury, Mass. (442-8820). T-Egleston, then 
bus. A variegated program celebrating the treasures of black 
musical tradition: African, Afro-Cuban, gospel and jazz. Gos- 
pel is performed by Black Persuasion and the Cliildren of 
Black Persuasion, choral music by the 35-year-old National 
Center Chorus, opera by the National Center Opera Work- 
shop, and contemporary music by the National Center Jazz 
Orchestra. The Bicentennial will be a period of expanded ac- 
tivity featuring exchanges between American and international 
music groups and performances in theaters throughout the 
Boston area as well as at the National Center. 

New England Conservatory of Music, 290 Huntington Ave., 
Boston (536-2412). T-Symphony. America's oldest conserva- 
tory, founded 1867. Involved in all major musical areas except 
rock. 200 free concerts per year, Oct-June, at Jordan Hall and 
Recital Hall featuring students and a distinguished faculty. 
Performances generally begin at 8:30pm. Call for current 
information. 



295 



New England Regional Opera, 539 Tremont St., Boston (423- 

7853). T-Park St., then Tremont St. bus. Affiliated with the 
Boston Center for the Arts. Operas, each performed six times 
during a season miming frOm Nov-May. A production of 
Hansel and Gretel is done aimually. Performances are at the 
National Theater and tickets are $6-$8. 

Opera Company of Boston, 172 Newbury St., Boston (267- 
8050). Four operas, three performances each, during a season 
which runs January-May. The company is well known for its 
spectacular productions and inventive presentations of new or 
seldom-performed operas. Internationally renowned guest art- 
ists frequently complement local singers. Sarah Caldwell is the 
nationally known director, and performances are at the Or- 
pheum Theater ( T- Washington ) . Tickets are $4-$20. 

SPEBSQSA INC., 52 First St., Cambridge (547-2700). The 
Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barbershop 
Quartet Singing in America performs at the Hotel Lenox every 
Tues night at 8:30pm. The show is free, and choral music 
often accompanies the traditional quartet a cappeUa. 

DANCE 

Boston Ballet Company, 551 Tremont St., Boston (542-3945). 
T-Boylston. Considered one of the nation's finest companies. 
Performs chiefly at the Music Hall Theater under the direc- 
tion of E. Virginia Williams and presents a balanced repertoire 
of classical and contemporary ballet by American and Euro- 
pean composers. The main season runs Nov-Mar, including 
the traditional Nutcracker Suite at Christmastime. During the 
summer the company presents a free series at the Hatch Shell 
on the Esplanade. Tickets at the Music Hall run $4-$12.50. 

National Center of Afro-American Artists Dance Program, 122 
Ehn Hill Ave., Roxbury (442-8820). T-Egleston, then bus. 
The Dance Co. of the NCAAA, the Children's Dance Co. of 
the NCAAA, and the Primitive Dance Co. of the NCAAA, 
three distinct performing companies, are the heart of the pro- 
gram. Modem and jazz dancing are performed by the Dance 
Co. and the Children's Dance Co., while the Primitive Dance 
Co. specializes in African and Afro-Caribbean dance. During 
1975 new ballets celebrating aspects of black life froni pre- 
Revolutionary days to the present will be premiered. Perfor- 
mances are at the National Center and at theaters and schools 
in the area. 



296 



NIGHTLIFE AND SINNING 



If drinking, dancing, and Kstening to music are your idea 
of how to spend an evening, Boston can be most accommodat- 
ing. The problem, as always, is to match yorn: tastes with those 
of local establishments. Boston abounds with loud singles bars 
because of the burgeoning population of young, unmarried 
people, but also has elegant cocktail loimges (located mainly 
in hotels) and smoky jazz spots with nationally known per- 
formers. For those not interested in drinking there are cofFee- 
houses that specialize in traditional blues or folk music and 
serve espresso, sandwiches, and pastries. The following listings 
should give you a rough idea about where to go, as well as 
where not to go. Whatever yoiu: choice, enjoy yourself. 

BOSTON BARS 

Athens After Dark, 3 Appleton St., Boston (423-3652). T- 
Arlington. Greek supper club with continuous entertainment. 
Belly-dancing, Greek folk music and dancing tunes. Cover 
charge $1.50 weekdays, $2.50 weekends. No credit cards. Open 
8pm to 2am nightly. 

Bachelors m, Park Square, Boston (266-0200). T- Arlington. 
Yoimg businessmen's restaurant and nightclub. Live band every 
night with shows starting 8pm or 8:30pm. No cover. All 
major credit cards accepted. Restaurant open daily, bar open 
Mon-Fri 8am to 2am; Sat till lam; Sun 5pm to 2am. 

Boston Club/The Garage, 969 Commonwealth Ave., Boston 
(542-1550). T-Commonwealth Ave. line. Dancing place for 
yoimger crowd. $1 cover. No credit cards. Live music. 

Bunratty's, 186 Harvard Ave., Allston (254-9820). T-Com- 
monwealth Ave. Kne. Casual young dating bar with top com- 
mercial bands. Small cover on weekends. Open 2pm to 2am. 
Restaurant during day. Nightclub after 9pm. 

Burke's Place, 15 New Chardon St., Government Center, Bos- 
ton (723-4746). T-Govemment Center. "Boston's showcase 
for fine new bands." Largest nightclub downtown. Live music. 
Nightly specials at the bar like couples night, or beer splash. 
AU major credit cards accepted. Weekend cover. Open 11am 
to 2am. Restaurant upstairs. 



297 



Cafe Budapest Bar, Copley Square Hotel, 90 Exeter St., Bos- 
ton (734-3388). T-Copley. Elegant European salon with velvet 
furniture and chandeliers. Cocktails and crepes to the strains 
of piano, violin, and Hungarian love songs. Open noon to 
midnight daily. 

Copley's, Copley Plaza Hotel, Copley Square (267- 5300). 
T-Copley. The bar and restaurant occupy the state suite of a 
19th-century gentleman, complete with Edwardian prints and 
antique books. Unobtrusive piano or ensemble. Very popular 
with young professionals. Snacks available at the oyster bar. 
Open daily 11:30am to 2am. 

Daisy Buchanan's, 240 Newbury St., Boston (247-8516). T- 
Copley. Dating bar where many professional athletes hang out 
Lively jukebox and a simulated English pub atmosphere. No 
cover charge or credit cards. Open 11am to 2am daily. 

Diamond Jim's, Hotel Lenox, 710 Boylston St., Boston (536- 
5300). T-Copley. Piano bar with guest singers. Customers often 
sing along. Adjacent to Delmonico's restaurant Major credit 
cards accepted. Open Mon-Sat, 5pm to 2am. 

Dunfey's Last Hurrah, The Parker House, 60 School St., Bos- 
ton (227-8600). T-Park St. Eating, drinking, dancing and 
listening in tum-of-the-century atmosphere. Dixieland band. A 
well dressed crowd, though no particular age group predomi- 
nates. Major credit cards. Open 10:30am to 2am daily. Enter- 
tainment in the evening only. 

The Groggery, 14 Franklin St., Allston (comer of Harvard and 
Cambridge Sts.) (254-3642). T-Commonwealth Ave. line. 
Raucous freak haven. Dancing nightly to live rock music. Cover 
charge on weekends. No credit cards. Lots of street-parking. 
Very casuai. Open dafly 8pm to 2am. 

Hillbilly Ranch, 27 Eliot St, Park Square, Boston (338-7147). 
T-Arlington or Boylston. Country-and- Western music bookings 
from Nashville. No cover, no credit cards. Performances begin 
at 9pm. Dancing. Open 9pm to 2am. 

J#z Workshop, 733 Boylston St., Boston (267-1300). T-Cop- 
ley. Boston s prime jazz cabaret. Nationally known artists. Very 
popular. Sets at 9:30pm and 11:30pm. Cover varies. Call for 
details. 



298 



Lucifer's, 533 Commonwealth Ave., Boston (53^-1950). T-Ken- 
more. Singles nightclub with name entertainment like the 
Platters, Happenings, Brooklyn Bridge. Weekdays no cover, 
weekends $2. Major credit cards. Open 7:30pm to 2am daily. 

Medieval Manor, Massachusetts and Commonwealth Ave., Bos- 
ton (262-5144). T- Auditorium or Kenmore. Zany medieval 
theater restaurant with singing and dancing minstrels, acrobats, 
and court jester. Major credit cards accepted. Nightly **ban- 
quets" at 8pm except on Mon. 

Merry-Go-Round, Sheraton Plaza Hotel, Copley Sq., Boston 
(267-5300). T-Copley. A relaxed cocktail lounge with a re- 
volving bar in the center, music, and a small dance floor. An 
older crowd generally. Credit cards accepted. Open Mon-Thurs 
5pm to lam, Fri and Sat 2pm to lam. 

Oliver's, 62 Brookline Ave., Boston (536-4840). T-Kenmore or 
Fenway. Parking on street. Dance bar with live rock music by 
well-known groups. Mostly early twenties. Cover charge varies. 
No credit cards accepted. Open noon to lam daily. 

Paul's Mall, 733 Boylston St., Boston (267-1300). T-Copley. 
The best nightclub in Boston. Top artists nightly at decent 
prices. Crowded. Cover charge. Call for details. Open Sim-Fri, 
9pm to 2am, Sat 8pm to lam. 

Persian Lounge, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Prudential Center, 
Boston (236-2000). T- Auditorium or Prudential. Quiet piano 
bar frequented by couples and businessmen. All major credit 
cards. Open Mon-Sat, 11am to lam; Sim, noon to lam. 

Scotch 'n Sirloin Lounge, 77 N. Washington St., Boston (723- 
3677). T-Govemment Center. Traditional New Orleans jazz 
and dancing atop an old factory building overlooking the har- 
bor and downtown Boston. Fashionable crowd. Cover charge 
$2 per person. Major credit cards. Entertainment begins at 
8 pm weekdays, 9:30pm weekends. Open till 2am. Sunday jam 
sessions 4pm to 8pm in winter, 6pm to 10pm in simimer. 

Sugar Shack, 110 Boylston St., Boston (426-0086). T-Boyls- 
ton. Parking at Common Garage. Boston's finest soul showcase. 
Top black acts in country. Mainly singles. Liquor. Cover varies 
from $1-4. No credit cards. Performances at 10pm and lam. 
Open daily 8pm to 2am. 



299 



Tommy's Point After, 271 Dartmouth St., Boston (536-6560). 

T-Copley. Not a young person's place. Dancing nightly to 
bands playing pop, jazz, and sometimes rock music. All major 
credit cards. Open Mon-Sat^ 11:30am to 2am. Closed Sun, 

Top of the Hub Lounge, Prudential Center, Boston (536-1775). 
T-Prudential or Auditorium. One of the nation's loftiest drink- 
ing spots. Inexpensive drinks, dancing music, and a romantic 
view of the city's lights. All major credit cards except Carte 
Blanche. Open Mon-Sat, noon to midnight. Sun, no<m to mid- 
night. 

The Townhouse, 84 Beacon St., Boston (227-9600). T-ArKng- 
ton. Combination restaurant/nightclub on Beacon Hill. Up- 
and-coming young professionals. Bull and Finch Pub. All major 
credit cards accepted. No cover. No dancing. Open daily 
11; 30am to lam. 



Trader Vic's Bar, Statler Hilton Hotel, Park Sq., Boston (423- 

2549). T- Arlington. A branch of the international chain serving 
exotic rum drinks. Dim and quiet with bamboo hut decor. 
All major credit cards. Open 11am to lam daily. 

Upstairs Pub, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Prudential Center, Bos- 
ton (236-2000). T- Auditorium or Prudential. Dancing and 
songs in a "Colonial tavern" with dartboard. All major credit 
cards. Open daily 1pm to 2am. 

Zelda's, 1194 Cormnonwealth Ave., Boston (731-0271). T- 

Commonwealth Ave. line. Parking Fashionable singles dis- 
cotheque. Cover on Wed, Fri-Sun. No credit cards. No jeans. 
Mainly mid-twenties. Lunch served. Open daily noon to 2am. 



300 



CAMBRIDGE BARS 



Casablanca, Brattle Street, Harvard Square, Cambridge (876- 
0999). T-Harvard. Dark, split-level cabaret. Kinky wall murals 
from old movies. Jukebox. Downstairs: students and yoimg 
businessmen, folk-rock and piano music Sun-Thurs. Upstairs: 
Harvard preppies. No dancing. Open Sim-Thurs noon to lam, 
Fii-Sat until 2am, 



Molly's Bar, 33 Dunster St., Harvard Square, Cambridge 
(354-0508). T-Harvard. Drinks and food in the basement of 
**The Garage." No cover or minimum. Major credit cards ac- 
cepted. Yoimg professionals and older students. Open daily 
4pm to lam. 



Jacks, 952 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge (491-7800). T- 
Central. Probably the most popular dating bar in Cambridge. 
Wall to wall people. Dancing to live rock and country rock. 
Food served until 9:30pm. No cover. No credit cards. Open 
daily 11:30am to lam. 



Kings, 30B Boylston St., Harvard Square, Cambridge (354- 
9352). T-Harvard. Club in basement of 'The Garage". Coun- 
try-and- Western, bluegrass, and soul live (Thurs-Sat) or on 
jukebox. Food diuing day. Mixed crowd. Dancing. No cover. 
No credit cards. Open 8am to lam. 



Orson Welles Bar, 1001 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge (868- 
3607). T-Harvard. Restaurant-bar attracting young working 
people, artists and assorted other Cambridge types. American 
Express accepted. Special rate on movies at Orson Welles 
Theater if you eat here. Bar open daily 11:30am to midnight 



Oxford Ale House, 36 Church St., Harvard Square, Cambridge 
(876-5353). T-Harvard. Loud and lively cruising place for 
college students and young workers. Live rock music nightly 
except Monday, Jazz Night. Food served during day. Friendly 
atmosphere but crowded. No cover. Open Mon-Wed 11:30am 
to lam, Tues-Fri 11:30am to 2am, Sat-Sun noon to lam. 



301 



Speakeasy, 22 Norfolk St., Cambridge (354-2525). T-CentraL 
Nationally known small blues nightclub. Some jazz and soul. 
Prohibition bistro decor. Casual. No credit cards. $1 cover on 
Fri and Sat Open 7:30pm to lam. 



BOSTON COFFEE HOUSES 

Stone-Phoenix Coffeehouse, 1120 Boylston St., Boston. T- Audi- 
torium. Huge cafe with Egyptian-style decor. National and 
local folk artists. Performances at 9:15pm and 12:30am. Cover 
varies. Open 8pm to lam. 

Sword-in-the-Stone, 15 Charles St., Boston (523-9168). T- 
Charles. Boston's oldest coffeehouse. Small with Arthurian can- 
dle-Ht atmosphere. Live folk, pop, and blues music nighty by 
local artists. Performances at 9:15pm and 12:30am. Cover 
varies from 75# to $1,50. Open 8pm to lam. 

Turk's Head, 7m Charles St., Boston (227-3524). T-Charles. 
Small continental cafe on Beacon Hill. Live entertainment 
nightly. Gourmet continental food. Meals from $2 to $10. No 
credit cards. No cover. Open Sam to midnight. Diimer served 
until 8pm. Jackets and ties required in the evening. 



CAMBRHXJE COFFEE HOUSES 

Algiers, Brattle St., Cambridge (547-9112). T-Harvard. 
Smoky cafe with North African flavor. Arab guitarists. Foreign 
and student crowd. No cover. Weekend minimum. Food served. 
Open 11am to midnight daily. 

The Blue Parrot, 123A Mt. Auburn St., Cambridge (491-1551). 
T-Harvard. Restaurant/coffeehouse with continental cuisine, 
beer and wine. Mainly students and other Cambridge types. 
No cover. Minimum on Fri and Sat nights. 

Cafe Pamplona, 12 Bow St., Cambridge. T-Harvard. Tiny, low 
ceilinged basement cafe serving continental coffees, sandwiches, 
and ice cream concoctions. Outdoor tables in warm weather. 
No credit cards. Open Mon-Sat 11am to 6pm and 8pm to lam; 
Sun 3pm to 6pm and 8pm to lam. 



302 



Cambridge Folk and Tale House, 863 Main St., Cambridge 
(492-2900). T-Central. Very informal all-night coflFeehouse 
and bar. DiflFerent program every night. Jazz. Classical. 
Women's issues. Theater, Movies. $1.50 cover. Opens at 8pm. 



Nameless CoflFeehouse, 3 Church St, Cambridge (864-1630). 
T-Harvard. Intimate performance center for local folk, blues 
and jazz professionals. 18+ college crowd. Snack food. Dona- 
tion only. Open Fri-Sat 7:30pm to 10pm. 

Passim, 47 Pahner St., Harvard Square (492-7679). T-Harvard. 
Best of nationally-known folk music in a uniquely casual set- 
ting. Combination coflFeehouse/gallery. No credit cards. Cover 
charge and performance times vary with artists. Open Tues- 
Sat noon to 5:30pm. Co£Eeehouse from 7:45pm. 



SINNING 



**you can sin in Boston, too, but you've got to do it early.** 
—Businessman on Wasfetng^on Street, 1/74 

The Combat Zone on lower Washington Street is not-so- 
Puritan Boston s center for adult entertainment. Not as garish 
as Times Square, but just as educational. Where else but in 
Boston would "The Pilgrim" be a burlesque house? And "The 
Mayflower" a porno showcase? T-Essex, Boylston^ 



304 



CHARGE THE 
REDOMIIS! 

And the blue jackets. And the yellow dresses. And 
the automotive supplies, health and beauty aids, 
film. ... in fact, charge everything you want at Zayre 
with your Master Charge, BankAmericard or 
Zayre charge. Zayre is 101 departments of discounts. 
And there's one near you. March right over. 



• SEA BROOK, N.H 

• HAVERHILL 



'/^^^ M Thm Olmcount Ompartmmnt Stor^ 




•METHUEN 



• LOWELL ✓^^^'aa, 

/ BEVERLY • 
^✓•N. READING 
•SAUGi 

REVERE^ 
MEDFORP* 

/•WALTHAM 

NATlC(<\*ROXe>URY 

• *->ROSUNDAL£^^QUINCY 
•BRAINTREE 

iHANOVER> 

BROCiaON • 



INDEX 



Aalto, Alvar, 110 
accommodations: camping, 70, 

90; hostels, 70; hotels and 

motels, 59-60, 62, 64, 66-68 
Adams, Charles Francis, 21, 164 
Adams, Henry, 164 
Adams, John, 11, 14, 20, 88, 

113, 121, 123, 126, 151, 157 
Adams, Mrs. John (Abigail), 

113 

Adams, John Qumcy, 11, 20-21, 
88 

Adams, Samuel, 11, 14, 90, 111, 
119-20, 123, 125, 126, 132, 
137 

Adams, Sherman, 21 
Adams family, 20, 21 
Adams National Historical Site, 
88 

Agassiz, Louis, 193 
airport see Logan International 
Airport 

Alcott, Bronson, 92, 168, 242 

Alcott, Louisa May, 12, 92, 105, 
165, 168 

Alden, John, 129 

Allen, Fred, 20 

Allen House, 171 

American Jewish Historical So- 
ciety, 113 

American Youth Hostels, 70 

Amory family, 20 

Anderson, Larz, 234 

Andrew House, 197 

Antiquarian House, 92 

anti-slavery and abolitionists, 11, 
42, 113, 117, 128, 165, 169, 
174-75, 197, 204; New Eng- 
land Anti-Slavery Society, 169, 
202; Underground Railroad, 
117, 168, 174, 204 



Appleton, Fanny, 167, 183 

Appleton family, 25 

Appleton-Parker houses, 108, 
166-67 

Apthorp House, 185 

aquarium see New England 
Aquarium 

architecture and city planning, 
88, 108, 110, 132; booklets 
and brochures, 88, 100; hous- 
ing problems, 37, 40, 42, 43; 
land-fill operations, 108, 118, 
136, 152, 189; narrowest 
house, 140; smallest house, 
178; "three-decker" houses, 
30, 37, 209; urban renewal, 
37-40, 146, 171, 177, 198 

Archives Museum, 128, 163, 
232 

Arlington Street Church, 76, 194 
Armstrong, Samuel T., 147 
Armstrong House, 147 
Arnold, James, 213 
Arnold Arboretum, 182, 213, 
258 

Arnold House, 150 

art see galleries; museums 

ARTSLINE, 52, 55, 216, 286 

Assembly House, 94 

Astin, Mary, 177 

Attucks, Crispus, 121, 204 

Austin, Nathaniel, 148 

automobiles: antique, in Mu- 
seum of Transportation, 234; 
driving in Boston, 81, 84; 
driving out of Boston, 84; 
driving to Logan International 
Airport, 44; emergency serv- 
ices and maps, 86; parking, 
81, 86, 257; rentals, 87; towed 
away by police, 86 



307 



babysitters, 51 

Back Bay, 108, 170, 188-89; 

parking, 86; restaurants, 275- 

78; shopping, 82 
Back Bay Fens, 257 
Back Bay Trail, 78, 117-18, 

188-89, 193-98 
Bailey's, 170, 284 
Baldwin, Laommi, 236 
Ball-Hu^es house, 209 
banking and finance, 27-28, 37, 

39, 40, 41, 43, 115; assistance 

for blind persons, 57; cur- 
rency exchange, 51 
Baptists, 72, 111 
bars, 297-302 
baseball, 262 
basketball, 263 
Bay Village, 124, 177 
Bay ViUage TraU, 177-78 
beaches, 258, 260 
Beacon Hill, 105, 108, 159, 162- 

63; blacks, 167, 169, 200, 202; 

restaurants, 274—75 
Beacon HiU Trail, 78, 117, 159, 

162-70 
Beecher, Lyman, 11 
Bell, Alexander Graham, 124 
Bell, Helen Choate, 18 
Benjamin, Asher, 170 
Berkshire Hills Conference, 89 
Bernhardt, Sarah, 195 
"Bicentennial Forums," 215 
bicycle rentals, 261 
Biggers, Earl Derr, 19-20 
Black Heritage Trail, 200, 202, 

204 

blacks, 35, 40, 41-42, 200, 202, 
209, 210, 212; Beacon Hill, 
167, 169, 200, 202; education, 
36, 41, 169, 202, 212; Museum 
of Afro- American History, 169, 
202, 210, 232; National Cen- 
ter of Afro-American Artists, 
212, 258, 286, 291, 295, 296; 
"New Guinea," 142, 200; 
North End, 136, 141, 142; 
Roxbury, 29, 35, 202; South 
End, 171, 175, 200, 202 

Blackstone, William, 12-13, 148, 
159, 166 

Blackstone Block, 132 

Blake house, 209 



Blashka, Leopold, 230 

blind persons, services for, 57; 
see also handicapped persons 

boats: community boating con- 
cession 258; cruises and tours, 
88, 158, 294; ferry services, 
88, 260; rentals, 260-61, 262; 
Swan Boat ride, 78, 105, 257; 
see also maritime heritage 

bookstores, 125, 245-46, 254 

Boston & Maine, 44, 89 

Boston Athenaeum, 110-11 

Boston Bruins, 263 

Boston Celtics, 263 

Boston Center for the Arts, 175- 
76, 286 

Boston City Hall see City Hall 

Boston College, 106, 112 

Boston Common, 13, 40, 81, 129, 
163, 257 

Boston Department of Parks and 
Recreation: phone number for 
information, 257 

Boston Fire Museum, 240 

Boston Five Cent Savings Bank, 
108, 115 

Boston Latin School, 1^5 

Boston Marathon, 197 

Boston Massacre, 20, 101, 120- 
21, 126, 137, 204 

Boston Navy Yard see Charles- 
town Navy Yard 

Boston Neck 124, 176, 210 

Boston Pops, 258, 293 

Boston Public Library, 108, 110, 
143, 193, 195; Literary Boston 
(exhibit), 78, 110, 195 

Boston Red Sox, 262 

Boston Society of Architects, 
110, 188 

Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory, 193 

Boston Stock Exchange, 115 

Boston Stone, 133 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
23-24, 196, 258, 294 

Boston Tea Party, 14, 101, 122- 
23 

Boston Tea Party Ship and Mu- 
seum, 123-24, 158, 224 

Boston 200: "Bicentennial Fo- 
rums" and lectures, 215; liter- 
ary brochure, 110; newspaper. 



308 



52, 113, 215, 216, 286; phone 
numbers for daily events and 
information, 52, 55, 215, 216, 
286; Task Force on Health 
Care, 215; Task Force on Law 
and Civil Liberties, 215; Vis- 
itor Information Centers, 8, 
46; Visitor Information Cen- 
ters outside Boston, 69; see 
also exhibits, special 
Boston University, 106, 108 
Boston Women (exhibit), 78, 
113 

Bowditch, Nathaniel, 18 
Bowditch, N. L, 128 
Bowditch family, 19 
Bowdoin, James, 127 
Bowen, Catherine Drinker, 24 
boxing, 264 

Boylston, Zabdiel, 196-97 
Bradford, WiUiam, 94, 96, 163, 

164, 232 
Brandeis University, 112 
Brattle House, William, 184 
Breed, Ebenezer, 150 
Brewster Gardens, 95-96 
Bridge, Matthew, 148 
Bridge, Thomas, 129 
Brigham's, 170, 284 
Brighton, 206, 208 
Brimstone Comer, 128 
Brook Farm, 22, 213 
Brodcs, Phillips, 193 
Brown, Elisha, 126-27 
Buckman Tavern, 90 
Bulfinch, Charles, 18, 108, 111, 

114, 139, 158, 162, 163, 166, 

185, 232, 236 
Bunch of Grapes Tavern, 120, 

157 

Bunker Hill, Battle of, 15, 141, 
146, 149-50, 204; diorama, 
234; multi-media exhibit, 238 

Bumham family, 14 

Busch-Reisinger Museum, 240 

buses, 44, 46, 81, 82, 89; phone 
numbers for information, 44, 
46, 82; map, 82; shuttle 
buses, 8, 78, 87; shuttle buses 
to Logan International Air- 
port, 44; tours, 89-90; see also 
MBTA 

Byrne, James, 20 



Cabot famUy, 12, 18, 20, 189 

Cambridge, 178-79; bars, 301- 
02; coffee houses, 302, 304; 
restaurants, 280-82 

Cambridge Common, 179, 182 

Cambridge Trail, 118, 178-79, 
182-87 

camping, 70, 90 

Cape Cod, bus service to, 44 

Capen House (Union Oyster 
House), 133, 271 

Carney, William, 204 

Castle Square, 177 

Catholic Church, 34, 72, 111-12 

Center Plaza, 118 

Central Burying Ground, 200 

Central Wharf, 158 

Channing, William Ellery, 11, 
194, 213 

Charlesbank Park, 257-58 

Charles River, 165, 166; Espla- 
nade, 198, 257-58 

Charles Street Meeting House, 
76, 165, 204 

Charlestown, 31, 143, 146; Irish, 
29, 35, 146; restaurants, 273 

Charlestown Navy Yard, 108, 
146-47, 151, 236, 238 

Charlestown Savings Bank, 147 

Charlestown Trail, 78, 117, 143, 
146-52 

Cheverus, Jean de. 111 

children; babysitters and day 
care centers, 51; dance activi- 
ties, 296; emergeacy and medi- 
cal care, 55-56; playgrounds 
and parks, 213, 257-58; Swan 
Boat ride, 78, 105, 257; the- 
atrical entertainment, 292; 
travelers* aid facilities, 51 

Children's Festival, 216 

Children's Museum, 213, 224 

Children's Zoo, 228, 258 

Childs, John, 140 

Chilton, Mary, 129 

Chilton Club, 23, 195 

Chinatown, 124, 224, 228; res- 
taurants, 271-72 

Christ Church (Garden St., 
Cambridge), 74, 179 

Christ Church ("Old North"; 
Salem St., Boston), 74, 110, 
117, 118, 137, 140, 141, 169 



309 



Christian Science Center, 50, 72, 

108, 111, 196, 228 
Christian Science Monitor, 52, 

196, 228 

churches and synagogues see - 
religion 

Church of the Covenant, 72, 193 

Citygame, 99, 101, 103, 105-06, 
108, 110-15 

City Hall, 46, 108, 119, 230; 
exhibits, 216, 230; phone num- 
bers for emergencies, 54; see 
also Mayor's Oflfice 

City Hall, Old, 110, 125 

City Hall plaza, 118, 119 

City Square, 148-49 

Civil War, 150, 164, 204, 214 

Clap houses, 209 

Clarke, Thomas, 157 

Clark/Frankland house, 138 

Clay, Henry, 21 

Clough, Ebenezer, 139-40 

Clough House, 139-40 

Cobb, Henry, 188 

coffee houses, 302, 304 

Cole's Hill Burying Ground, 96 

Collins, John F., 39, 40 

Collins, Patrick Andrew, 31 

Commandant's house, 238 

The Commemorative Guide to 
the Massachusetts Bicenten- 
nial 88 

Commercial Wharf, 156 

Common see Boston Common; 
Cambridge Conmion 

complaints: phone numbers, 54, 
87 

Concord, 15, 90, 92 
Concord Baptist Church, 72, 175 
Congregationalists, 72, 74, 111, 
182 

Constitution, U.S.S. ("Old Iron- 
sides"), 78, 117, 146-47, 236, 
238 

Coolidge, Calvin, 19 
Coolidge, Julian, 19 
Coolidge family, 19, 25 
Copley, John Singleton, 11, 157, 

166, 188, 234 
Copley Plaza Hotel, 60, 188, 276 
Copley Square, 188 
Copp's Hill Burying Ground, 15, 

140-41, 200 



Cordis, Joseph, 151 

Cotting, Uriah, 158, 189 

Cotton, John, 129 

Craft, Elias, 147 

Craft, William and Ellen, 204 

Craigie, Andrew, 183 

Crease, Thomas, 125 

Crockett, Davy, 163 

Curley, James Michael, 32-34, 

39, 40, 213 
currency exchange, 51 
Cushing, Richard Cardinal, 36, 

112, 139 

dance, 296 

Davenport, John, 129 
Dawes, William, 129, 210 
day care centers, 51 
Declaration of Independence, 

121, 126 
De Cordova Museum and Park, 

241-42 
DeCoster, John, 127 
dental problems: emergency care 

and clinics, 54, 55-56 
department stores, 246 
Derby House, 94 
Dexter, Franklin Bowditch, 16 
Dexter, Samuel, 151 
Dexter Mansion, 151 
Dickens, Chailes, 24 
Dillaway, Charles, 210 
Dillaway-Thomas House, 210 
Ditson, Joseph, 169 
Ditson House, 169 
Dock Square, 120, 152 
Dodd House, 142 
dog racing, 264 

Dorchester, 35, 36, 202, 208-09 

Dorchester Heights, 208 

downtown: Freedom Trail, 78, 
117, 118^29, 132; hotels and 
motels, 59-60, 62, 64; park- 
ing, 86; restaurants, 266, 268- 
71; shopping, 82, 245-46; 
theater district, 82 

Drowne, Shem, 182 

drug problems: aid and assist- 
ance, 57-58 

drugstore, 24-hour, 54 

East Boston, 29, 35, 206 
Eddy, Mary Baker, 12, 111, 240 



310 



Eddy Museum, Mary Baker, 240 

education, 40-41, 43; blacks, 36, 
41, 169, 202, 212; Boston 
Latin School, 125; Catholic 
institutions, 112; colleges and 
universities, 105, 106; Rox- 
bury Latin School, 210 

elderly persons, travelers* aid 
facilities, 51 

Eliot, John, 206, 210 

Eliot Square, 210 

emergencies: phone numbers, 54, 
55-56, 86 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 11, 26, 
92, 118, 125, 187, 213 

Emerson House, 92 

Enneking, I. J, 214 

Episcopalians, 26, 74, 111 

Episcopal Theological Seminary, 
182—83 

Esplanade, 198, 257-58 

Essex Institute, 92, 94 

Eustis, William, 210 

Evans, Elizabeth Glendower, 113 

Everett, Edward, 148 

Everett House, Edward, 148 

Exeter Street Theater, 195 

exhibits, special: Boston Women, 
78, 113; Grand Exposition, 
78, 99, 103, 177; Literary 
Boston, 78, 110, 195; Medicine 
and Health in Boston, 78, 
114, 234; neighborhood ex- 
hibits at City Hall, 216; phone 
number for information, 52; 
The Revolution, 78, 99, 101, 
120; Where's Boston, 78, 99, 
105, 196 

eye problems: emergency care, 
55-56 

Fairmont Heights, 214 
Faneuil, Andrew, 127 
Faneuil, Benjamin, 127 
Faneuil. Peter, 11, 119, 127 
Faneuil Hall, 118, 119-20, 127, 
182 

Farmer, Fannie, 197 
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 
115 

Festival American Calendar, 

215-16, 218, 220-23, 286 
Filene Park, Lincoln, 124 



Filene's, 246 

fires, 122; Boston Fire Musetmi, 
240; phone number for emer- 
gencies, 54 

First and Second Church in Bos- 
ton, 76, 194 

First Baptist Church of Boston, 
72, 195 

First Church, Congregational, 
182 

First Church of Christ, Scientist 
(The Mother Church), 72, 
111, 196, 228 
First Church of Roxbury, 210 
First Families, 15-26 passim, 
118, 189 

First Parish Church, Unitarian, 
76, 179, 182 

fishing, 89, 260-61, 261-62 

Fitzgerald, John F., "Honey 
Fitz," 28, 35, 133, 138, 139 

Fleet, Thomas, 122, 127 

Fogg Art Museum, 186, 240 

football, 263 

Forbes, George, 42 

Forbes, Robert Bennet, 241 

Forbes family, 20, 115 

Ford Hall Forum, 215 

foreign visitors: currency ex- 
change, 51; International In- 
stitute of Boston, 50, 197; 
travelers* aid facilities, 50-51 

Forster, Jacob, 147 

Frankland, Sir Charles Henry, 
138 

Franklin, Benjamin, 11, 122, 125, 

126, 127. 133, 139 
Franklin Park, 213, 258 
Franklm Park Zoo, 228, 258 
Freedom House, 212 
Freedom Trail: downtown, 78, 

117, 118-29, 132 
Freedom Trail: North End, 78, 

117, 132-33. 136-43 
French, Daniel Chester, 185 
Fruitlands Museum, 242 
Fuller, Margaret, 23, 213 

galleries, 242-44 
Gardiner Building, 157 
Gardner, Isabella Stewart, 229 
Gardner Museum, Isabella Stew- 
art. 229 



311 



Garrick, David, 179 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 11, 
128, 165, 169, 197, 202, 210 

George's Island, 158 

Germans, 112, 206, 212, 213 

Gibson Museum, 188, 194 

Gilman, Arthur, 194, 198 

Gilman, Peter, 141 

Glapion, Lewis, 168, 202 

Globe, 52, 286 

Gloucester, 88 

Godkin, E. L., 24 

Goethe Institute, 194-95 

Government Center, 28, 39, 108, 
117, 118-19, 230; John F. 
Kennedy Federal OflSce Build- 
ing, 50, 118; see also City 
Hall 

Grain Exchange, 158 
Granary Burying Ground, 125- 
28, 204 

The Grand Exposition of Pro- 
gress and Invention (exhibit), 
78, 99, 103, 177 

"Great Fire of 1872," 122 

Great Meadows National Wild- 
life Refuge, 92 

"Great Spring," 122 

Green, William, 34 

Greene, Nathanael, 150 

Grimke, Angelina and Sarah, 
214 

Grouchy, Thomas, 140, 142 
Guardian, 42 

Hale, Edward Everett, 187 
Hall, Prince, 141, 200 
Hancock, Ebenezer, 133, 271 
Hancock, John, 90, 111, 125, 

126, 127, 133, 155, 157, 232, 

240 

Hancock, Mrs. John (Dorothy 
Quincy), 89, 167 

Hancock-Clarke House, 90 

Hancock family, 115 

Hancock House, Ebenezer, 133 

Hancock house, John, 167 . 

Hancock Tower see John Han- 
cock Mutual Life Insurance 
Company 

handicapped persons: facilities 
and services, 56-57; travelers* 
aid facilities, 51 



Handlin, Oscar, 42 
harbor islands, 88, 158 
Harbor Towers, 108, 158 
Harvard, John, 149, 179, 185, 
187 

Harvard College and University, 
16-17, 106, 108, 118, 149, 
178, 179, 182-87 passim; 
Carpenter Center for the Vis- 
ual Arts, 108, 186; drama 
groups, 291; Fogg Art Mu- 
seum, 186, 240; Graduate 
School of Education, 183; 
Harvard Hall, 187; Holden 
Chapel, 187; Holyoke Center, 
108, 184, 187; Lampoon, 185; 
Lowell House, 184; Massa- 
chusetts Hall, 187; Medical 
School, 114; Memorial Church, 
185, 186; Memorial Hall, 186; 
museums, 186, 230, 240; Sci- 
ence Center, 108, 186; Stough- 
ton Hall, 108, 178; University 
Hall, 108, 185; Wadsworth 
House, 185; Widener Library, 
112-13, 185-86 

Harvard Mall, 148-49 

Harvard Square, 179, 187; shop- 
ping, 187, 252, 254, 256 

Harvard Yard, 185, 186-87 

Hatch, Francis W., 119 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 11, 22, 
92, 94, 110, 118, 125, 129, 
157, 213 

Hay den, Lewis and Harriet, 
168-69, 204 

Hayden Gallery, 241 

Hayden House, 168, 204 

Hayden Planetarium, 234 

Haymarket, 105, 133, 200, 248 

Henson, P. S., 28 

Herald American, 52, 286 

Hichbom, Nathaniel, 137 

Hicks, John, 184 

Hicks, Mrs. Louise Day, 36, 41 

Hicks House, 184 

Higginson, Henry Lee, 196, 197 

Higginson family, 18, 20 

Hillard, George, 168 

Hoar, Samuel, 19 

Hoar, Sherman, 185 

Ho Chi Minh, 125 



312 



hockey, 263 

Holmes, Abiel, 15-16, 182 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 11, 
24, 125, 129, 159, 165, 187, 
189, 238 

Holyoke, Edward, 17, 187 

horse racing, 264 

hospitals: emergencies and out- 
patient treatment, 54, 55-56 

hostels, 70 

hotels and motels, 59-60, 62, 

64, 66-68 
hot lines and counseling, 54-58 

passim 

House of Seven Gables, 94 
Howe, JuHa Ward, 12, 125, 164 
Howells, William Dean, 20, 

170-71 
Htimphrey, Joshua, 236 
Hunt, Mrs. Ameney, 15 
Hurd House, John, 149 
Hutchinson, Anne, 124 
Hutchinson, Thomas, Jr., 138 
Hutchinson, Thomas, Sr., 138, 

140 

Hutchinson home, 138 
Hyde Park, 214 

illness see medicine and health 
Indians, 95, 146, 148, 159, 162, 

200, 206 
Information Centers, 50; Boston 
200 Visitor Information Cen- 
ters, 8, 46, 69; universities, 
106 

Institute of Contemporary Art, 
110, 197, 230 

International Institute of Bos- 
ton, 50, 197 

Irish, 30-34, 35, 36, 39, 111. 
206, 208, 212, 213; Charles- 
town, 29, 35, 146; North End, 
136, 138, 200; South Boston, 
36-37, 208 

Italians, 30, 34-35. 36, 111, 
206; East Boston, 29, 35; 
North End, 117, 136. 138, 
142-43 

Jackson family, 18 
Jamaica Plain, 212-13 
James, Henry, 164, 186 
Jeff, John, 137 
Jenney Building, 158-59 



Jews and Judaism, 34-35, 35- 
36, 112-13, 209; North End, 
136, 142; synagogues, 74, 76 

John Hancock Mutual Life In- 
surance Company, 108, 177, 
188 

Johnson, Isaac, 128 
Johnson, Philip, 110, 195 
Jordan, Eben, 132, 136 
Jordan Marsh, 132, 136, 246 
Joy, John, 164 

KeUer, Helen, 208 
Kenmore Square, 28 
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1 1 
Kennedy, Rose Fitzgerald, 12, 
138 

Kennedy family, 36, 132 
Kennedy Federal Oflfice Build- 
ing, John F., 50, 118 
Kennedy National Historic Site, 

John F., 241 
Kidd, Captain, 129, 132 
King, Martin Luther, 41-42 
King's Chapel, 76, 111, 128-29 
King's Chapel Burying Ground, 

110, 128, 129, 140 
Kirkland, John, 17, 186-87 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 178, 240 

Larkin, Deacon, 149 

Larkin House, Deacon, 149 

law: counseling on legal prob- 
lems, 58; lectures, 215 

Lawrence family, 20 

Lebanese, 35, 171, 176 

Le Corbusier, 108, 186 

lectures, 215; phone numbers 
for information, 52, 215 

Lee, Joseph, 38 

Lewis, Elma. 43 

Lewis Playhouse in the Park, 
Elma. 258 

Lewis School of Fine Arts, 
Ehna. 212 

Lewis Wharf, 155-56 

Lexington, 14-15, 90 

Lexington Green, 90 

Lincoln, Abraham, 11 

Lind, Jenny, 165 

Lindemann Center, 108, 110 

"Literary Boston" (brochure) , 
110 



313 



Literary Boston (exhibit), 78, 

110, 195 
literary heritage, 110-11 
Lithuanians, 35, 36 
lockers for storage, 52 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 19 
Logan International Airport, 44, 

206; transportation to and 

from, 44,81,87 
Logue, Edward J., 39, 40 
Lomasney, Martin, 32 
London Wax Museum, 241 
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 

11, 90, 110, 125, 140, 167, 

183, 184 
Longfellow National Historic 

Site, 183 
Longfellow Park, 183 
Long Wharf, 157 
lost and found: phone numbers 

for information, 54 
Louisburg Square, 12, 156 
Louis Philippe, 133, 271 
Lowell, Amy, 25 
Lowell, James Russell, 11, 25 
Lowell, Lawrence, 17, 18, 25, 

184 

Lowell, Robert, 25 
Lowell family, 12, 18, 20, 25, 
189 

Lowell Lectures in Medicine, 
215 

luggage, checking facilities for, 
52 



Malcolm X, 125, 210 

maps: automobile (AAA and 
ALA), 86; bus, 82; for handi- 
capped persons, 56 

Mariner's House, 137-38 

maritime heritage, 92, 115, 138, 
139, 156, 157, 206; Boston 
Tea Party Ship and Museum, 
122-24, 158, 224; Charles- 
town Navy Yard, 108, 146- 
47, 151, 236, 238; Constitu- 
tion, U.S.S., 78, 117, 146-47, 
236, 238; Mayflower H, 95; 
Museum of the American 
China Trade, 158, 241; Pea- 
body Museum, 94; Salem 
Maritime National Historic 



Site, 94; see also Waterfront 
Trail 

markets, 143, 248; see also 

Faneuil Hall; Haymarket; 

Quincy Market 
Masons: Black Masons, 141, 

200; Grand Lodge, 240 
Massachusetts Association for 

the Blind, 57 
Massachusetts Audubon Society, 

89; phone number for bird 

sightings, 55 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 13, 

141, 143, 146, 208, 210, 213, 

232 

Massachusetts Department of 
Commerce and Development, 
50, 90 

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Inr 
firmary, 56, 114 

Massachusetts General Hospital, 
50, 54, 56, 108, 114 

Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety, 196 

Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 106, 108, 110, 179 

Massachusetts State House, 50, 
108, 124, 128, 162, 163-64, 
232 

Mather, Cotton, 14, 132, 137, 
140, 141, 200 

Mather, Increase, 137, 140, 141 

Mather, Samuel, 141 

Mather family, 137 

Mattapan, 35, 202, 209-10 

Maverick, Samuel, 206 

Mayflower II, 95 

Mayor's OflSce: Cultural Affairs, 
216, 286; phone numbers for 
emergencies and complaints, 
54; see also City Hall 

MBTA, 81, 82; hours, 82; to 
Logan International Airport, 
44, 81; phone number for 
complaints, 54; phone num- 
ber for lost and found, 54; 
phone number for informa- 
tion and directions, 55, 82; 
reduced fares, 82; see alag 
buses 

McCormack, John, 36 
McKay, Donald, 156, 157, 206 
McKhn, Mead and White, 108 



314 



McLauthin Building, 154 

MDC Park Office, 257 

medicine and health, 114, 141, 
196-97, 200; counseling for 
medical problems, 58; dental 
problems, 54, 55-56; drug 
problems, 57-58; emergency 
treatment in hospitals and 
clinics, 54, 55-56; eye prob- 
lems, 55-56; Lowell Lectures 
in Medicine, 215; poison cen- 
ter, 54; psychiatric problems, 
54-58 passim; rape, 54 

Medicine and Health in Boston 
(exhibit), 78, 114, 234 

Mercantile Wharf, 154 

Middleton, George, 168, 202, 
204 

Middleton House, George, 168, 
202 

Mifflin, Thomas, 184 

Minute Man National Historic 
Site, 90, 92 

Mission Church, 212 

Mission Hill, 212 

Mohawk Trail Association, 89 

Monroe Tavern, 90 

motels see hotels and motels 

Mother Goose see Vergoose, 
Elizabeth 

Motley, John Lothrop, 11 

Mount Whoredom, 167 

Murray, Daniel, 16, 17 

Museimi of Afro- American His- 
tory. 169, 202, 210, 232 

Museimi of Fine Arts, 188, 232, 
234 

Museum of Science, 234; Medi- 
cine and Health in Boston 
(exhibit), 78. 114, 234 

Museum of the American China 
Trade, 158. 241 

Museum of Transportation, 234 

museums, 224, 228-30, 232, 234. 
236, 238. 240-42 

music. 293-96; bars and night- 
clubs. 297-302; boat cruises. 
295; park concerts. 258, 293; 
phone number for informa- 
tion. 52; ticket outlets. 52, 54; 
see also Tanglewood 

Nantasket Beach, 88, 260 



National Center of Afro-Ameri- 
can Artists, 212, 286; Dance 
Program, 296; Drama Pro- 
gram, 291; Elma Lewis Play- 
house in the Park, 258; Music 
Program, 295 

nature centers and wildlife sanc- 
tuaries, 88, 89, 92, 260 

Navy Yard see Charlestown 
Navy Yard 

Neighborhood Discovery Trails, 
110, 117-18, 119; see also in- 
dividual trails 

New Bedford, 88 

Newburyport, 88 

Newbury Street shopping, 193, 
198, 248, 250, 252 

Newell, Eliphalet, 147 

New England Aquariimi, 78, 
158, 234, 236 

New England Conservatory of 
Music, 295 

New England Telephone, 124 

Newman, Robert, 140 

New Old South Church, 193 

Newport, 88 

newspapers, 52, 286 

Nichols, Rose, 164 

Nicholson, Samuel, 238 

nightlife, 297-302, 304 

Nix's Mate, 158 

Northeastern University, 106 

North End, 34, 35. 36; blacks, 
136, 141, 142; Freedom Trail, 
78, 117, 132-33, 136-43; 
Irish, 136, 138, 200; Italians, 
117, 136, 138, 142-43; Jews. 
136, 142; markets, 248; res- 
taurants, 138, 272-73 

North End Branch Library, 143 

North Square, 136 

Noyes, Oliver, 157 

O'Brien. Hugh. 31 

Old African Meeting House, 

169. 202 
Old Burying Ground, 179 
Old City Hall. 110. 125 
Old Comer Bookstore. 124-25 
Old Howard burlesque theater, 

119 

"Old Ironsides" see Constitu- 
tion, U.S.S. 



315 



Old North Bridge, 92 

Old North Church see Christ 

Church ("Old North") 
Old South Church, 72, 111 
Old South Meeting House, 14, 

122 

Old State House, 120, 121 
Old Sturbridge Village, 96 
Old Training Field School, 150 
Old West Church, 76, 170 
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 103, 

213, 228, 257 
O'Neill, Eugene, 213 
opera, 293, 296 
Orchard House, 92 
Otis, Harrison Gray, 105, 166 
Otis, James, 121, 128 
Otis family, 115 

Otis House, Harrison Gray (45 

Beacon St.), 166 
Otis House, Harrison Gray (141 

Cambridge St.), 88-89, 167, 

169-70, 236 
Otis House, Harrison Gray (85 

Mt. Vernon), 164 
Our Lady of Perpetual Help 

Basilica, 112 
Oxenbridge, John, 129 



Pain, Elizabeth, 129 

Paine, Robert Treat, 125, 126 

Palfrey, John Gorham, 18 

Palfrey, Sara, 26 

Parker, John, 14-15 

Parker, Theodore, 11, 22, 213 

Parker family, 115 

Parker House, 62, 125 

parking, 81, 86, 257; see also 
hotels and motels 

Parkman, Francis, 11, 165 

Parkman Center for Urban Af- 
fairs, 215 

parks, 213, 257-58; concerts, 
258, 293 

Park Street Church, 128 

Parris, Alexander, 108, 154, 
238 

Paulist Center, 112 
Peabody, Endicott, 18 
Peabody Museum (Salem), 94 
Peabody Museum of Archae- 
ology, 230 



Pel, L M., 108, 119, 188, 196 

Peirce-Nichols House, 94 
Perkins, Thomas Handasyd, 26 
Perkins Institute for the Blind, 
208 

pharmacy, 24-hr., 54 

Phillips, Jonathan, 194 

Phillips, Samuel, 16, 17 

Phillips, Samuel, Jr., 16, 17 

Phillips, Wendell, 165 

Phillips family, 16-17 

Phipps Street Burying Groimd, 

151-52 
Phips, William, 142 
The Phoenix, 52, 286 
Pickman House, 197 
Pierce-Hichbom House, Moses, 

137 

Pierce house, 209 

Pilgrim Hall, 96 

Pilgrims, 12, 94-96, 163 

The Pilot, 112 

Pilot House, 156 

Pioneer Village, 94 

playgrounds, 258 

Plimoth Plantation, 94-95, 163 

Plum Island (wildlife refuge), 
88, 260 

Plymouth, 94-96 

Plymouth Rock, 95, 129 

Poe, Edgar Allen, 178 

poison center: emergency phone 
number, 54 

Poles, 34, 35, 36 

Police Department, phone num- 
bers: automobile towing, 86; 
emergency and non-emergen- 
cy, 54; lost and found, 54; 
taxi complaints, 87 

Pratt, Dexter, 183-84 

Prescott, William Hickling, 11, 
150 

Prince Building, 154 
Provincetown, boat to, 88 
Prudential Center, 28, 39, 196, 
198; shopping, 248; Where's 
Boston (exhibit), 78, 99, 105, 
196 

psychiatric problems: emergen- 
cy phone number, care, and 
counseling, 54-58 passim 

Public Garden, 78, 81, 194, 257 

public toilets, 52 



316 



Puritans, 12-14, 111, 120, 122, 
129, 132, 1-36, 143, 146, 152, 
159, 166, 176, 200, 206 

Quakers, 74, 111, 122, 136 

Quincy, Edmund, 17 

Quincy, Josiah, 20, 120, 125, 
152, 154, 163, 167 

Quincy, 12, 88 

Quincy Homestead, 88 

Quincy Homestead, Josiah, 88 

Quincy Market, 108, 110, 120, 
152, 154; The Revolution (ex- 
hibit), 78, 99, 101, 120 

Radcliffe CoUege, 182 
Radcliffe Yard, 182 
railroads, 44, 81, 89 
rape: emergency phone ntmiber, 
54 

The Real Paper, 52, 286 

religion, 26, 111-13; churches 
and synagogues, 72, 74, 76; 
see also individual religions 

restaurants, 266, 268-76, 278, 
280-82, 284; Chinest, 271-72, 
281; delicatessen, 268, 278, 
280, 282; French, 269, 270, 
274, 275, 277; German, 269, 
282; Greek, 266, 280; Hun- 
garian, 275; Indian, 282; Ital- 
ian, 272-73, 274, 282; Japa- 
nese, 266, 277; Jewish, 280, 
282; Mexican, 280-81; Mid- 
dle Eastern, 269, 277, 280, 
281; Portuguese, 281; seafood, 
268, 270, 271, 273, 277, 282; 
Spanish, 281 

restrooms, public, 52 

Revere, Paul, 90, 110, 127, 132, 
137, 139, 149, 147, 149, 210, 
232, 240 

Revere House, Paul, 137 

Revere Mall (Prado), Paul, 139 

Revere Park, Rachel, 136-37 

Revolution, 14-15, 20, 90, 92, 
126, 208, 210; see also Boston 
Massacre; Boston Tea Party; 
Bunker Hill; Freedom Trail 

The Revolution: Where It All 
Began (exhibit), 78, 99, 101, 
120 

Richardson, H. H., 108, 189, 195 



Ripley, George, 22-23, 213 
Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 64, 278 
Rogers, Isaiah, 156, 157 
Ropes Mansion, 94 
Rope Walk, 238 
Roslindale, 213 

Roxbury, 36, 210; blacks, 29, 35, 
202 

Roxbury Latin School, 210 
Rudolph, Paul, 108, 110, 118, 
194 

Saarinen, Eero, 108 

Sacco and Vanzetti, 132 

St. Joseph's Church, 112 

St. Stephen's Church, 108, 112, 

138-39 
Salem, Peter, 204 
Salem, 12, 14, 92, 94 
Salem Maritime National His- 
toric Site, 94 
Salem Turnpike Hotel, 150 
Saltonstall family, 18 
Santayana, George, 193 
Sargent, John Singer, 11, 195 
Saugus, 88 

schools see education 
Scollay Square, 28, 119 
Sears Crescent, 118 
Sert, Jos6 Luis, 108, 184, 186 
Shannon, William, 33 
Shaw, Pauline Agassiz, 113 
Shaw, Robert Gould, 204, 214 
Shepard, Thomas, 178 
Shirley, William 210 
Shirley-Eustis House, 210 
shopping, 245-46, 248, 250, 252, 

254, 256 
short visit, suggestions for, 78 
sickness see medicine and health 
sinning, 304; Mount Whoredom, 

167 

Slavs, 34, 111 

Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, 92 
Slocum, Joshua, 157 
Smith, John, 152, 209 
Smith School, Abiel, 202 
Snowden, Muriel and Otto, 212 
soccer, 263 

Society for the Preservation of 
New England Antiquities, 88, 
170, 236 

S«ns of Liberty, 137, 162 



317 



South Boston, 36-37, 208 

South End, 35, 170-71, 174, 198, 
208; blacks, 171, 175, 200, 
202; restaurants, 280 

South End-Bay Village Trail, 
118, 170-71, 174-78 

Spellman Philatelic Museum, 241 

sports and outdoor activities, 
258, 260-64; Boston Mara- 
thon, 197; camping, 70, 90; 
phone number for informa- 
tion, 52; ticket outlets, 52, 54 

State House see Massachusetts 
State House; Old State House 

State Service Center, 118 

State Street Bank, 51, 115 

storage lockers, 52 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 11, 125 

streetcars see MBTA 

Stuart, Gilbert, 11, 210, 234 

subway see MBTA 

Sudbury, 90 

Suffolk Downs, 264 

Sullivan, John L., 176 

Summerthing, 216, 222, 286 

Surriage, Agnes, 138 

Swan Boats, 78, 105, 257 

swimming, 89, 258, 260 

Syrians, 55, 171, 176 



Tanglewood, 89, 294 

taxis, 81, 87; fares, 87; phone 

number for complaints, 87 
taxis, water, 87 

telephone numbers, important: 
automobile emergencies, 86; 
buses, 44, 46, 82; city prob- 
lems, 54; complaints, 54, 87; 
currency exchange, 51; daily 
events and information, 52, 
55, 215, 216, 286; dental prob- 
lems, 54; emergencies, 54—58 
passim, 86; fire, 54; hot lines 
and counseling, 54-58 passim; 
lectures, 52, 215; lost and 
found, 54; MBTA, 54, 55, 82; 
park events, 257; pharmacy, 
24-hr., 54; police, 54, 86, 87; 
psychiatric problems, 54-58 
passim; railroads, 44; sports 
events, 52; time, 55; trave- 
lers' aid, 50; weather, 55 



Temple Ohabei Shalom, 76, 112 
tennis, 264 

theater, 286-87, 291-93; in the 
park, 258; ticket outlets, 52, 
54 

Thompson, James, 147 
Thompson, Timothy, 147, 148 
Thompson House, Timothy, 147 
Thompson-Sawyer House, 148 
Thompson Square Triangle, 147 
Thoreau, Henry David, 11, 23, 

92, 187 
Thoreau Lyceum, 92 
ticket outlets, 52, 54 
Tiffany, Louis, 195 
time: phone number, 55 
toilets, public, 52 
tours and trips, 88-90, 92, 94- 
96; by architects, 110; by 
boat, 88, 158, 294; City Hall, 
119, 230; imiversities, 106; see 
also Neighborhood Discovery 
Trails 
trains, 44, 81, 89 
transcendentalists, 22, 213, 242 
transportation, 81-82, 84, 86-87, 
90; Museum of Transporta- 
tion, 234; taxis, 81, 87; trains, 
44, 81, 89; water taxis, 87; 
see also automobiles; buses; 
Logan International Airport; 
MBTA 

Travelers' Aid Society of Bos- 
ton, 50-51 
Tremont Temple, 28, 72, 204 
Trinity Church, 108, 189, 193 
Trinity Rectory, 193 
Trotter, William, 42 
Truth, Sojourner, 165 
Tubman, Harriet, 165, 174 
Tubman Park, Harriet, 174 
Tufts University, 106; Arena 

Theater, 292 
twenty-four hour aid and assis- 
tance, 54-58 
T Wharf, 156-57 

Union Oyster House, 133, 271 
Union Park, 170, 171, 176 
Unitarians, 26, 76, 111, 147, 182 
United First Parish Church, 88 
Upsall, Nicholas, 136 
Usher, Hezekiah, 129 



318 



Van Brunt, Henry, 186 
Vassall, John, Jr., 183 
Vassal! House, Henry, 183 
Vendome, 195 

VergQose, Elizabeth (Mother 
Goose), 122, 127 

Walden Pond, 92, 260 

Walford, Thomas,. 151 

Ware, William, 186 

Warren, John, 147 

Warren, Joseph, 147, 150, 210, 

213, 240 
Warren Tavern, 110, 147, 273 
Washington, George, 15, 122, 

179, 183, 185, 208, 209, 240 
Washington Memorial Garden, 

140 

Washington St., »24, 245 
waterfront, 108; restaurants, 
273-74 

Waterfront Trail, 78, 117, 152, 

154-59 
water taxis, 87 
Wayside Inn (Concord), 92 
Wayside Inn (Sudbury), 90 
weather: phone number, 55 
weathervanes, 120, 182 
Webster, Daniel, 11, 105, 164, 

271 

Welch, Joseph, 24 

Weld, Joseph, 213 

Weld, Rodman, 25-26 

West End, 34, 35, 38 

West Roxbury, 213 

Where's Boston: Visions of the 

City (exlHbit), 78, 99, 105, 

196 



White, John, 208 
White, Kevin Hagan, 31, 41 
White, Paul Ehidley, 210 
Whitefield, George, 179 
Whitehill, Waher Muir, 210 
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 11, 
125 

Widener, Harry, 185-86 

Wilde, Oscar, 195 

wildlife sanctuaries: brochure, 
89; Great Meadows, 92; Plimi 
Island, 88, 260 

Willard, Solomon, 150 

Williams, Gluyas, 20 

Wilson, John, 122 

Winslow, Edward, 94 

Winslow, John, 129 

Winthrop, John, 12-13, 124, 129, 
143, 147, 148, 159 

Winthrop Square, 150 

witchcraft, 13-14, 92, 129, 141 

Witch House, 94 

Witch Museum, 92 

WithereU, WiUiam, 148 

women (in Boston history), 11- 
12, 21-24, 113; Boston Wom- 
en (exhibit), 78, 113 

Women's Center, 58 

Woods, Robert, 171, 174 



Yanasaki, Minoru, 108 

youth: coffee houses, 302, 304; 

events listings and news, 52, 

286; hostels, 70 



zoo see Franklin Park Zoo 



319 



3 9999 06548 214 1 
FOR FURTHER READING 



The following books were invaluable to the editors in re- 
searching and writing the trail descriptions, and we recommend 
them to anyone interested in learning more about Boston. 

Cleveland Amory, The Proper Bostonians 
Eleanor Early, And This Is Boston! 

Richard Frothingham, History of Charlestown, Massachu- 
setts 

Harvard Student Agencies, Cheap Eats (edited by Paul Sil- 
ver and Katherine C. Haspel) 

James F. Hunnewell, A Century of Town Life; A History of 
Charlestown, Massachusetts (1775-1887) 

George F. Weston, Jr., Boston Ways: High, By, and Folk 

Walter M. Whitehill, Boston: A Topographical History 



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